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BRIGHAM YOUNG 
UNIVERSITY 

LAW LIBRARY 

PROVO, UTAH 84602 



Document 
Collection 
Si 2.1:901/2 

U.S. Ethnology Bureau reports. 



12:16 



1 




■5 t'M 




58th Congress, ) HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, j Document 

2d Session. \ ) No. 641. 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TO THE 



SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



1900-1901 



J. W. POWELL 

DIRECTOR 



IN TWO FARTS— PART 2 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1 9 4 



ACCOMPANYING PAPERS 

( C ONTIIINr TTKID ) 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/housedocs90powell 



THE HAKO: A PAWNEE CEREMONY 

BY 

ALICE C. FLETCHER, 

Holder of Thaw Fellowship, Peabody Museum, Harvard University 

assisted by 
JAMKS R. MXTRIEJ 

MUSIC TRANSCRIBED BY 

kitwiin" s. teacy 



5 



CONTENTS 



Pag© 

Preface 13 

Introduction 17 

Name of the ceremony ." 17 

Personnel of the ceremony , 18 

Requisites of the ceremony and their symbolism 19 

Time of the ceremony 23 

Scheme of the ceremony . . 24 

TheHako 26 

The preparation 26 

First division. Initial rites 27 

First ritual. Making the Hako 27 

Part I. Invoking the powers " . _ 27 

Part II. Preparing the feathered stems 37 

Part III. Painting the ear of corn and preparing the other 

sacred objects 42 

Part IV. Offering of smoke 48 

Second ritual. Prefiguring the journey to the Son 49 

Third ritual. Sending the messengers 56 

Fourth ritual 58 

Part I. Vivifying the sacred objects 58 

Part II. Mother Corn assumes leadership 59 

Part III. The Hako party presented to the powers 63 

Second division. The journey 68 

Fifth ritual . 68 

Part I. Mother Corn asserts authority 68 

Part II. Songs and ceremonies of the way 73 

Part III. Mother Corn reasserts leadership 85 

Third division. Entering the village of the Son and consecrating 

his lodge .... 89 

Sixth ritual 89 

Part I. The Son's messenger received 89 

Part II. The Hako party enter the village 92 

Seventh ritual 93 

Part I. Touching and crossing the threshold . 93 

Part II. Consecrating the lodge 97 

Part III. Clothing the Son and offering smoke 101 

The ceremony 1 05 

First division. The public ceremony 105 

Eighth ritual (first day) . The Fathers feed the children 105 

Ninth ritual (first night) . Invoking the visions 117 

Tenth ritual. The Dawn 123 

Parti. The birth of Dawn 123 

Part II. The Morning Star and the new-born Dawn. 1 28 

7 



8 CONTENTS 

The Hako — continued. Page 
The ceremony — continued. 
First division — continued. 
Tenth ritual — continued* 

Part III. Daylight 131 

Part IV. The Children behold the day 132 

Eleventh ritual (second day) . The male element invoked 134 

Part I. Chant to the Sun 134 

Part II. Day songs 140 

Twelfth ritual (second night). The rites came by a vision 147 

Thirteenth ritual (third day) . The female element invoked. . . 161 

Part I. The sacred feast of Corn 161 

Part II. Song to the Earth 161 

Part III. Offering of smoke ... , 168 

Part IV. Songs of the birds 168 

Fourteenth ritual (third night). Invoking the visions of the 

ancients 178 

Second division. The secret ceremonies 183 

Fifteenth ritual (fourth night) 183 

Part I. The flocking of the birds 183 

Part II. The sixteen circuits of the lodge '. . _ . v . I _ _ _ 187 

Sixteenth ritual (fifth day, dawn) 201 

Part I. Seeking the child 201 

Part II. Symbolic inception „ 204 

Part III. Action symbolizing life . 209 

Seventeenth ritual 213 

Part I. Touching the child 213 

Part II. Anointing the child 222 

Part III. Painting the child 227 

Part IV. Putting on the symbols 235 

Eighteenth ritual. Fulfilment prefigured 242 

Part I. Making the nest 242 

Part II. Symbolic fulfilment . . 244 

Part III. Thank offering 246 

Third division. The dance of thanks 247 

Nineteenth ritual 247 

Parti. The call to the Children 247 

Part II. The dance and reception of gifts ■ . 252 

Fourth division. The presentation of the Hako 256 

Twentieth ritual 256 

Part I. Blessing the child 256 

Part II. Presenting the Hako to the Son and thanks to the 

Children 259 

Incidental ceremonies ..._.. 260 

Comforting the child . _• . . 260 

Prayer to avert storms 265 

Prayer for the gift of children 267 

Changing a man's name . . 272 

Analytical recapitulation 279 

Origin and geographic distribution of the ceremony 279 

Purpose of the ceremony 280 

Structure of the ceremony ... ... 281 

Rhythmic expression in the ceremony 282 



CONTENTS y 

Analytical recapitulation — continued. Page 

The preparation 283 

First division. Initial rites 283 

First ritual. Making the Hako 283 

Part I. Invoking the powers 283 

Part II. Preparing the feathered stems 287 

Part III. Painting the ear of corn and preparing the other 

sacred objects 289 

Second ritual. Prefiguring the journey to the Son 292 

Third ritual. Sending the messengers 294 

Fourth ritual 295 

Part I. Vivifying the sacred objects 295 

Part II. Mother Corn assumes leadership 296 

Part III. The Hako party presented to the powers 297 

Second division. The journey 299 

Fifth ritual . 299 

Part I. Mother Corn asserts authority 299 

Part II. Songs and ceremonies of the way 301 

Part III. Mother Corn reasserts leadership 306 

Third division. Entering the village of the Son and consecrating 

his lodge 308 

Sixth ritual 308 

Part I. The Son's messenger received 308 

Part II. The Hako party enter the village 308 

Seventh ritual 309 

Part I. Touching and crossing the threshold 309 

Part II. Consecrating the lodge .. 310 

Part III. Clothing the Son and offering smoke 312 

The ceremony 313 

First division. The public ceremony 313 

Eighth ritual (first day) . The Fathers feed the Children 313 

Ninth ritual (first night) . Invoking the visions 317 

Tenth ritual— The Dawn 320 

Parti. The birth of Dawn 320 

Part II. The Morning Star and the new-born Dawn . 323 

Part III. Daylight 324 

Part IV. The Children behold the day 324 

Eleventh ritual (second day) . The male element invoked 325 

Part I. Chant to the Sun . . 325 

Part II. Day songs 326 

Twelfth ritual (second night). The rites came by a vision __ 328 

Thirteenth ritual (third day). The female element invoked. . 333 

Part I. Sacred feast of Corn 333 

Part II. Song to the Earth 333 

Part III. Offering of smoke 336 

Part IV. Songs of the birds 336 

Fourteenth ritual (third night). Invoking the visions of the 

ancients . 337 

Second division. The secret ceremonies 339 

Fifteenth ritual ( fourth night ) 339 

Part I. The flocking of birds 339 

Part II. The sixteen circuits of the lodge 340 



10 CONTENTS 

Analytical recapitulation — continued. Page 
The ceremony — continued. 

Second division — continued. 

- Sixteenth ritual (fifth day, dawn) 345 

Part I. Seeking the child 345 

Part II. Symbolic inception 346 

Part III. Action symbolizing life , . _ . 349 

Seventeenth ritual 350 

Part I. Touching the child . _ 350 

Part II. Anointing the child- . , 352 

Part III. Painting the child 353 

Part IV. Putting on the symbols 355 

Eighteenth ritual. Fulfilment prefigured 357 

Part I. Making the nest ;._ 357 

Part II. Symbolic fulfilment 358 

Part III. Thank offering : 358 

Third division. The dance of thanks 359 

Nineteenth ritual . . 359 

Part I. The call to the Children 359 

Part II. The dance and reception of gifts 360 

Fourth division. The presentation of the Hako \ 361 

Twentieth ritual . 361 

Part I. Blessing the child 361 

Part II. Presenting the Hako to the Son and thanks to the 

Children 361 

Incidental rituals . 362 

Comforting the child 362 

Prayer to avert storms 364 

Prayer for the gift of Children 364 

Changing a man's name 364 

Index 369 



\ 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page 

Plate LXXXIII. James R. Murie... 14 

LXXXIV. The Ku'rahus in ceremonial dress (front view) 26 

LXXXV. The Ku'rahus in ceremonial dress (profile view) 26 

LXXXVI. ' ' Kawas, ' ' the brown feathered stem (female) 38 

LXXXVIL The white feathered stem (male) . . 40 

LXXXVIII. ''Mother Corn" 44 

LXXXIX. The rattles 46 

XC. The wildcat skin and crotched stick _ _ _ _ 48 

XCI. The feather symbol of Tira'wa 58 

Figure 171. Diagram of the Father's lodge during the decoration of the 

feathered stems : 36 

172. Diagram of the Father's lodge during the second ritual 49 

173. Diagram of the Father's lodge during the singing of the first 

stanza of the song of the fourth ritual, part n 59 

174. Diagram of the Father's lodge during the singing of the sec- 

ond stanza of the song of the fourth ritual, part n . _ . . 62 

175. Diagram showing the movements of the principal members of 

the Father's party during the presentation to the powers 67 

176. Diagram of the Son's lodge at the beginning of the public cere- 

mony 105 

177. Diagram of the Son's lodge during the sixteenth ritual, part iii_ 210 

178. Diagram of the Son's lodge during the seventeenth ritual, parti. 214 

179. The symbol of Tira'wa 233 

180. Diagram showing the positions of the participants in the dance 

of thanks 248 

181. Diagram of the Son's lodge during the presentation of the 

Hako 257 

11 



THE HAKO: A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



By Alice C. Fletcher 



PREFACE 



In the early eighties of the last century, while pursuing my study 
of the Omaha tribe, I several times witnessed the ceremony described 
in the following pages. Owing to the death of the only man who knew 
all the rituals, it became impossible to secure a complete record, but 
as the ceremony was an intertribal one I hoped to make good the loss 
in some other tribe. From statements made by the Omahas, the 
Ponkas, and the Dakotas I was led to believe that among the Pawnees 
this ceremony could be found still preserved in its entirety. I need 
not recount the failure of efforts made during some fifteen years to gain 
the desired information, since at last, in 1898, T found the long-sought 
opportunity. After four years of work, I am able to present the entire 
ceremony, as observed in the Chaui band of the Pawnee tribe. 

The difficulty of obtaining accurate first-hand information in 
regard to religious rites and beliefs is so well known that it seems 
proper to state briefly how I came by my opportunities. An extended 
and intimate acquaintance in one tribe opens the way in another. The 
warm friendship of old and leading men of the Omahas became my 
credentials to other tribes where these leaders were influential; and 
with the further assistance of Mr Francis LaFlesche, the son of the 
former head chief of the Omahas, I was able to establish relations of 
confidence with some of the old and prominent men of the Pawnees. 

My experience has shown that no linguistic training will enable a 
student by himself to accomplish successfully the difficult task of 
recording and interpreting the rituals of a religious ceremony. He must 
have a native collaborator, one with a good knowledge of English and 
well versed in the intricacies of his own tongue, able to explain its 
" sacred language " and possessing those gifts of mind and character 
which fit him not only to grasp the ideals of his race but to commend 
himself to the keepers of the ancient rites. Such a collaborator makes 
a clear vision of the native mind possible to a student of another race. 

13 



14 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

My collaborator in the present work has been Mr James R Murie, 
an educated Pawnee whom I have known since he was a school- 
boy, twenty years ago. Mr Murie has taken up the task of preserving 
the ancient lore of his people, and he has not spared himself in his 
labor. How difficult his undertaking has been, and still is, can only 
be appreciated by those who have attempted to accomplish a similar 
work. His patience, tact, and unfailing courtesy and kindness have 
soothed the prejudice and allayed the fears of the old men who hold 
fast to the faith of their fathers and are the repositories of all that 
remains of the ancient rites of the tribe. 

Tahirussawichi, a full-blood Pawnee, who is the authority for the 
text and explanation of the ceremony which forms the subject of this 
paper, officially accompanied the Hako when it was carried by his 
people to the Omahas. He thus became acquainted with the leading 
men of that tribe, who were my friends, and this circumstance has 
favored the successful prosecution of this work. During the fall of 
1898 and again in 1900 he and Mr Murie were my guests in Wash- 
ington; then, and also during my visits to the Pawnees in 1899 and 
1901, we were engaged upon the rituals of this ceremony. A final 
review of the manuscript was made with Mr Murie in the spring of 1902. 

Tahirussawichi is a member of the Chaui band of the Pawnee tribe 
and about 70 years of age. He is tall and well made, and p reserves 
much of the vigor of his earlier days. He is mentally alert, quick to 
observe, possessed of a tenacious memory, and gifted with a genial 
nature. He enjoys a joke and is always ready with good-fellowship, 
but he never forgets the dignity of his calling, or fails to observe the 
conduct befitting his position as the guardian of sacred rites. 
Although he is childlike and trusting, he has a keen discernment of 
character and a shrewd common-sense way of looking at men and 
things. While he is not indifferent to the great changes which have 
overtaken his people, new conditions have failed to disturb in any 
way the convictions of his early religious training. 

He has struggled to avoid living in a house, and has held to an earth 
lodge until it has dropped to pieces about him. He said: a "I can not 
live in a white man's house of any kind. The sacred articles com- 
mitted to my care must be kept in an earth lodge, and in order that 
I may fulfill my duties toward them and my people, I must live there 
also, so that as I sit I can stretch out my hand and lay it on Mother 
Earth." Last fall (1901) I saw how he had propped up a part of the 
ruins of his lodge so that he might still keep the sacred objects in a 
primitive dwelling. 

When he was in Washington in 1898 he was taken to the Capitol 
and the Library of Congress. While the vastness and beauty of these 
structures gave him pleasure, they did not appeal to him, for such 

«See A Pawnee Ritual Used When Changing a Man's Name, American Anthropologist, n. s., 
v. 1, January, 1899. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT PL. LXXXIII 




JAMES R. MURIE 



fletcher] HOW THE RECORD WAS OBTAINED 15 

buildings he said were unfitted to contain the sacred symbols of the 
religion of his ancestors, in the service of which he had spent his 
long life. He admired at a distance the Washington Monument, and 
when he visited it he measured the base, pacing and counting his 
steps. Then he stood close to the white shaft and looked up, noting 
its great height. After going inside, he was asked which he would 
take, the elevator or the stairs, and replied: "I Avill not go up. The 
white man likes to pile up stones, and he may go to the top of them; 
I will not. I have ascended the mountains made by Tira'wa." 
Equally characteristic was his interview with the Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs. When introduced, he said: "I am glad to see you 
and to take you by the hand. Many chiefs of my tribe have done so. 
I never expected to do it. I came here to talk of the religion of my 
fathers, which I follow. You can ask my sister (referring to me) 
what I have said." 

Tahirussawichi had never been east of the Mississippi river until 
he came to Washington to engage in the preservation of this rite. 
Of the genuineness of his statements there can be no doubt. His 
position in the Pawnee tribe is that of a man worthy of respect — one 
versed in a knowledge of serious things, whose life has been devoted 
to the acquisition and maintenance of certain sacred rites. He is 
esteemed as a man of truth — one who has the favor of Tira'wa. He 
possesses a knowledge of curative roots, and often attends the sick, 
using herbs as medicine. He is the keeper of certain old and sacred 
objects, and leads in their attendant ceremonies. His great care in 
observing all the details of the intricate ceremony of the Hako is well 
known in the tribe, and much good fortune is believed to follow his 
leadership in this ceremony. His title is Ku'rahus. This term is 
applied to a man of years who has been instructed in the meaning 
and use of sacred objects as well as their ceremonies. The word is 
sometimes employed as a synonym for a venerable man, one who 
commands respect, but throughout this paper it is used in its official 
sense — the leader of the ceremony. 

It has taken four years of close friendly relations with my kind old 
friend to obtain this ceremony in its entirety. Many of its rituals 
deal with very sacred subjects, and it has required much patience 
in the presentation of reasons why they should be explained to over- 
come the scruples born of the early training of the Ku'rahus. That 
he has finally made this record complete, so that the ceremony as 
known among his people can be preserved, is worthy of commenda- 
tion. His work as it now stands shows Tahirussawichi to be broad- 
minded as w r ell as thoughtful, reverent, and sincere. 

Graphophone records wore taken of all the songs belonging to this 
ceremony. The music as here printed has been transcribed from the 
cylinders by Mr Edwin S. Tracy and each transcription has been 
verified by him from the singing of the Ku'rahus. It is to be regretted 



16 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEEEMONY [eth. ann. 22 

that the exactions of Mr Tracy's professional work in the field of music 
make it impossible for him to prepare an essay upon the character of 
these songs and the light they throw upon the evolution of musical 
expression. His familiarity with native songs, growing out of several 
years of first-hand research, would render him peculiarly fitted to 
speak concerning them. 

The songs are commended to the general student of music and 
particularly to the young composers of our country as offering native 
themes worthy of musical treatment. 

In arranging the material for this paper it has seemed best to group 
it into two parts. The first contains such introductory explanations 
as are essential to the understanding of the ceremony, which is given 
without comment in the words of the Ku'rahus, together with his inter- 
pretation of the songs and accompanying rites. The second part 
consists of an analysis of the ceremony and treats of its structure, 
purpose, and teaching. The translations of the songs aim to convey 
to the English reader something of their native spirit and meaning. 

As the purpose of this record is not primarily linguistic, it has been 
judged best not to observe the finer phonetic distinctions in recording 
native words. The vowels have their continental values, as in are, 
they, pique, go, rule; ow is used as in how; and u represents oo in 
good. The consonants p, b, t, d, k, g (always hard), j, s, z, f, v, in, 
1, r, w, y, h are used approximately as in English, but k and t have 
been allowed to represent the semisonants (medial between k and g, t 
and d) as well, and the r has a slight trill. Dh represents th in the, 
h a guttural breathing (German ch, Spanish j) and hr a surd or 
breathed r; th is used as in thorn, wh and ch as in which, x as in box, 
sh as in shall; n indicates that the preceding vowel is nasalized; and 
h at the end of a syllable indicates that the breath must be heard. 
When a consonant is doubled it is heard twice or distinctly prolonged. 
An accent mark is used to indicate stress where it seems necessary. 



INTRODUCTION 

Name of the Ceremony 

The ceremon}- is called Skari by the Ku'rahus and by all who have 
been taught its rites and sacred songs. This word is from ska, hand, 
ri, many, and refers not merely to the many hands required for the 
preparation of the sacred articles used in the rites, but also to the 
culminating ceremony of touching the little child with the hand, which 
occurs on the morning of the fifth day (sixteenth and seventeenth 
rituals). 

A peculiar expression is used to characterize the consultation which 
a man who desires to inaugurate this ceremony has with his kindred 
in reference to their assistance in the undertaking. This consultation 
is called "touching them." The Ku'rahus explained this expression 
as being connected with the meaning of the word Skari, many hands, 
in its double significance already noted. 

Although the term Skari is said to be old, its descriptive char- 
acter seems to be against its acceptance as the original name of the 
ceremony. 

Among the people at large of the Pawnee tribe the ceremony is 
spoken of as Ruktaraiwarius. This composite word can be analyzed 
as follows: ruk, from rukkis, wood, or a stick of wood; ta, from tita, 
hung upon; ra, coming; iwari lis, shaking or waving. This descriptive 
term refers to the two objects peculiar to this ceremony, the two 
feathered stems which are waved to the rhythm of the songs. The 
Pawnees who receive those who bring the sacred articles call the cere- 
moii} T Haktara. The word is composed of hak, from hakkow, trans- 
lated below; ta, have; ra, coming: haktara, they who have the 
breathing mouth of wood are coming. The Osages speak of it as 
"Bringing the drum," and the Omahas as " To sing with." 

Ilako is a comprehensive term used to designate all the articles 
which belong to the ceremony. The term is derived from the com- 
posite word hakkowpirus, meaning drum. Ilakkow is from akow, 
mouth, with the aspirate prefix h, signifying breath, and the k added 
to the first syllable represents the word rukkis, wood. Ilakkow may 
then be said to mean a breathing mouth of wood. Pirns means to 
whip or beat. 

Three customs among the Indians can be traced in the composition 
of this word: first, the peculiarity of pulsating the voice on a note 
that is sustained over more than one count of the measure, by which 
22 eth— ft '2—04 2 17 



18 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

a beating effect is produced; second, the custom of waving the hand 
to and from the mouth or beating the lips, so as to break a continu- 
ous note or call into a series of sounds or beats; third, the making of 
the drum from a section of a tree, hollowed out, with a skin stretched 
over the open end. From this analysis of the word hakkowpirus we 
discern that the pulsating voice and the beaten lips were the first 
means employed to produce an effect which was afterward empha- 
sized in an instrument, the drum (hakkowpirus, the breathing mouth 
of wood), which was made to give forth a series of sounds by the 
same device of whipping by the hand. 

In Indian music the rhythm of the drum always follows closely the 
emotion expressed in the song; it is like a great pulsating voice. 

In the term Hako the k of the first syllable in hakkow is dropped 
for the sake of euphony, and for the same reason the rough sound ow 
is changed to o. The word Hako carries the idea of the breath- 
ing, vibrating tones from the wooden mouth. It is applied to all the 
articles used in the ceremony, because, according to the explanations 
of the Ku'rahus, ' ' everything speaks ; the eagle, Kawas, speaks ; 
the corn speaks; so we say Hako — the voice of all these things." 

In the preparation of the record of the different rites, rituals, and 
songs of this ceremony it became necessary to adopt a convenient 
term which should apply to the ceremony as a whole, including the 
party inaugurating the ceremony, the rites, the rituals, and the arti- 
cles used. The term "Hako" has been chosen as best fitted for the 
purpose. Three considerations influenced the choice: first, the 
fact that Hako is the native name by which the articles used in the 
ceremony are spoken of collectively; second, the meaning of the term 
Hako, as revealed b}^ an analysis of the w T ord and by the explana- 
tion given by the Ku'rahus; third, the ease with which this word can 
be spoken and remembered by the English reader. 

Personnel op the Ceremony 

Two distinct groups of persons were essential to -the performance of 
this ceremony. These two groups could not belong to the same clan 
or gens of a tribe, and they were often of different tribes. One group, 
called the Fathers, was composed of the kindred of the man who had 
taken the initiative in organizing a party for the performance of the 
ceremony. This man was called the Father. His party comprised 
from 20 to 100 persons, and represented the well-to-do class in the 
tribe, the requisites for the ceremony being of such a character that 
only skillful hunters and thrifty households could supply them. The 
second group, called the Children, was made up of the relatives of the 
man chosen by the Father to receive the visiting party of the Fathers. 
The leader of this group of Children was called the Son. Each of 
the two groups, as well as the leaders of each group, had peculiar 



Fletcher] PERSONNEL OF THE CEREMONY 19 

duties throughout the ceremony. Each had a special place in the 
lodge, and was the recipient of peculiar benefits supposed to be derived 
from the ceremony. 

The Father was usually a chief, or a man prominent in the tribe, 
who not only had accumulated property, but had a large following of 
relatives who could contribute to the store of articles required for 
these rites. The tribal standing of the Son was always equal to that 
of the Father. 

The Father selected a man from among those who had been taught 
the rites and ritual songs to take charge of the ceremony from begin- 
ning to end. Such a man was called Ku'rahus, and to him the entire 
party was required to yield obedience in every particular. The 
Ku'rahus chose an assistant, and also took with him a third person, 
a sort of acolyte, to whom he was teaching the rites. 

If the Father was a chief, then he had to invite one other chief 
to be of his party, to act as substitute whenever he was obliged to be 
absent from his post of duty. If, however, the Father was not him- 
self a chief, then it became necessary for him to secure the attend- 
ance of two chiefs, one to act as substitute for the other, as the 
constant presence of a chief was required throughout the ceremony. 

The priest who had charge of the shrine sacred to rain was also of 
the Father's party. It was his duty to furnish the pipe and conduct 
the ceremony of offering smoke to Tira'wa. The Father's party also 
included two doctors, men who had received a knowledge of healing 
plants, either directly through visions or by initiation into certain 
rites by which this knowledge was communicated. Each was required 
to bring an eagle's wing, one the right wing and the other the left. 
The wing of the eagle is the official mark of a doctor. The Father 
must also secure a number of singers, whose duty it was to carry the 
drum and act as a choir to accompany the Ku'rahus, who always led 
the singing. The rest of the party of the Father was made up of his 
kindred, with such of his friends as might desire to contribute to the 
required food and gifts and thus to become entitled to share in the 
return gifts made to the Fathers by the Children. 

The preliminary ceremonies (the first three rituals) took place at 
the lodge of the Father, and from it the party of the Fathers started 
on its journey. 

Requisites of the Ceremony and their Symbolism 

The objects peculiar to this ceremony were two feathered stems 
about a meter in length, made of asli wood. They were rounded and 
smoothed, and the pith was burned out to leave an opening for the 
breath to pass, as through a pipestem. One of these stems was 
named Raha'katittu, from ra, the, this oiks ha=hak, a part of the 
word hakkow, breathing mouth of wood, the k being dropped for 
euphony (see translation of hawkowpirns, drum, page 1 7) ; katit, dark, 



20 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

brown, or black; tu=ruru, moving, the change of the r to t being for 
euphony. The translation of the whole word would be, the breath- 
ing mouth of wood with the dark moving feathers. The other stem 
was named Rahak'takaru, from ra, the, this one; hak, from hakkow, 
breathing mouth of wood; taka, white; ru, from ruru, moving or 
swaying. The translation of the whole word would be, the breath- 
ing mouth of wood with the white moving or waving feathers. 

Associated with these two feathered stems, and sharing with them 
the prominent place in the rites, was an ear of white corn. In addi- 
tion there were required two small, round, straight sticks from the 
plum tree ; a crotched stick, also of the plum tree ; feathers from the 
tail of an owl and from the wings and tail of an eagle ; two entire wings 
of an eagle; the heads of two woodpeckers; the head, neck, and breast 
of two ducks; a wildcat skin; a shell; two wooden bowls; a braid of 
buffalo hair; a braid of sweet grass; blue, green, and red clay; fat 
from a deer or buffalo, the animal having been consecrated; the 
nest of an oriole. 

The clays, the fat, and the oriole's nest were furnfshed by the 
Ku'rahus. The nest was kept in secret and not allowed to be seen. 
All the articles except those furnished by the Ku'rahus were provided 
by the Father. Besides these he had to secure robes, ornamented 
garments, and regalia for the ceremonial clothing of the Son, his mes- 
senger, and his little child ; also gifts to be bestowed on the entire party 
of the Children. He was assisted by contributions from the relatives 
and friends who had agreed to share with him the responsibilities and 
the rewards attending this ceremony. Food for the entertainment of 
the Children as well as for the maintenance of the Fathers during 
their absence from home had also to be provided. 

It was the duty of the Son, the leader of the group called the Chil- 
dren, to provide a spacious lodge wherein the ceremony could take 
place, and also a proper camping site for all who accompanied the 
Fathers. He had also to secure the requisite return gifts to be made 
to the Fathers. 

Each of the articles used in the ceremony had a general symbolism 
well known to the people, but their special significance was peculiar 
to these rites. 

The feathered stem Raha'katittu (plate lxxxvi, page 38) was painted 
blue to symbolize the sky, the abode of Tira'wahut, the circle of the 
Jesser powers. A long straight groove running its length was painted 
red, the symbol of life. The red groove was the path along which 
the spirits of the various birds traveled- on their way to bring help. 

Three split feathers from an eagle's wing were fastened to the stem 
as to an arrow, to give sure flight to the symbol-freighted stem. On 
it was tied the fan-shaped pendant of ten feathers from the mature 
brown or golden eagle. This eagle was called Kawas in the Hako 
ceremony. It represented the mother and led in certain of the rites. 
It is this feathered stem that was carried by the Ku'rahus. This eagle 



fletchbr] THE FEATHERED STEMS 21 

is consecrated to the powers; it soars near their abode and is a medium 
of communication between them and man. 

The woodpecker's head was fastened near the mouthpiece end of the 
leathered stem, the upper mandible turned back over the red crest 
and painted blue. This treatment of the upper mandible had a double 
significance. The red crest, which rises when the bird is angry, was 
here held down; it must not rise. The blue paint represented the 
clear, cloudless sky. The woodpecker has the favor of the storm gods 
and can avert from man the disaster of tempest and of lightning. 
Tiie owl feathers were tied near the middle of the feathered stem. 
This bird has power to help and protect during the night. Soft blue 
feathers were fastened around the mouthpiece end. These blue 
feathers symbolized the clear sky, and it is this end which was always 
upward toward the abode of the powers. 

The other end of the stem was thrust through the breast, neck, and 
mandibles of the duck. It was by this end that the feathered stem 
was held. The duck is familiar with the pathless air and water and 
is also at home on the land, knowing its streams and springs. It is 
the unerring guide. 

The red and white streamers represented the sun and the moon, 
day and night. These were made of red cloth and dyed horsehair and 
white cotton cord, but it is said that formerly soft deerskin strips 
painted red and twisted hair from the white rabbit were used. 

The other feathered stem, Rahak'takaru (plate lxxxvii, page 40), 
differed from the first feathered stem already described in two par- 
ticulars, namely, it was painted green, to sj^mbolize the earth, and 
the fan-shaped pendant was made of seven tail feathers from the 
white eagle (the young brown or golden eagle; see page 288). This 
eagle was not consecrated. It represented the male, the father, the 
warrior, and the defender. This feathered stem was carried by the 
Ku'rahus's assistant, and it was never allowed to be next to the Chil- 
dren; its place was alwajs on the outside. There, it was explained, 
it could do no harm, could rouse no contention, but would serve to 
protect and defend. 

I have many times remarked the reverence felt toward the feathered 
stems. Their sacred character seemed always to be remembered and 
they were never handled carelessly. During the entire time that T 
was engaged with Tahirussawiehi on this ceremony he never allowed 
the feathered stems to be placed on the floor or laid on a chair; they 
were always carefully deposited on the wildcat skin with a decorum 
that was not once abated. I have seen manifested among the tribes 
not only reverence toward these sacred symbols, but an affection that 
was not displayed toward any other objects. Few persons ever- spoke 
to me of them without a brightening of the eyes. "They make us 
happy," was a common saying. 

They were preserved intact and passed from tribe to tribe as long 
as the\' held together, and they were sometimes freshened and 



22 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. akn. 22 

repaired. This transfer of the feathered stems from tribe to tribe 
tended to preserve the model unchanged. Sometimes the Son did not 
care to part with the feathered stems left with him, so when he inaug- 
urated a party and was to be the Father he had a new set made. It 
was a matter of pride with some not to use again feathered stems 
that had once seen service. 

The ear of white corn (piate lxxxviii, page 44), called Atira, 
Mother, a represented the fruitfulness of the earth. The tip end was 
painted blue to represent the dome of the sky, the dwelling place of the 
powers, and four blue equidistant lines, running halfway down the 
ear, were the four paths along which the powers descended to minister 
to man. 

The two straight sticks cut from the plum tree were bound to the 
ear of corn by a braid of buffalo hair. One stick projected above the 
tip of the ear about a hand's breadth, and the other extended about 
the same length below the butt; the lower end of this stick was pointed 
so that it could be thrust into the ground to hold the ear of corn in 
an upright position. To the other stick was tied a white, downy eagle 
feather. This feather had a double significance: It represented the 
high, white clouds that float near the dome of the sky where the powers 
dwell, thus indicating their presence with the corn. It also stood for 
the tassel of the cornstalk. The feather here refers to the male prin- 
ciple, the corn to the female. The plum-tree wood was chosen for the 
sticks because the tree is prolific of fruit. It symbolized a prayer for 
abundance. 

The braid of buffalo hair represented the animal which supplied 
food and clothing for the people. 

The two gourd rattles (plate lxxxix, page 46) represented the gift 
of the squash to man and the breast of the mother. Around the mid- 
dle of each a blue circle was painted from Avhich depended four equi- 
distant lines of the same color. The circle represented the base of 
the dome of the sky, and the four lines the four paths descending 
therefrom to earth. 

The crotched stick (plate xc, page 48) used to support one end of 
the feathered stems when the}^ were laid at ceremonial rest was sig- 
nificant of the fork in the tree where the eagle builds its nest. The 
use of the plum tree for this crotched stick expressed the desire for 
many young in the nest. 

The sacred ointment with which the plum-tree sticks were anointed 
was made from the fat of the deer or buffalo mixed with red clay. 
The fat was taken from an animal that had been consecrated through 
certain prescribed rites which recognized man's dependence upon the 
powers lor the gift of food. Fat symbolized plenty. Ritual songs 
speak of paths dropping fatness, referring to the trails made by those 
who carried the d ressed meat from the hunting fields to the camp ; such 

"Tlio common term for corn, naksu, was not used in the ceremony. 



fletcher] SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WILDCAT SKIN 23 

a path would be strewn with drops of fat. Red is the color typical of 
life. The ointment signified a prayer for abundance and life. 

The wildcat skin (plate xc, page 48) served as a covering for these 
objects when they were to be wrapped up and it was always spread 
on the ground for them to rest on. 

The significance of the wildcat in this ceremony is of peculiar inter- 
est. This animal, we are told, never misses his prey, never fails to 
attain the object of his pursuit, and accomplishes this end quietly, 
tactfully, without arousing antagonism. From conversations with the 
Ku'rahus it became clear that it was these qualities and not the 
savageness and stealth ly cruelty of the animal that were to be kept 
in mind. To be able to accomplish a purpose without offending, with- 
out raising opposition, seems to have been regarded' as the special 
attribute vouchsafed by Tira'wa to the wildcat. It is because of this 
attribute that it was chosen to be always with the sacred objects during 
this ceremony. The sacred objects symbolized not only an appeal from 
man to certain powers, but the presence of the powers themselves, while 
the nature of the appeal, a desire for children, long life, and plenty, was 
such that the enjoyment of the benefits craved must depend largely 
on the successful exercise by man of those qualities which were 
regarded as characteristic of the wildcat. So the skin of the wildcat 
was the cover of the sacred objects when they were wrapped up; it 
was spread on the ground as their guard and support when they were 
laid at ceremonial rest, and when they were carried about the lodge 
during the ceremony it was borne by the chief, who walked between 
the Kurahus and his assistant, each of whom held a feathered stem. 

( )nlv a chief could carrv the wildcat skin and the ear of corn. There- 
fore, if the Father was not himself a chief he had to secure the service 
of one in order that the wildcat could be borne by a man possessing 
the authority of a ruler in the tribe. As the wildcat stood for the 
ability to accomplish a purpose with tact and without exciting opposi- 
tion, qualities essential to the successful ruler, it would seem that the 
imperative association of the wildcat with a chief was intended to con- 
vey the idea that only under the administration of such a man could 
the tribe have internal peace and enjoy the abundance and prosperity 
represented by .Mother Corn. 

As every article belonging to the ceremony and the position and 
movements of those who conducted the rites had a special signifi- 
cance, the position given to the wildcat, as explained by the K malms, 
reveals the mind of the native in regard to this animal, which figures 
conspicuously in other rites and ceremonies, and which controls one 
of the sacred shrines of the Chaui band of the Pawnee tribe. 

Time <>k the Ceremony 

There was no stated 1 Lme for the performance of the Ilako ceremony. 
It was not connected with planting or harvesting, hunting, or war, or 
any tribal festival. 'The Ku'rahus said, "We take up the Hako in 



24 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

the spring when the birds are mating, or in the summer when the 
birds are nesting and caring for their young, or in the fall when the 
birds are flocking, but not in the winter when all things are asleep. 
With the Hako we are praying for the gift of life, of strength, of 
plenty, and of peace, so we must pray when life is stirring everywhere." 

Scheme of the Ceremony 

According to the Ku'rahus, no change in the order of rites or songs 
was permitted. The reason for this requirement becomes clear when 
we study the ceremony itself. Its fundamental ideas and teachings, 
which are among the most important for the welfare of the people, are 
steadily unfolded from the initial rite to the final act through a long 
series of observances which are replete with detail and accompanied 
by nearly one hundred songs, yet all these different parts are so closely 
articulated that any variation of relationship or an} T omission would 
be disastrous to the structure. 

The Hako consists of the Preparation and the Ceremony. 

The Preparation 

First division. Initial rites. 

First ritual. Making the Hako: 

Part I. Invoking the powers. 

Part II. Preparing the feathered stems. 

Part III. Painting the ear of corn and preparing the other sacred objects. 

Part IV. Offering of smoke. 
Second ritual. Prefiguring the journey to the Son. 
Third ritual. Sending the messengers. 
Fourth ritual: 

Part I. Vivifying the sacred objects. 

Part II. Mother Corn assumes leadership. 

Part III. The Hako party presented to the Powers. 
Second division. The journey. 
Fifth ritual: 

Part I. Mother Corn asserts authority. 

Part II. Songs and ceremonies of the way. 

Part III. Mother Corn reasserts leadership. 
Third division. Entering the village of the Son and consecrating his lodge. 
Sixth ritual: 

Part I. The Son's messenger received. 

Part II. The Hako party enter the village. 
Seventh ritual: 

Part I. Touching and crossing the threshold. 

Part II. Consecrating the lodge. 

Part III. Clothing the Son and offering smoke. 

The Ceremony 

First division. The public ceremony. 

Eighth ritual (first day). The Fathers feed the Children. 
Ninth ritual (first night). Invoking the visions. 
Tenth ritual. The Dawn: 

Part I. The birth of Dawn. 

Part II. The Morning Star and the new-born Dawn. 



fletcher] SCHEME OF THE CEREMONY 25 

First division — continued. 

Tenth ritual. The Dawn— continued. 

Part III. Daylight. 

Part IV. The Children behold the day. 
Eleventh ritual (second. day). The male element invoked: 

Part I. Chant to the Sun. 

Part II. Day songs. 
Twelfth ritual (second night). The rites came by a vision. 
(Tenth ritual. The Dawn. Repeated.) 
Thirteenth ritual (third day). The female element invoked: 

Part I. The sacred feast of Corn. 

Part II. Song to the Earth. 

Part III. Offering of smoke. 

Part IV. Songs of the birds. 
Fourteenth ritual (third night). Invoking the visions of the ancients. 
Second division. The secret ceremonies. 
Fifteenth ritual (fourth night): 

Part I. The flocking of the birds. 

Part II. The sixteen circuits of the lodge. 
Sixteenth ritual (fifth day, dawn): 

Part I. Seeking the child. 

Part II. Symbolic inception. 

Part III. Action symbolizing life. 
Seventeenth ritual: 

Part I. Touching the child. 

Part II. Anointing the child. 

Part III. Painting the child. 

Part IV. Putting on the symbols. 
Eighteenth ritual. Fulfilment prefigured. 

Part I. Making the nest. 

Part II. Symbolic fulfilment. 

Part III. Thank offering. 
Third division. The dance of thanks. 
Nineteenth ritual: 

Part I. The call to the Children. 

Part II. The dance and reception of gifts. 
Fourth division. The presentation of the Hako. 
Twentieth ritual: 

Part I. Blessing the child. 

Part II. Presenting the Hako to the Son and thanks to the Children. 

There are four rituals which can be interpolated during the prog- 
ress of the public ceremony, namely: 

Incidental Rituals 
Comforting the child. 
Prayer to avert storms. 
Prayer lor the gift of children. 
Changing a man's name. 

In tin- following pages the rituals and the explanations are presented 
as they were given by Tahirussawichi. His descriptions are full of 
detail, with frequent repetitions, but as every article is symbolic ami 
every movement has a meaning, this repetition is essential to an 
understanding of the ceremony as it appeals to the Pawnee, and it, lias 
been deemed best not to change bis method or introduce comments. 



THE HAKO 
THE PREPARATION * 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The ceremony of the Hako is a prayer for children, in order that 
the tribe may increase and be strong; and also that the people may 
have long life, enjoy plenty, and be happy and at peace. 

The articles that are used in the ceremony can be prepared only 
under the direction and supervision of a man who has been taught 
the sacred songs in their sequence and instructed as to their meaning. 
Such a man is called Ku'rahus, which means a man of years, vene- 
rated for his knowledge and experience. 

When a man intends to inaugurate a party for the performance of 
this ceremony, he selects a Ku'rahus to have complete charge of it, 
and fixes a day when the preliminary rites are to be performed. On 
that day the Ku'rahus goes into the sweat lodge and there purifies 
himself. When he has come out of the sweat bath anol has cooled off 
a little, he places sweet grass on a small pile of coals. Then he sits 
down (on his heels) and draws a robe about himself and the coals, so 
that the smoke of the sweet grass may reach every part of his body. 
He then takes a bit of fat which has been preserved from a deer or 
buffalo consecrated toTira'wa, and mixes it with red paint and anoints 
himself. Then he puts on his leggings and moccasins, and a buffalo 
robe, with the hair outside, tying it about the waist with a rope made 
of buffalo hair. He fastens a white, downy eagle feather in his scalp 
lock and goes to the lodge of the man who has inaugurated the party. 
He takes with him a man as assistant; he is also accompanied by 
another man, who is learning the songs and the details of the cere- 
mony, preparatory to becoming himself able to conduct this rite, but 
whose present duty is to minister to the wants of the Ku'rahus. 

At the lodge the chiefs and leading men of the village have been 
assembled, with those who have agreed to be of the party and have 
contributed the requisite gifts. This lodge has been swept clean and 
put in order for the occasion. The Ku'rahus takes his seat at the 
west end of the lodge, facing the east, and before him, spread out on 
a mat, are the materials for the preparation of the ceremonial articles. 

After the Ku'rahus has begun to sing the songs belonging to the act 
of preparing these articles there must be no coming in or going out 
of the lodge, and no one can move from his place until this (the first 
ritual) has been completed An exception is made in the case of two 
men who are sent out by the Ku'rahus to cut and bring in two sticks 
of ash. They go out during the singing of a certain stanza of the first 
song and must return while another particular stanza of the same 
song is being sung. 
26 



:AU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT PL. LXXXIV 




THE KURAHUS IN CEREMONIAL DRESS 
(TO ILLUSTRATE "HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY," BY A.C.FLETCHER ) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT PL LXXXV 





THE KURAHUS IN CEREMONIAL DRESS 
(TO ILLUSTRATE u HAKO,A PAWNEE CEREMONY," BY A.C.FLETCHER ) 



FLETCHEK] 



FIRST KITUAL, PART I 



27 



First Division. Initial Rites 
first ritual. making the hako 

Part I. Invoking the Powers 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

At the creation of the world it was arranged that there should he 
lesser powers. Tira'wa atius, the mighty power, could not come near 
to man, could not be seen or felt by him, therefore lesser powers were 
permitted. They were to mediate between man and Tira'wa. The 
first song mentions some of these lesser powers in the order in which 
they come near to man, in the order of their creation. 



SONG 



Words and Musi: 



M. M. ,S-126. 

■ — Pulsation of the voice. 




m 






:pr-^— qz 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 
-N- r 



3B= ^=«dbfcS==3»£ 

A-* zM m cz — BE4z*rz^zr?:»zz*zbz 



llo-o-o! V - ha- re, 'ha - re, 'a - he! I' 



ha-re, 'ha - re, 'a - he! 



Drum. 



A 

m m m 



A 




$=*ZZ^ 



-i--s : 



zmtMz^z 



-A 



^z&-^-^%J"«zbz^=?gzgE 



Ile-ru! A-wa 



hok-shu. lie! 



• 



a 

m 



P 

A 

r r 



ha-re, 'ha - re, 



? a 



he! 

1 i 



1 Ho-o-o! 

2 I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 

3 I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 

4 Hern! Awahokshu. He! 

5 I'hare, "hare, 'ahe! 

II 

6 Ho-o-o! 

7 Ihare. 'hare, 'ahe! 

8 ['hare, "hare, 'ahe! 

9 Heru! Hotoru. He! 

10 I'hare 'hare, 'ahe! 

Ill 

11 Ho-o-o! 

12 I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 

13 I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 

14 Heru! Shakuru. He! 

15 Ihare. 'hare, 'ahe! 



IV 

16 Ho-o-o! 

17 I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 

18 I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 

19 Heru! H'Uraru. He! 

20 I'hare. 'hare, 'ahe! 

V 

21 Ho-o-o! 

22 Ihare, 'hare, 'ahe! 

23 I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 

24 Hem! Toharu. He! 

25 I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 

VI 

26 Ho-o-o! 

27 Ihare, 'hare, 'ahe! 

28 I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 

29 Heru! Chaharu. He! 

30 Ihare. 'hare, 'ahe! 



8 


THE HA 


KO, A 


PAW 


NEI 


2 CEKEMONY [eth. 


ANN. 22 




VII 








X 




31 


Ho-o-o! 






46 


Ho-o-o! 




32 


I hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 






47 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 




33 


I'hare, 'hare, "ahe! 






48 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 




34 


Hern! Kusharu. He! 






49 


Heru! Kataharu. He! 




35 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 
VIII 




■v 


50 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 
XI 




36 


Ho-o-o! 






51 


Ho-o-o! 




37 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 






52 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 




38 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 






53 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 




39 


Heru! H'Akaru. He! 


i 




54 


Heru! Kekaru. He! 




40 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 
IX 






55 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 
XII 




41 


Ho-o-o! 






56 


Ho-o-o! 




42 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 






57 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 




43 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 






58 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 




44 


Heru! Keharu. He! 






59 


Heru! Koritu. He! 




45 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 

61 


Ho-o-o 


XIII 
1 


60 


I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 






62 


I'hare, 


'hare, 


'ahe 


! 






63 


I'hare, 


'hare, 


'ahe 


,! 


• 




64 


Heru! 


Hiwaturu 


. He! 






65 


I'hare, 


'hare, 


'ahe 


,j 





1 

o 



3 

4 



Translation of First Stanza 

Ho-o-o! An exclamation introductory to the song. 
I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe! 

i'hare! an exclamation that conveys the intimation that some- 
thing is presented to the mind on which one must reflect, 
must consider its significance and its teaching, 
'hare! an abbreviation of the word i'hare. 

'ahe! an abbreviation of the word i'hare. The change of the r 
to h is for greater ease in singing. 
See line 2. 
Heru! Awahokshu. He! 

heru! an exclamation of reverent feeling, as when one is 

approaching something sacred. 
Awahokshu, a composite word; awa is a part of Tira'wa, the 
supernatural powers, and hokshu means sacred, holy; thus 
the word Awahokshu means the abode of the supernatural 
powers, the holy place where they dwell, 
he! a part of the exclamation i'hare, the change of the r to an h 
being for the same reason as the similar change in 'ahe. 
See line 2. 
See line 2. 



fletoher] FIRST RITUAL, PART I 29 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

I hare is an exclamation, as when one suddenly remembers some- 
thing of which he has been unmindful, because other things demanded 
his attention. The mind having been recalled to the subject, now 
appreciates its importance, gives it complete attention, and becomes 
absorbed by it. The word means, I remember, I perceive, I give heed. 

The repetition of the word as we sing "I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe!" indi- 
cates that our minds are dwelling upon the subject brought to our 
attention. 

Heru is an exclamation of reverence, in recognition of a place where 
prayers can be sent and whence help can come to us. 

Awahokshu is that place — the place where Tira'wa atius, the mighty 
power, dwells. Below are the lesser powers, to whom man can appeal 
directly, whom he can see and hear and feel, and who can come near 
him. Tira'wahut is the great circle in the sky where these lesser 
powers dwell. They are like deputies or attributes of Tira'wa atius. 
The North Star and the Brown Eagle are among these lesser powers. 
A number of them are mentioned in this song and in the order in 
which they come near to man. We begin by calling upon Tira'wa 
atius, the father of all, but we do not address the power directly; we 
mention the holy place where the power dwells, Awahokshu, and send 
our thoughts and our voice there, that our cry may reach those who 
have the ability to come to us and to help us. 

I'hare, 'hare, 'ahe means that our minds are dwelling on our appeal 
to the powers. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

6, 7, 8 See the first stanza, lines 1, 2, 3. 

9 Heru! Hotoru. He! 

heru ! an exclamation of reverence. See the first stanza, line 4. 

Hotoru, the Winds, those that stand at the four cardinal points. 
This term is not used in ordinary srjeech. It refers to the 
supernatural powers, the Winds. The common word for wind 
is utawiu ; windy, tihota. 

he! part of i'hare! give heed! See the first stanza, line 4. 

10 See the first stanza, line 2. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

I'hare I have explained already. It always means the same, the 
arresting and fixing of the mind upon a subject of importance. 

Bern! Iloturu. He! we exclaim, as we call on Hotoru. Hotoru, the, 
Winds, were the first of the lesser powers to come near to man, so 
they are the first to be mentioned in this appeal. They are invisi- 
ble, but they are very strong (efficient); they are from the breath of 
TiraVa and they give Life 1<> man. They stand at the four directions 
(cardinal points) and guard the pat lis that are there, the paths down 



30 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [rcra. ann. 22 

which the lesser powers must travel when they descend to bring help 
to man. 

In this stanza, we remember the power given by Tira'wa to the 
Winds, and we cry to Hotoru to come and give their help to us at this 
time, to give life to the sacred articles about to be prepared for the 
ceremony of the Hako. 

I'hare, 'hare 'ahe means, as we sing it this time, that we are reflect- 
ing upon Hotoru, we are thinking of all that they bring to man, the 
breath b} r which he lives. 

The Winds are always near us by night and by day. 

Translation of Third Stanza 

11, 12, 13 See the first stanza, lines 1, 2, 3. 

14 Heru! Shakuru. He! 

heru ! an exclamation of reverence. See the first stanza, line 4. 

Shakuru, the Sun. This word is not used in ordinary speech; 
it refers to the supernatural power, the Sun, in its relation to 
man. The common term for sun is ti'rasakariki, sun stand- 
ing. 

he! part of i'hare! give heed! See the first stanza, line 4. 

15 See the first stanza, line 2. The words in this line have special 

reference to the mind dwelling seriously upon Shakuru. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

Shakuru, the Sun, is the first of the visible powers to be mentioned. 
It is very potent; it gives man health, vitality, and strength. Because 
of its power to make things grow, Shakuru is sometimes spoken of 
as atius, father. The Sun comes direct from the mighty power above; 
that gives it its great potency. 

As we sing this stanza, we think of all that the Sun can do for us 
and we cry to it, to come now and give potentiality to the sacred 
articles about to be made ready for use in this ceremony. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

16, 17, 18 See the first stanza, lines 1, 2, 3. 
1% Heru! H'Uraru. He! 

heru ! an exclamation of reverence. See the first stanza, line 4. 
h', the sign of breath; "breathing life." 

Uraru, the Earth. This term is not used in ordinary speech; 
the common name for the earth is kahoraru. H'Uraru refers 
to the supernatural power that belongs to the earth, the 
power to bring forth, 
he! part of i'hare! give heed! See the first stanza, line 4. 
20 See the first stanza, line 2. In the last line of the stanza the 
word i'hare implies reflection: " We reflect on H'Uraru! " 



Fletcher] FIRST RITUAL, PART I 31 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

H'Uraru, the Earth, is the lesser power we cry to next. The Earth is 
very near to man ; we speak of her as Atira, Mother, because she brings 
forth. From the Earth we get our food; we lie down on her; we live 
and walk on her; we could not exist without her, as we could not breathe 
without Hotoru (the Winds) or grow without Shakuru (the Sun). 

Mother Earth is very potent to help man and now we cry to her to 
come near and give potentiality to the sacred articles we are about to 
prepare. 

We reverently reflect upon all that Mother Earth does for us. 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

21, 22, 23 See the first stanza, lines 1, 2, 3. 

24 Heru! Toharu. He! 

heru ! an exclamation of reverence. See the first stanza, line 4. 

Toharu, the living covering of the earth, no special form being 
indicated; a general term for vegetation, but implying the 
supernatural power manifested therein. Katoha'ru, trees. 

he ! part of i'hare ! give heed ! See the first stanza, line 4. 

25 See lines 2 and 20. " We reflect on Toharu ! " 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

Toharu means all the things that Mother Earth brings forth (all 
forms of vegetation) ; these are many. They are very necessary to 
man and they bring him much help. They too are lesser powers, 
though not so potent as some of the others. From them we get our 
food; from them comes the grass upon which the animals feed — tin' 
animals which supply clothing and food; from them come the trees 
which are very necessary to us. They have a part in this ceremony. 

As we sing we think upon all that Toharu gives us and we cry to 
this power to come near, for without the help of Toharu some of the 
sacred articles required for this ceremony could not be obtained. 

At Hi is stanza the two men who have been selected to cut the two 
sticks of ash arise and go out of the lodge to perforin this duty. The 
ash tree has been chosen beforehand, but the two men must cut the 
sticks when they go out at this time. 

We stop between the stanzas of the song that this act may be 
performed. 



32 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [kth. ann. 23 

Translation of Sixth Stanza 

26, 27, 28 See lines 1, 2, 3. 

29 Hem! Chaharu. He! 

heru ! an exclamation of yeverence. See line 4. 

Chaharu, Water. This term applies to the supernatural power 

of the water; it is not used in ordinary speech; the common 

word for water is kii'tzu. 
he! part of i'hare! give heed! See line 4. 

30 See lines 2 and 20. "We reflect on Chaharu." 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

Chaharu, Water, is one of the lesser powers. Water is very neces- 
sary to the life of man and all living things. The Winds, the Sun, 
the Earth, the Vegetation, and the Water are the five lesser powers 
through which the life of our bodies is maintained. We cry to Cha- 
haru to come near and give life to the sacred articles about to be 
prepared. 

I told you that these stanzas are in the order of creation. The 
powers are mentioned in the order in which they come near to man 
and enable him to live and to keep alive. As we sing we reflect upon 
our dependence on these lesser powers. 

Water is employed only for sacred purposes in this ceremony. It 
can not be used in any ordinary way from the time we begin the 
singing of these songs to the end of the entire ceremony. A man can 
drink water to sustain his life, but he can not touch it for any other 
purpose. He can not go swimming, nor can he step into water with- 
out first performing certain rites. It is difficult to abstain so long 
from the use of water, but it must be done or we shall suffer punish- 
ment for our profanation. We shall have storms, the sky will be 
filled with clouds, there will be obstructions between us and the 
place where the powers above dwell — those whom we invoke in this 
ceremony. 

I have known of instances where some of the men of the party 
sneaked out of the camp during this ceremony, went to a stream and 
washed, or jumped in and took a swim, and the result was a storm 
that brought great distress upon the people. 

Translation of Seventh Stanza 

31, 32, 33 See lines 1, 2, 3. 

34 Heru! Kusharu. He! 

heru ! an exclamation of reverence. See line 4. 

Kusharu, a place set apart for sacred purposes and made holy. 

he! part of i'hare! give heed! See line 4. 

35 See lines 2 and 20. "We reflect on Kusharu! " 



fletcherj FIKST RITUAL, PART I 33 

7 

% 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The first act of a man must be to set apart a place that can be 
made sacred and holy, that can be consecrated to Tira'wa; a place 
where a man can be quiet and think — think about the mighty power 
and the place where the lesser powers dwell ; a place where a man 
can put his sacred articles, those objects which enable him to approach 
the powers. Kusharu means such a place. 

In this stanza we are taught that before a man can build a dwelling 
he must select a spot and make it sacred and then, about that conse- 
crated spot, he can erect a dwelling where his family can live peace- 
ably. Kusharu represents the place where a man can seek the powers 
and where the powers can come near to man. Such a place is neces- 
sary for all ceremonies. 

We are now to set aside a place where we shalfput the sacred arti- 
cles we are to prepare and make it holy. We are not only thinking 
of the holy place where we shall la}^ the sacred articles, but we think 
of all that holy place will mean. It will represent the place where 
new life will be given. 

Translation of Eighth Stanza 

36, 37, 38 See lines 1, 2, 3. 

39 Hern! H' Akaru. He! 

heru ! an exclamation of reverence. See line 4. 

h', the sign of breath, the giving of life. 

Akaru , a modified form of akaro, a dwelling place ; the earth lodge 
with its dome-shaped roof is likened to the stretch of land 
bounded by the horizon and roofed by the dome of the sky. 

he ! part of i'hare ! give heed ! See line 4. 

40 See lines 2 and 20. " We reflect on H' Akaru! " 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In this stanza we are told to think of the dwelling place Tira'wa has 
given to man. Upon this place man must build a lodge in accordance 
with the rites given to our fathers. It is by the observance of these 
rites in the building of a lodge that life is given to the dwelling and 
it is made a place where the lesser powers can come to those who dwell 
therein. H' Akaru means the giving of life to the dwelling place. 

Translation of Ninth. Stanza 

41, 42, 43 See lines 1, 2, 3. 

44 Hern! Keharu. He! 

heru! an exclamation of reverence. See line 4. 

Keharu, an enclosure, as a room, having walls and roof, like 

an earth lodge. The word does not refer to any enclosure 

or Lodge, but is typical in its meaning, 
he! part of. i'hare! give heed! See line 4. 

45 Sec Lines 2 and 20. "We reflect on Keharu!" 

22 ETH— pt 2—04 3 



34 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 23 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing this stanza we think of the lodge erected about the holy 
place in accordance with the rites given to our fathers upon the earth, 
which Tirawa made to be our dwelling place. 

In such a lodge this ceremony must take place, and as we sing we 
ask that the lodge in which we are assembled to prepare the sacred 
art icles may be kept free from all hurtful influences and that the lesser 
powers which bring life and strength may come near us as we sit within. 

We also think of the lodge to which we will go for the further per- 
formance of this ceremony, for we desire that the presence of the lesser 
powers may be there also. 

In this ceremony the lodge represents the nest, the place where the 
young are enclosed. They are protected by the male; the male eagle 
guards his nest; within its walls there is safety. 

Translation of Tenth Stanza 

46, 47, 48 See lines 1, 2, 3. 

49 Heru! Kataharu. He! 

heru! an exclamation of reverence. See line 4. 

Kataharu, part of the word itkataharu, fireplace. The dropping 
of the initial syllable, it, changes the meaning; the word here 
refers to the place where fire is to be kindled in the sacred, 
manner for the performance of sacred rites. 

he! part of i'hare! give heed! See line 4. 

50 See lines 2 and 20. "We reflect on Kataharu!" 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing this stanza we think of the place set apart for the kin- 
dling of fire after the manner tanght our fathers, by rubbing two 
sticks together. Fire kindled in this way is sacred ; it comes direct 
from the power granted to Toharu (Vegetation), in answer to man's 
appeal as he rubs the sticks. The sticks used to make this fire are 
kept in a shrine. 

The sacred fire must come in a place set apart for it. All sacred 
things must have their place. Kataharu is the place set apart for the 
sacred fire, where it can come and bring good to man; without it he 
could hardly live. We make the fire in the center of the lodge, where 
all within can share in its benefits. 

As I told you, the lodge in this ceremony represents the nest where 
the young are cared for and protected. The male eagle protects the 
nest, the female eagle broods over it, and there she nourishes her 
young. As we are asking for the gift of children to bind the people 
together as one family, so we sing about the fireplace, that fire may 
come as Ave prepare the sacred articles. 



Fletcher] FIKST EITUAL, PART I 35 

When we sing this stanza, the two men who were sent out to cut 
the sticks of ash must return. After they enter they are told to sit 
on the east side of the fireplace. There they must sit, each man 
holding his stick. 

Translation of Eleventh Stanza 

51, 52, 53 See lines 1, 2, 3. 

54 Hern! Kekaru. lie! 

hern! an exclamation of reverence. See line 4. 

Kekaru, glowing coals; that is, the glow of the igniting wood 

before it bursts into flames, 
he ! part of i'hare ! give heed ! See line 4. 

55 See lines 2 and 20. "We reflect on Keharu ! " 

Explanation by the Kit r alms 

As we sing this stanza we rub the sticks to make the sacred fire 
come, and we think of the lesser power that is making itself seen in 
the glowing wood. 

Translation of Twelfth Stanza 

56, 57, 58 See lines 1, 2, 3. 
59 Heru! Koritu. He! 

hern ! an exclamation of reverence. See line 4. 

Koritu, flames. 

he! part of i'hare! give heed! See line 4. 
6< ) See lines 2 and 20. ' ' We reflect on Koritu ! " 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When the flame leaps from the glowing wood it is the word of the 
fire. The power has come near. 

As we sing we think upon Koritu, the word of the fire, and we ask 
it to enter into and remain with the sacred articles we arc about to 
prepare, for they are to speak. 

While we are singing the two men with the two ash sticks hold 
ihem over the fire, to warm and straighten them. Then they cut 
them to the required length, four spans from the thumb to tin 4 third 
finger. Next they peel and scrape the sticks, and remove the pith by 
boring them through from end to end, so that tin 1 breath can pass unob- 
structed (the boring used to be done with a reed, but now tin* pith is 
burned out with a wire). The men next cut a straight groove the 
entire length of each stick. When all this lias been done, the scrap- 
ings and (>\^vx particle of the ash wood are carefully placed on the fire, 
and as the flames arise the two slicks are passed through the blaze, 
that the word of the fire may enter and be with them. 

The two men, each with a stick, pass from the east, where they 
have been standing, and take their places one on 11m north and the 



36 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEEEMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



other on 1 lie south of the Ku'rahus, where he sits in the west, and 
there these stems are decorated in the manner taught by our fathers 
(figure 171). 

EAST 
1 




Fig. 171. Diagram of the Father's lodge during the decoration of the feathered stems. 

1, the entrance to the lodge; 2, the fireplace; 3, inner posts supporting the dome-shaped roof; 
4, the holy place; 5, the Ku'rahus; 6, his assistant; 7, the man with the blue feathered stem; 
8, the man with the green feathered stem; 9, the server; 10, members of the Hako party. 



Translation of Thirteenth Stanza 

61, 62, 63 See lines 1, 2, 3. 

64 Heru! Hiwaturu. He! 

heru! an exclamation of reverence. See line 1. 

Hiwaturu, the entranceway to the lodge. Hiwaturu is com- 
posed of a part of the words hutturaru, a road, and hiwa, a 
hollow or depression. The word hiwaturu implies a sunken 
pathway. 

he! part of i'hare! give heed! See line 4. 

65 See lines 2 and 20. " We reflect on Hiwaturu." 



FLETCHER! 



FIRST RITUAL, PART II 



37 



Exjjlanatio)) by the Ku'rahus 

We sing of the entrance way of the lodge because it is through this 
way that man goes to and fro. It is the place made for all to enter 
into the lodge; through it come those powers which are represented 
on the sacred articles about to be prepared for the ceremony of the 
Hako. Through it come the promises of the Hako, and through it 
the visions come. 

The long passageway represents the days of man's life. 

Part II. Preparing the Feathered Stems 
Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

Before the next song is sung the Ku'rahus prepares the blue paint 
which is to be put on one of the sticks of ash. The water with which 
the blue clay is mixed must be taken from a running stream. Water 
from a spring or well can not be used. Running water represents 
the continuity of life from one generation to another. 

The paint is mixed in a white shell. The shell must be white ; it 
is used because it was once a living thing. It lived in the water; it 



had no disease or sickness. As we use the shell we ask that disease 
and sickness may be kept from us and that our life may be long. 

Before the people knew anything about vessels they used shells as 
spoons and to put their food in. Tira'wa gave us the shells and gave 
them long life and the power to keep away disease and sickness. 

When the Ku'rahus has mixed the blue paint in the shell, he hands 
it to the man at his left, who is sitting toward the north. This man 
applies the mixture with his finger to the stick of ash, spreading the 
paint over its entire length, but being very particular not to let any 
of it get into the straight groove that runs from one end of the stick 
to the other, while the following song is sung. 



FIRST SONG 



Words and Music 

: Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



M. M. ^ = 126 




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ri, 're - ri, h'a-re-ri. I If! 



H' a -re - ri, h'a-re-ri. He! 

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38 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 82 

66 Ho-o-o-o! 

67 H'areri, h'areri. He! 

68 H'areri, h'areri, h'areri. 'reri, h'areri. He! 

69 H'areri, h'areri. He! 

70 'Reri, h'areri, h'areri. 7 reri, h'areri. He! 

71 H'areri. h'areri. He! 

Translation 

66 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

67 H'areri, h'areri. He! 

h', an aspiration, symbolic of a breathing forth, as the giving 
of breath so that a thing may live. 

areri, a part of the word irarihi, a particular place. The 
change of the h in the final s}dlable of the word to r when 
the abbreviation areri is sung is for ease of utterance and 
euphony. 

h'areri. Translated above. 

he! a part of the exclamation i'hare! meaning I think upon, I 
give heed to the significance of the act which accompanies 
this song. The change of the initial r in the last syllable 
of the word to an h, making it he, is for euphony. 

68 H'areri, h'areri, h'areri, 'reri, h'areri. lie! 

H'areri, h'areri, h'areri. See line 67. 

'reri, a part of the abbreviation areri, translated above. 

h'areri. He! See line 67. 

69 See line 07. 

70 'Reri, h'areri, h'areri, 'reri, h'areri. He! See lines 67 and 68. 

71 See line 67. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

Blue is the color of the sky, the dwelling rjlace of Tira'wahut, that 
great circle of the powers which watch over man. As the man paints 
the stick blue we sing. We ask as we sing that life be given to this 
symbol of the dwelling place of Tirawa. 

When the man has completed the painting of the stick he hands it 
to the Ku'rahus, who has already mixed red clay witli water from a 
running stream in a shell, and he paints the straight groove red. 
This groove is the path along which the spirits of all the things that 
are to be put upon this stick of asli ma} 7 travel as the} T go forth to 
give their help during this ceremony. " H'areri " is a prayer that the 
symbol may have life. 

We paint the groove red because the passageway is red through 
which man's breath comes and goes to give him life. The sun, too, is 
red, and the groove represents the straight path whereon the sun 
shines, the path which man must travel if he would live in peace and 
prosper. The teachings of this ceremony make a straight path along 
which if a man walks lie will receive help from the powers. 



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FLETCHER] 



FIRST EITUAL, PART II 



39 



When the Ku'rahus has finished painting the groove, he hands the 
blue stem back to the man on his left, toward the north, who holds it. 

Before singing the second song the Ku'rahus prepares the green 
paint to be used on the other stick of ash by the man on his right, 
toward the south. The clay is mixed in a shell with water taken from 
a running stream. When it is ready for use the Ku'rahus hands it to 
the man on his right, who, with his finger, rubs the paint over the 
ash stick, being very careful not to get any of the green color into 
the groove that runs the length of the stick. 

When the man begins to paint the stick green this song is sung. 



SECOND SONG 



Words and Music 



M. M. J = 126. 



Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




Drum. 




72 



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ha- re re! H' a -re - ri; 

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73 
74 
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76 



H'areri, h'areri; 

H'areri, 'hare! I hare re! 

H'areri, 'hare! I hare re! H'areri; 

Hure-e! 

H'areri, 'hare! I hare re! H'areri; 

Hure-e! 

Translation 
H'areri, h'areri. 

If, an aspiration, a breathing forth. See the second song, line 07. 
areri, an abbreviation of the word irarihi, a particular or special 

place. The change in the last syllable from hi to ri is for 

euphony. 
H'areri, 'hare! I'hare re! 
h'areri. See lines 72 and (57. 
'hare,apar1 of the word i'hare; an exclamation used to indicate 

thai something of sen-ions imporl has been presented to the 

mind ami is being reflected upon. See Line 2. 
i'hare re. Translated above. The doubling of the lasl syllable 

is to meet the requirements of the rhythm of the music. 



40 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

74 H'areri, 'hare! I'hare re! H'areri. All the words are trans- 

lated above. See lines 72 and 73. 

75 Hure-e! An abbreviation of the word hanrae, coming from above. 

The vowel changes and prolongation are for greater ease in 
singing and also for euphony. 
76, 77 See lines 74, 75. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

The color green represents Toharn (Vegetation), the covering of 
H'TJrarn, Mother Earth. As we sing, we ask that life be breathed 
into the symbol, that it may have power as we nse these sacred arti- 
cles. " H'areri " is a prayer that living power may be where we place 
this symbol of the covering of Mother Earth. We remember as we 
sing that the power of Mother Earth to bring forth comes from above, 
"Hure-e." 

The Ku'rahus paints the groove red in the same way, for the same 
reason as on the other ash stick, and when he has finished he hands 
the green stem back to the man on his right, toward the south, who 
holds it. 

The Ku'rahus rubs upon his hands the sacred ointment which has 
been made by mixing red clay with fat from a deer or buifalo that 
has been consecrated to Tira'wa. He is now ready to tie the symbolic 
articles upon the two painted stems. 

He splits long feathers, taken from the wings of an eagle, and glues 
them to each stem as feathers are glued upon the shaft of an arrow. 
H3 uses for this purpose pitch from the pine tree. These wing feath- 
ers are to remind us that the eagle flies near to Tira'wa. 

Al^out one end of the stem (the mouthpiece) he fastens soft blue 
feathers, in color like the sky where the powers dwell. He ties a 
woodpecker's head on the stem near the mouthpiece and turns the 
upper mandible back upon the red crest. The mandible covers the red 
crest and keeps it from rising. This shows that the bird may not be 
angry. The inner side of the mandible, which is exposed by being- 
turned back upon the crest, is painted blue, to show that Tirawa is 
looking down upon the open bill as the spirit of the bird travels along 
the red groove to reach the people. 

About the middle of the stem the Ku'rahus binds feathers from the 
owl. The other end of the stem he thrusts through the breast, neck, 
and mandibles of the duck, the breast reaching to the owl feathers. 
The end of the stem protrudes a very little through the bill of the 
duck, so that the bowl of a pipe could be fitted to it. The duck's 
head, therefore, is always downward, looking toward the earth and 
the water. 

All the birds on the stems are leaders: the eagle is chief of the day; 
the owl is chief of the night; the woodpecker is chief of the trees; 
the duck is chief of the water. 






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fletcher] FIRST RITUAL, PART II 41 

The Ku'rahus takes ten feathers from the tail of the brown eagle 
and prepares them so that they can be tied upon one of the stems. A 
buckskin thong is run through a hole punctured near the end of 
the quills and another is threaded through the quills, about the middle 
of their length, so that upon these two thongs the feathers can be 
spread like a fan. To the end of the thongs are fastened little balls 
of white down, taken from inside the thigh of the white male eagle. 
These balls of down represent the reproductive power. When the 
fan-like appendage is completed it is tied to the side of the blue- 
painted stem, so that it can swing when the stem is waved, to simulate 
the movements of an eagle. 

When the Ku'rahus takes from the man on his left, toward the 
north, the blue-painted stem and attaches to it the fan-like pendant 
made of the feathers of the brown eagle, we give thanks in our hearts 
as the following song is sung. 

THIRD SONG 

Words and Music 
M. M. J-n = 126. 
. = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

-I- 







Ha-a-a-a-a! Ka - was we-rit-ta we - re rit- ta we -re; Ka - was we- rit- 



Drum. 3 f 




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rit- ta we - re; Ka - was we - rit - ta we - re rit - ta we - re. 

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78 Ha-a-a-a-a! 

79 Kawas weritta were ritta were; 

80 Kawas weritta were ritta were; 

81 Kawas weritta were ritta were. 

Tra 1 1 slat ion 

78 Ha-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation to the song. 

79 Kawas weritta were ritta were. 

Kawas, t lie name gi ven 1 o the brown eagle in this ceremony. The 
common name for this bird is letahkots katit; letahkots, 
eagle; katit, dark or brown. 
weritta, now hung. 
were, at this or thai part icular lime, 
ritta, an abbreviated form of weritta, now hung, 
were, at this time. 
8<), SI See line 79. 



42 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In this ceremony the brown eagle is called Kawas. This eagle has 
been made holy by being sacrificed to Tira'wa. Its feathers are tied 
upon the stem that has been painted bine to represent the sky. 

This stem was the first one painted and decorated, because it is 
female and the leader. It represents the night, the moon, the north, 
and stands for kindness and helpfulness. It will take care of the 
people. It is the mother. 

Throughout the ceremony the Ku'rahus carries this feathered stem. 

After the Kawas stem is prepared the Ku'rahus hands it back to 
the man on his left, toward the north, to hold while he prepares a 
pendant of seven tail feathers from the white eagle. Then he takes 
from the man on his right, toward the south, the stem which had been 
painted green and ties on it this white-eagle pendant. 

No song is sung while this is being done. The white eagle is not 
holy; it has not been sacrificed to Tira'wa. It has less power than 
Kawas; it is inclined to war, to hurt some one. It can not lead; it 
must follow. So the green stem is painted last, and all the decora- 
tions are put upon it after the other stem is completed. 

This feathered green stem represents the male, the day, the sun, 
and the south. During the ceremony it is carried by the assistant 
of the Ku'rahus, whose place is on the right of the Ku'rahus, toward 
the south. 

When we move about the lodge waving the two feathered stems to 
the rhythm of the song we are singing, Kawas, the brown eagle, is 
carried next the people, and the white-eagle stem on the farther side, 
away from the people, where it can do good by defending them and 
keeping away all harm. If it were carried next the Children it would 
bring them war and trouble. It is the brown eagle that is always 
kept near the |)eople and is waved over their heads to bring them the 
gifts of plenty and of peace. 

The red and white streamers tied upon the two stems represent the 
sun and the moon. 

While the Ku'rahus still has the sacred ointment upon his hands 
he anoints a crotched stick and two straight sticks, all three of which 
have been carefully scraped and smoothed. These sticks were cut 
from a plum tree, because this tree is prolific in bearing fruit. 

Part III. Painting the Ear of Corn and Preparing the Other Sacred 

Objects 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The Ku'rahus now mixes in a round wooden bowl blue clay witli 
water taken from a running stream and paints with it an ear of white 
corn, in the way our fathers were taught to do. During this act the 
following song is sung. 



FLETCHER] 



FIRST RITUAL, PART III 



43 



SONG 



Words and Music 



M. M. ^ = 138. 



Pulsation of the voice. 




8 * 



3*1 



3£=£$=*: 



__ — — v v 



Transcribed bv Edwin S. Tracy, 
j i 1=^= 



N-=? 






T"^- 



Ha - a-a - a-a! H'A- ti - ra, we - ri lira ri-ki; H'A-ti- ra, ... we- ri 
Drum. '2. }.,„*, 00000 







A 




mmM^mim 



=i* 



hra ri - ki; H'A-ti - ra, we - ri lira ri - ki; H'A-ti - ra, lira 






ri - ki re: 



A 



A 

• 



We - ri lira ri - ki; H'A - ti - ra, we - ri lira ri - ki. 



82 Ha-a-a-a-a! 

83 H'Atira, weri lira riki 

84 H'Atira, weri lira riki 

85 H'Atira, weri lira riki 

86 H'Atira. lira riki re: 

87 Weri lira riki; 

88 H'Atira. weri lira riki. 

II 

89 Ka-a-a-a-a! 

90 H'Atira, weri ruata; 

91 H'Atira, weri ruata; 

92 H'Atira, weri ruata; 

93 H'Atira, ruata re; 

94 Weri ruata; 

95 H'Atira, weri ruata. 

Ill 

96 Ha-a-a-a-a! 

97 H'Atira, weri tukuka; 

98 H'Atira, weri tukuka; 

99 H'Atira. weri tukuka; 

100 H'Atira, tukuka re; 

101 Weri tukuka; 

102 H'Atira, weri tukuka. 



IV 

103 Ha-a-a-a-a! 

104 H'Atira, weri taiwa: 

105 H'Atira, weri taiwa: 

106 H'Atira, weri taiwa: 

107 H'Atira, taiwa re: 

108 Weri taiwa: 

109 H'Atira. weri tiawa. 

V 

110 Ha-a-a-a-a! 

111 H'Atira, weri tawawe: 

1 12 H'Atira, weri tawawe; 

113 H'Atira. weri tawawe; 
1 1 I H'Atira, tawawe re; 
115 Weri tawawe; 

1 16 H'Atira. weri tawawe. 

VI 

117 Ha-a-a-a-a! 

118 H'Atira, weri tawitshpa; 
1 1 ( .» H'Atira, weri tawitshpa; 
(.20 H'Atira, weri tawitshpa: 
121 H'Atira, tawitshpa re; 
L22 Weri tawitshpa: 

L23 H'Atira. weri tawitshpa. 



44 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Translation of First Stanza 

82 Ha-a-a-a-a! Introduction. An exclamation. 
S3 H'Atira, weri lira riki. 

h', an aspiration, a breathing forth, as the giving of life, 
atira, mother. 

weri, I am. The singular pronoun refers to the party which 
is taking the initiative in this ceremony and not merely to 
the Ku'rahus. 
hra, an abbreviated form of the word rararit, to hold, 
riki, standing. This word not only refers to the position of 
the person who holds the ear of corn and to the position of 
the corn itself, but it indicates the present time, now. 
84, 85 See line 83. 

86 H' Atira, hra riki re. 

h' Atira, hra riki. See line 83. 

re, a sign of the plural. This plural sign indicates the imper- 
sonation of the ear of corn; h'Atira and Ku'rahus are 
standing as two persons. 

87 Weri lira riki. See line 83. 

88 See line 83. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The ear of corn represents the supernatural power that dwells in 
H'Uraru, the earth which brings forth the food that sustains life; 
so we speak of the ear of corn as h'Atira, mother breathing forth life. 

The power in the earth which enables it to bring forth comes from 
above; for that reason we paint the ear of corn with blue. Blue is 
the color of the sk}^ the dwelling place of Tira'wahut. 

The running water with which the blue clay is mixed is put into a 
round, wooden bowl, not in a shell, as when we painted the stems. 
The bowl is of wood, taken from the trees, a part of the living cover- 
ing of Mother Earth, representing the power of Toharu (see explana- 
tion of line 24). 

The bowl is round, like the dome shape of the sky, and holds the 
blue paint, which also represents the sky. The bowl is a vessel from 
which we eat when we have the sacred feast of the corn. Tira'wa 
taught us how to get the corn. 

As we sing the first stanza the Ku'rahus stands in front of the bowl 
containing the blue paint and holds in his hand, by the butt, h'Atira, 
the ear of corn. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

89 Ha-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

90 H'Atira, weri ruata. 

h'Atira, weri. See line 83. 

ruata, flying. Ruata indicates that the ear of corn is moving 
through the air, not touching the ground; the fact that the 
ear is in the hand of the Ku'rahus is ignored. Throughout 
this ceremony the ear of corn is a person. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWtNTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT PL LXXXVIII 





"MOTHER CORN" 

(TO ILLUSTRATE "HAKO,A PAWNEE CEREMONY," BY A C FLETCHER ) 



Fletcher] FIRST RITUAL, PART III 45 

91, 92 See line 90. 

93 H'Atira ruata re. All the words have been translated. See lines 

83, 86, and 90. 

94 Weri ruata. See lines 83 and 90. 

95 See line 90. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing this stanza the Ku'rahus, holding the ear of corn in 
his hand by the butt, moves it slowly toward the bowl containing the 
blue paint. 

The bowl and the blue paint represent the blue sky, where the powers 
above dwell, so we sing that the mother is flying (ruata) toward the 
heavens to reach these powers. 

The spirit of the corn and the spirit of the Ivu'rahus are now flying 
together (see line 86 for translation of the plural sign, re, and its 
significance). 

Translation of Third Stanza 

96 See line 82. 

97 H'Atira, weri tukuka. 

h'Atira, weri. See line 83. 
tukuka, now touches, or touching. 
98, 99 See line 97. 

100 H'Atira, tukuka re. See lines 83, 86, and 97. 

101 Weri tukuka, See lines 83 and 97. 

102 See line 97. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As this stanza is sung the Ku'rahus dips his finger in the blue paint 
and touches (tukuka) the ear of corn with it. 

This act means that Mother Corn in her flight toward the sky now 
touches the place where the sky begins. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

103 See line 82. 

104 H'Atira, weri taiwa. 

h'Atira, weri. See line 83. 
taiwa, to rub downward or mark. 
10.% lo.; See line 104. 

107 H'Atira taiwa re. See linos 83, 86, and 104. 

108 Weri taiwa. See Lines 83 and 101. 

109 See line 104. 

"Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As wo sing this stanza the Ku'rahus marks with liis finger four 
equidistant lines of blue painl on the ear of corn. He begins at the 
tip of the ear and rubs his linger down (taiwa) about halfway i<> the 
butt on the four sides of the ear. 



4(3 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

The four blue lines represent the four paths at the four directions 
(cardinal points), near which the winds stand as guards. Down these 
paths the powers descend to bring help to man. 

The blue paint came down one of these paths, but I was not taught 
which one. 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

110 Ha-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

111 H'Atira, weri tawawe. 

h'Atira, weri. See line 83. 

tawawe, to spread. 
112, 113 See line 111. 

11-1 H'Atira tawawe re. See lines 83, 86, and 111. 
115 Weri tawawe. See lines 83 and 111. 
110 See line 111. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

As we sing this stanza the Ku'rahus spreads (tawawe) with his 
finger the blue paint over the tip of the ear of corn, to represent the 
blue dome of the sky, where the powers dwell, above whom is the 
mighty Tira'wa atius, the father of all. 

This act signifies that Mother Corn has reached the abode of 
Tira'wahut, where she will receive authority to lead in this ceremony. 

Translation of Sixth Stanza 

117 Ha-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

118 H'Atira, weri tawitshpa. 

h'Atira, weri. See line 83. 

tawitshpa, the attainment of an object; the completion of an 
undertaking; the end reached. 
119, 120 See line 118. 

121 H'Atira tawitshpa re. See lines 83, 86, and 118. 

122 Weri tawitshpa. See lines 83 and 118. 

123 See line 118. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

Mother Corn having reached the blue dome where dwells the great 
circle of powers, Tira'wahut, and having gained what she went for, 
tawitshpa, authority to lead in the ceremony, she descends to earth 
by the four paths. 

The blue paint having now been put on the ear of corn, this part 
of the ceremony is completed. 

In all that is to follow h'Atira, Mother Corn breathing forth life, is 
to lead. She came forth from Mother Earth, who knows all places 
and all that happens among men, so she knows all places and all 
men, and can direct us where to go when we carry the sacred articles 
which give plenty and peace. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT PL LXXXIX 




THE RATTLES 

TO ILLUSTRATE "HAKO,A PAWNEE CEREMONY," BY A.C.FLETCH ER 



Fletcher] FIEST RITUAL, PART IT I 47 

When we have finished singing this song the Ku'rahus takes one of 
the plum-tree stieks, which has been anointed with red clay mixed 
with fat, and ties on it with a thread of sinew a downy eagle feather. 
This stick is bound to the ear of corn so as to project a hand's breadth 
above the tip end, letting t lie downy feather wave above Mother Corn. 
This feather represents Tira'wa. It is always moving as if breathing. 

The Ku'rahus then binds the other plum-tree stick to the corn so 
that it extends below the butt. When the corn is placed in ceremo- 
nial position this end of the stick is thrust in the ground so that the 
ear will stand upright without touching the earth. Both sticks are 
bound to the ear of corn by a braided band of hair taken from the 
head of a buffalo. The braided band signifies the gift of animal food 
and the provision of skin clothing. (The Skidiband of the Pawnees 
1 ie a bit of buffalo wool, such as is shed by the animal in the spring, 
together with a braid of sweet grass, to the ear of corn.) 

The two gourd rattles, which represent the squash given us by 
Tira'wa, and also the breasts of the mother, are each painted with a 
blue circle about the middle, with four equidistant lines from the 
circle to the bottom of the gourd. The circle represents the wall or 
boundary of the dome of the sky; the four lines are for the four 
paths at the four directions down which the powers descend. No 
song is sung while this painting is being done. 

Al 1 the sacred articles are laid at rest on a wildcat skin when they 
are not being used ceremonially, and it is a cover for them in which 
they are all wrapped together at the close of the ceremony. The skin 
is never tanned, and the ears of the animal, the skin of the head, 
the feet, and the claws must all be intact. 

Tira'wa made the wildcat to live in the forest. He has much skill 
and ingenuity. The wildcat shows us that we must think, we must 
use tact, and be shrewd when we set out to do anything. If we 
wish to approach a person we should not do it bluntly; we should not 
rush at him; that might offend him so that he would not receive us 
or 1 lie gifts we desired to offer him. The wildcat does not make 
enemies by rash action. He is observant, quiet, and tactful, and he 
always gains his end. 

In this ceremony we are to carry the sacred articles to one not of 
our kindred in order to bind him to us by a sacred and strong tie; we 
are to ask for him many good gifts, long life, health, and children, 
ami we should receive giflsfrom him in return, if we would succeed 
we must learn of the wildcat, and be wise as he is wise. 

The wildcal is one of the sacred animals. A man who killed a 
wildcat could sacrifice it, to Tira'wahut. The man who brought such 
an offering had the right to ask the priest to teach him some of the 
mysteries that belong to the sacred shrine. 

.Many years ago two men took the Elako to the Omaha tribe. On 
the journey one of them killed a wildcal. I said to the man: " I am 



48 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 



glad Mother Corn is here leading us, and the wildcat goes with the 
Ilako." But the man who killed it said: "No, this skin will not go 
with the Ilako! I am going to take it to the priest for sacrifice that 
I may learn some of the mysteries." But he did wrong and suffered 
for it, because that wildcat belonged with the Hako, for it was killed 
while we were being led by Mother Corn. 

The sacred articles having been completed are now laid at cere- 
monial rest. The wildcat skin is spread upon the earth in the holy 
place, which is in the west part of the lodge opposite the entrance, a 
little way back from the fireplace. The head of the skin is placed 
toward the east ; the crotched plum-tree stick is thrust into the ground 
close to the head; the two feathered stems are laid in the crotch, the 
brown-eagle stem first, then the white-eagle stem on the top or outside. 
The eagle builds its nest in the crotch of a tree, so these eagle-feathered 
stems are laid in the crotch of the plum-tree stick. The ends which 
are thrust through the duck's head rest upon the wildcat, and under 
the wing-like pendants the gourd rattles are placed. Directly in 
front of the crotched stick stands Mother Corn. 

Part IV,. Offering of Smoke 
Explanation by the Ku'ralius 

The time has now come for the offering of smoke to Tira'wa. 

The priest of the Rain shrine must be present with the pipe belong- 
ing to that shrine and he must conduct the ceremony. After he has 
filled the pipe with native tobacco the Ku'rahus tells the people that 
the time has come to offer smoke to Tira'wa, the father and the giver 
of all things. He selects from the company a man to act as pipe 
bearer during the ceremony of offering smoke. The pipe bearer must 
be one who has made sacrifices at the sacred tents where the shrines 
are kept and has been annointed, and who in consequence has been 
prospered in his undertakings. The prayers of such a man are 
thought to be more acceptable to the powers than those of a man who 
has never made sacrifices. 

In old times men did not smoke for pleasure as they do now, but 
only in religious ceremonies. The white people have taught the 
Pawnees to profane the use of tobacco. 

Each of the sacred shrines of the tribe has a pipe, and its priest 
knows the proper order in which the pipe should be offered to Tira'- 
wahut. I am not a priest, so I do not know the order in which the 
Rain pipe is offered, nor can I tell you the ceremony; the knowledge 
of that belongs to its priest and not to me. 

Up to this point (the conclusion of the ceremony of smoking) all 
the people present have been obliged to remain quiet in their places; 
now they are at liberty to move about or to leave the lodge. 




THE WILDCAT SKIN AND CROTCHED STICK ON WHICH 

THE TWO FEATHERED STEMS ARE PLACED 

WHEN AT CEREMONIAL REST 

(TO ILLUSTRATE "HAKO,A PAWNEE CEREMONY," BY A.C.FLETCHER ) 



FLETCHER] 



INITIAL RITES 



49 



Second Ritual. Prefiguring the Journey to the Son 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

Honor is conferred upon a man who leads a Hako party to a dis- 
tant tribe and there makes a Son, while to the Son help is given from 
all the powers represented by the sacred objects. Between the Father 



EAST 
1 




Fkj. 172. Diagram of the Father's lodge during the second ritual. 

1, the entrance to the lodge; •>, tin; fireplace; 3, inner posts supporting the dome-shaped roof; 
4, the Ku'rahus; 5, his assistant: t>, the Father (a chief): 7, the server; 8, the wildcat skin, on 
which are the feathered stems and rattles: 9, the eagle wings; 10, the ear of corn; 11, members 
of the Hako party. 



and the Son and their immediate families a relationship similar to 
thai which exists between kindred is established through this cere- 
mony. Ii is a sacred relationship, for it is mad*' by the supernatural 
powers that are with ihe Hako. 

22 etii— it 2—04 4 



50 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY {eth. ann. 22 

Because of the sacred and binding character of this relationship, 
and the gifts brought by it to the Son, namely, long life and many 
children to make his family strong, the selection of a man to be made 
a Son is regarded as a serious and important act, one in which the 
chiefs and the leading men of the Father's tribe must have a voice. 

The Son should be a chief or a man who has the respect of the lead- 
ing men of his tribe, and whom the Father's tribe would be glad to 
have bound to them by the tie of Son. 

While the Father has been gathering the materials necessary for 
this ceremony, which may have taken him a year or more, he has had 
some particular person in his mind whom he desired to make a Son. 
When everything is ready he mentions this particular person to the 
chiefs and leading men, and when we are gathered together to' sing 
this song we think of this chosen man and we ask the assistance of 
Mother Corn, and if he is the right person she will lead us to him. 

The selection of the Son takes place soon after the preparation of 
the sacred objects, frequently on the night of the same day. It must 
always be in the night time, because the spirits can travel best at night. 
The spirit of the corn and the spirits of the people present in the 
lodge at this time are to decide who shall be the Son, and Mother 
Corn is to lead us to him. The same persons are present at this 
ceremony that were present at the preparation of the Hako. 

In the west of the lodge, facing the east, sit the Ku'rahus, his assist- 
ant, and the Father. Before them are the sacred objects arranged as 
at ceremonial rest. A little way in front of the crotched stick stands 
the ear of corn which has been painted in the sacred manner (see 
figure 172). It is held in position by one of the sticks to which it is 
tied being thrust into the ground. This ear of corn is the mother, 
and upon her everyone present must fix his mind. 

The singing of the following stanzas occupies most of the night; 
they do not follow each other quickly, for we must pause after each 
one. 

SONG 



Words and Music 
Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



M. M. ^ = 132 






tmm^m^mmm 




Ha-a-a-a! H'A-ti - ra ha-ri, h'A-ti - ra ha-ri! He! Chix-u ti 

Dmm. . . , s . - , , r • r r r • * • # ,' • * • • 





ha-ri! H' A-ti - ra ha-ri! H'A-ti- ra ha-ri, h'A-ti- ra. Ha! 

A A A A A A A _ - 

Lf Cj Lf L-j* w w s ■■ I 1 



FLETCHER] SECOND 


RITUAL 




I 




V 


124 


Ha-a-a-a! 


144 


Ha-a-a-a! 


125 


H'Atira hari. h'Atira hari! 


145 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira hari! 


126 


He! Chixu ti whitika hari ! 


146 


He! Chixu ti whichata hari! 


127 


H'Atira hari! 


147 


H'Atira hari! 


128 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira. Ha! 


148 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira. Ha! 




II 




VI 


129 


Ha-a-a-a! 


149 


Ha-a-a-a! 


130 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira hari! 


150 


H'Atira hari. h'Atira hari! 


131 


He! Chixu ti uchitika hari! 


151 


He! Chixu tih itchahka wara 


132 


H'Atira hari! 


152 


H'Atira hari! 


133 


H'Atira hari. h'Atira. Ha! 


153 


H'Atira hari. h'Atira. Ha! 




Ill 




VII 


134 


Ha-a-a-a! 


154 


Ha-a-a-a! 


135 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira hari! 


153 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira hari! 


136 


He! Chixu uti hiata hari! 


156 


He! Chixu ti itwhichata hari! 


137 


H'Atira hari! 


157 


H'Atira hari! 


138 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira. Ha! 


158 


H'Atira hari. h'Atira. Ha! 




IV 




VIII 


139 


xia-a-a-a . 


159 


xia-a-a-a . 


140 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira hari! 


160 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira hari! 


141 


He! Chixu tih whichuru hari! 


161 


He! Chixu ti tokoka hari! 


142 


H'Atira hari! 


162 


H'Atira hari! 


143 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira. Ha! 


163 


H'Atira hari, h'Atira. Ha! 



51 



Translation of First Stanza 

1:24 Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

125 H'Atira hari, h'Atira hari. 

h', the sign of an inspiration, a breath, the symbol of giving 

forth life, 
atira, mother. The term is here applied to the ear of corn, 

the life-giving product of h'Uraru, the Earth, 
hari, a part of the word iha'ri, young, the young of animals; 

also a general term for children. 

126 He! Chixu ti whitika hari. 

he! an exclamation, as when bidding one to look at some- 
thing. 

chixu, the spirit or mind of a person or thing. 

ti, have, in the sense of having done something, accomplished 
a purpose or carried out a plan. 

whitika, converged, come together and united for a given 
purpose. 

hari, part of the word iha'ri, offspring. The word here refers 
to the Son. 

127 H'Atira hari ! The words have been translated. See line 125. 

128 H'Atira hari, h'Atira. Ha! 

IT At ira hari. See Line L25. 

ha! an exclamation, calling attention. 



52 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. Ann. 22 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing this stanza everyone bends his mind toward the ear of 
corn, for our spirits (chixu) and the spirit (chixu) of the corn must 
converge 1 (whitika), must come together and unite for the purpose of 
finding the Son. The ear of corn is a part of h'Uraru (see line 19), 
31 other Earth, the mother of all things, so we call the ear of corn 
Mother Corn; and because she supports our life through food, we 
speak of her as h'Atira, mother giving forth life. 

All things live on the earth, Mother Corn knows and can reach all 
things, can reach all men, so her spirit is to lead our spirits in this 
search over the earth. When Mother Corn went up to Tira'wahut at 
the time she was painted (see lines 82 to 123), power was given her to 
lead the spirits of all things in the air and to command the birds and 
the animals connected with the Hako. Endowed with power from 
Tira'wahut above and from h'Uraru (Mother Earth) below, Mother 
Corn leads and we must follow her, our spirits must follow her spirit. 
We must fix our minds upon Mother Corn and upon the Son, who is 
the object of our search. It is a very difficult thing to do. All our 
spirits must become united as one spirit, and as one spirit we must 
approach the spirit of Mother Corn. This is a very hard thing to do. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

129 Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

130 H'Atira hari, h'Atira hari. 

h'Atira, Mother breathing forth life. See line 125. 
hari, part of the word iha'ri, offspring, children. 

131 He! Chixu ti uchitika hari. 
1 he! look! behold! 

chixu, spirit of a person or thing. 
• ti, have. See line 126. 

uchitika, meditating on; turning over a subject in one's 

mind and considering it in all its aspects, 
hari, part of iha'ri, young; refers to the Son. 

132 H'Atira hari! See line 130. 

133 H'Atira hari, h'Atira. Ha! See lines 128, 130. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When we sing this stanza our spirits and the spirit of Mother Corn 
have come together. Now we are all to meditate. We sit with bowed 
heads, and Mother Corn sits with bowed head. We are all to think 
over and consider (uchitika) who shall be the Son. 

We must all agree upon the choice, Mother Corn and all. 

It is very difficult for all to unite, but we must do so before we can 
follow Mother Corn where she determines to lead us. It often takes 
a long time. 



fletcher] SECOND RITUAL 53 

Translation of Third Stanza 

134 Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

135 H'Atira hari, h'Atira hari. 

H'Atira, mother breathing forth life. See line 125. 
hari, part of the word iha'ri, young; refers to the Son. 

136 He! Chixu uti hiata hari. 

he! look! behold! 

chixu, the spirit. See line 126. 

uti, moving. 

hiata, the air. Uti hiata refers to the spirits moving 

through the air. 
hari, part of iha'ri, young; refers to the Son. 

137 H'Atira hari! See line 135. 

138 H'Atira hari, h'Atira. Ha! See lines 135, 128. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

When we sing this stanza the decision has been made. Mother 
Corn lifts her head and stands erect. Then she moves through the 
air (uti hiata), flying on her journey to the Son, and we follow. 

It is not the ear of corn that travels through the air, nor do our 
bodies follow, it is the spirit (chixu) of the corn that moves, and it is 
our spirits (chixu) that follow, that travel with her to the land of the 
Son. 

The path now opened by the spirit of Mother Corn we, the Fathers, 
will take, when we in our bodies journey to the Son, but the way must 
first be opened and the path prepared by the spirit of Mother Corn. 
This she is about to do. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

139, 140 See lines 134, 135. 

141 He ! Chixu tih whichuru hari ; 

he! look! behold! 

chixu, the sjjirit of a person or a thing. 

tih, are in the act of. 

whichuru, approaching, drawing near to a place. 

hari, part of iha'ri, children. 
142, 143 See lines 127, 128. 

Explanation by the, Ku'rahus 

As we sit and sing this stanza our spirit s follow the spirit of Mother 
Corn, and now we are approaching (tih whichuru), drawing near to 
the village where the Son lives. We see it all (in the spirit) as with 
Mother Corn we approach the place where the Son dwells. 



54 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth, ann. 22 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

144, 145 See lines 124, 125. 

146 He! Chixu ti whichata hari. 

he! look! behold! 

chixu, the spirit of a person or thing. 

ti, have, in the sense of having accomplished a purpose or 
carried out a plan. 

whichata, reached one's destination, the end of one's journey. 

hari, part of iha'ri, young, children. 
147, 148 See lines 127, 128. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

As we sing this stanza Mother Corn reaches her destination (ti 
whichata). The journey across the country is now at an end. Mother 
Corn has opened the way from the tribe of the Fathers to the tribe of 
the Children. We shall now be able to travel safety along that path, 
for she has made it straight, she has removed all evil influences from 
it, so that we shall be happy when we pass over this path she has made. 

Here Mother Corn pauses, and we shall pause when we arrive at 
this place, for it will be here that we shall stop and await the messen- 
ger from the Son. He will bring words of welcome and precede us to 
the lodge set apart for us by the Son. 

After a pause we shall follow the spirit of Mother Corn when she 
enters the village of the Son. 

Translation of Sixth Stanza 

149, 150 See lines 124, 125. 

151 He! Chixu tih itchahka wara hari. 

he! look! behold! 

chixu, the spirit of a person or thing. 

tih, are, are in the act of. 

itchahka; it, a prefix, indicating desire; chahka, a part of the 
word chahkahawe, village: itchahka, the village one has 
desired to reach. 

wara, walking. 

hari, part of iha'ri, children. 
152, 153 See lines 127, 128. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing this stanza the spirit of Mother Corn walks through the 
village she has desired to reach (tih itchahka wara). She opens the 
way for us through the village to the door of the lodge of the Son. 
Our spirits, as one spirit, follow hers as she walks among the lodges, 
seeking the one in which the Son dwells. 

As we follow we keep our minds fixed upon Mother Corn and upon 
the Son to whom we are now drawing near. 



fletcher] SECOND KITUAL 55 

Translation of Seventh Stanza 

154, 155 See lines 124, 125. 

156 He! Chixu ti itwhichata hari. 

he! look! behold! 

chixu, the spirit of a person or thing. 

ti, have, in the sense of having accomplished a purpose. 

itwhichata; it, a prefix indicating desire; whichata, reached 

one's destination: itwhichata, reached the desired end or 

object of one's journe3 T . 
hari; part of the word iha'ri, young; refers here to the Son. 
157, 158 See lines 127, 128. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

As we sing this stanza the spirit of Mother Corn arrives at the lodge 
of the Son and enters. Our spirits follow her spirit. We have now 
reached the object of our search and the end of our journey (ti 
itwhichata hari). The Son does not see us as we stand there; he 
is sleeping. We fix our minds upon Mother Corn and upon him; 
we think of the gifts we are to bring him when we come to him with 
the Hako, the gifts that the birds and the animals that attend these 
sacred objects will surely bestow upon him — long life, children, and 
plenty. These gifts will be his, and we shall share in them, for all 
these good things go with this ceremony. 

Translation of Eighth Stanza 

159, 160 See lines 124, 125. 
161 He! Chixu ti tokoka hari. 

he! look! behold! 

chixu, the spirit of a person or thing. 

ti, have, in the sense of having accomplished. 

tokoka, touched, made itself felt. 

hari, part of iha'ri, young. 
162, 163 See lines 127, 128. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

While we sing this stanza the spirit of Mother Corn touches the 
Son (ti tokoka hari). 

We lix our minds upon Mother Corn and upon the Son; if we are in 
earnest he will respond to her touch. lie will not waken, he will not 
see her, but he will see in a dream that which her touch will bring to 
him, one of* the birds that attend the Hako, for all the spirits of those 
birds are with Mother Corn and they do her bidding, and he may hear 
the bird call to him. Then, when he awakens, he will remember his 
dream, and as he thinks upon it, he will know that he has been chosen 
to be a Son, and that all the good things thai come with the cere- 
mony which will make him a Son are now promised to him. 



56 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 2£ 



By touching the Son Mother Corn opened his mind, and prepared 
the way for our messengers to him, so that he would he willing to 
receive them, and later to receive us. 

Mother Corn has now found the Son; she has made straight and safe 
the path from our country to his land, and she has made his mind read} 7 
to receive us and to carry out his part of this ceremony of the Hako. 

Third Ritual. Sending the Messengers 
Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

On the day following the night when Mother Corn selected the Son 
the members of the Father's party brought to his lodge the gifts 
which they were to take to the Children. 

Four men were chosen to carry the message of the Ku'rahus to the 
Son. They were clothed by the Father with the buffalo robe in the 
ceremonial manner, and led by him to a place near the entrance of 
the lodge. 

The Ku'rahus gave a little of the sacred native tobacco to the 
Father, who tied it in a small piece of bladder and returned it to the 
Ku'rahus, who then addressed to the messengers the first stanza of 
the following song. 

SONG 



M. M. J=112. 



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Slow and heavy. 



Words and Music 

Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



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166 


Kasha whako-o: 


Ha-a! 


H'Ars wita-a! 


167 


Kasha whako-o: 


Ha-a! 


H'Ars wita-a! 
II 


168 


Ha-a-a! 






169 


Kusha whako-o: 


Ha-a! 


H'Ars wita-a; 


170 


Kusha whako-o: 


Ha-a! 


H'Ars wita-a; 


171 


Kusha whako-o: 


Ha-a! 


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FLETCHER] THIRD RITUAL 57 

Translation of First Stanza 

164 Ha-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

165 Kasha whako-o: Ha-a! H'ars wita-a! 

kasha, a form of command, referring to an act to be performed 

at a future time. 
whako-o; whako, tell or say; o, vowel prolongation, 
ha-a! ha! behold! a, vowel prolongation, 
h', a contraction of ha, your, 
ars, a contraction of atius, father, 
wita-a! wita, he coming; a, vowel prolongation. 
ltitj, 167 See line 165. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

to 

This stanza is a command to the messengers to say, when they hand 
the tobacco to the Son, "Behold! Your father is coming!" ("Ha! 
H'ars wita!") 

The stanza is sung four times. At the fourth time the Ku'rahus 
puts the tobacco into the hand of the leader of the four messengers, 
who at once leave the lodge and start upon their journey. 

Translation of Second Stanza 
168 See line 164. 
160 Kusha Avhako-o: Ha-a! H'ars wita-a. 

kusha, they will; that is, those that have been commanded 
will do as they have been directed. 

whako-o; whako, tell, say; o, vowel prolongation. 

ha-a! ha! behold! a, vowel prolongation. 

h', a contraction of ha, your. 

ars, a contraction of atius, father. 

wita-a, wita, he coming; a, vowel prolongation. 
170, 171 See line 169. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When the messengers are out of sight of the village the Ku'rahus 
sings the second stanza. It is addressed to the members of the 
Father's party, who are still sitting in his lodge. It is an authoritative 
assurance that the messengers will (kusha) fulfil their mission and 
deliver to the Son the message, "Behold! Your father is coining!" 

After the Ku'rahus has sung this second stanza four limes, the 
people disperse to await the return of the messengers, while he and 
his assistant, or two persons designated by hi in, musl sil with the 
sacred objects until the four men come back from the Son. 

As the Son hears the words of* the messengers he will be reminded 

of his dream, in which Mother Corn touched him. And as lie looks 

at the men he will recognize the tribe from which they have come and 

will know who has chosen him to he the Son. Then he will call 
together his relatives and they will talk over the matter. If it, is 

decided to accept the ceremony they will keep the little bundle of 



58 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

tobacco and the messengers will be told to return and say to the 
Father, "I am ready!" 

The messengers start back immediately, and when they are in sight 
of their village the news of their arrival is proclaimed. Then all the 
men of the Father's party hasten to his lodge. The Ku'rahus, his 
assistant, and the Father put on their buffalo robes in the ceremonial 
manner, with the hair outside, and take their places back of the Hako. 
The other members of the party range themselves against the wall of 
the lodge, on either side, and all await the coming of the messengers. 

As the four men enter the lodge the people cry, "Nawairi!" 
("Thanks!") while the Ku'rahus lifts his hands, palms upward, and 
then brings them down slowly. This movement means thanks, and 
the calling down of help from above. 

The leader of the messengers, addressing the Ku'rahus, delivers the 
words sent by the Son, "I am ready!' This closes the ceremony. 

FOURTH RITUAL 

Part I. Vivifying the Sacred Objects 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When the messengers return from the Son with the words, "I am 
ready," there is rejoicing in the lodge. 

The young men of the Father's party rise and dance. From these 
dancers two are selected, by the Ku'rahus and the chief, to perform 
the final dance, which takes place on the morning of the fifth daj r of 
the ceremony. The choice of these two dancers is signified by tying 
on their hair a downy white eagle's feather (see plate xli). Mean- 
while the other members of the party are busy with their final prepa- 
rations. They tie in packs, ready for transportation, the gifts they 
are to carry to the Children. The singers make ready the drum, while 
outside the women are engaged preparing food and other necessaries 
for the long journey. 

The Ku'rahus orders a straight tent pole to be selected and brought 
to the lodge of the Father. 

On the morning of the day the journey is to begin the Ku'rahus 
rises from his place in the lodge behind the Hako and goes outside. 
There he ties the sacred objects on the selected tent pole. He puts 
the two feathered stems near the top — the brown eagle toward the 
north and the white eagle toward the south — and he spreads out their 
feather pendants. Below these he fastens the ear of corn, and under- 
neath it the two rattles and, lastly, the wildcat skin. These objects 
must face the east when the pole is raised. Behind them, so as to 
face the west, the right and left wing of an eagle are fastened and 
spread out. 

The rope of buffalo hair is used to tie these sacred objects to the 
pole, which is then set up at the entrance of the lodge. Here it 
stands where the wind of the dawn may breathe upon the Hako and 
the first rays of the sun strike the sacred objects and give them life. 



JUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT PL XCI 












r 



f 



THE FEATHER SYMBOL OF TlRAWA 
TO ILLUSTRATE "HAKO,A PAWNEE CEREMONY," BY A C.FLETCHER J 



FLETCHER] 



FOURTH RITUAL 



59 



We do this that Tira'wa and all the lesser powers — the Winds, the 
Sun, the Earth, and the four at the west which control the storm — 
may see that all is complete and ready for the ceremony. 

It is all done in silence before the day dawns. No song is sung 
when we put the objects on the pole and raise it nor when we 
take it down and remove them. We must let them stay up there for 
some time in order thai all the powers may surely see that everything 
is correct, so the sun is well up when the Ku'rahus goes out to the 
pole, lowers it, and removes the sacred objects and carries them into 
the lodge and puts them on the holy place. 

Part II. Mother Corn Assumes Leadership 
Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As I told you before, the Ku'rahus at the beginning of the ceremony 
anointed himself with the sacred ointment and fastened upon his head 



EAST 
1 — 1 




Fig. 17:». Diagram of the Father's Lodge during t he singing of I he first stanza of the » >ng of the 

fourth ritual, part II. 

1, the entrance to the lodge; 2, the fireplace; 3, inner posts supporting the dome-shaped roof; 
4, the holy place; 5, the Ku'rahus; 6, his assistant: 7, the bearers of the eagle wings: s, the Father 
(a chief); 9, the second chief; 10, members of the Hako party. 



60 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



the downy eagle feather (see plate xci). Now he takes the rope of 
buffalo hair with which the sacred objects have been bound to the 
pole, and with it ties his buffalo robe around his waist. He is now 
fully dressed for the ceremony, and he stands at the west, back of the 
holy place- - 

He anoints with the sacred ointment the face, arms, and body of 
his assistant, ties a downy eagle feather on his scalp lock, puts a 
buffalo robe on him in the ceremonial manner and hands him the 
feathered stem with the white-eagle pendant; then the assistant 
takes his position behind the holy place, toward the south. 

The Ku'rahus next annoints the face of the chief and fastens on 
his head a small tuft of down taken from under the wing of an eagle. 
The chief wears his buffalo robe in the ceremonial manner. The Ku'- 
rahus hands the wildcat skin to the chief, who folds its head about 
the crotched stick and the butt of the ear of corn, so that the tip to 
which the downy eagle feather is fastened is well in sight above the 
head of the cat. The skin hangs down in front of the chief as he 
holds it with both hands by the neck. He takes his place back of the 
Ku'rahus. 

The second chief, who is to assist the first, is now given the sacred 
pipe and tobacco bag of the Rain shrine and told to stand behind the 
Ku'rahus's assistant. 

The Ku'rahus hands the eagle wings to the doctors; the one with 
the left wing stands to the north of the Ku'rahus, and the one with 
the right wing takes his place to the south of the assistant. Lastly 
the Ku'rahus takes up for himself the feathered stem with the brown- 
eagle pendant and then, with the six men all in position (see figure 
173), they sing the first stanza of the following song. 



SONG 



Words and Music 



Slow. 




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Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



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FLETCHER] FOURTH 


RITUAL. 


172 


1 

H'Atira 1m weta ariso! 


178 


173 


H'Atira hu weta ariso! 


179 


174 


H'Atira lm weta ariso! 


180 


175 


H'Atira hu weta ariso! 


181 


176 


H'Atira hu weta ariso! 


182 


177 


H'Atira hu weta ariso! 


183 



61 



II 

H'Atira hu weti arisut! 
H'Atira hu weti arisut! 
H'Atira hu weti arisut! 
H'Atira hu weti arisut! 
H'Atira hu weti arisut! 
H'Atira hu weti arisut! 



Translation of First Stanza 

172 H'Atira hu weta ariso ! 

h' 5 the sign of an aspiration; a breath; the symbol of giving 
life. 

atira, mother. The term is here applied to the ear of corn, the 
representative of Mother Earth. 

hu, the same as ha, yonder. The vowel is changed from a to 
u to give greater euphony in singing by avoiding the repe- 
tition of the sound a. 

weta, coming toward one, so as to overtake one. 

ariso, a living thing that has come from a great distance in 
time or space. 
173-177 See line 172. 



Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

This stanza is sung four times. As we sing it the first time the 
principal chief takes a step with his right foot, which brings him on a 
line with the Ku'rahus and his assistant. When we sing it a second 
time he takes a step with his left foot, which leaves him in advance 
of the line of the Ku'rahus and his assistant. As we sing it a third 
time he takes a step with his right foot and turns toward the north. 
When we sing it the fourth time he advances a step with his left foot. 
He has now passed in front of the Ku'rahus as leader, and faces the 
north. 

As we sing this song we remember that Mother Earth is very old. 
She is everywhere, she knows all men, she gave (supported) life to our 
fathers, she gives (supports) life to us, and she will give life to our 
children. 

The ear of corn represents venerable Mother Earth, and also the 
authority given by the powers above; so, as the chief, holding the ear 
of corn, takes the four steps that bring him in advance of the Ku'ra- 
hus, we sing that Mother breathing forth life and bearing the sign of 
the powers above is now coining from the far distant past to go 
before us. 

At the close of the fourth repeal the Ku'rahus tells the assistant 
chief to pass in front and stand at the rigid, hand of the principal 



62 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



chief. When this is done, the Ku'rahus and his assistant and the two 
doctors form a line behind the two chiefs; then we sing the following 
stanza (see figure 174). 



EAST 
1 




Fig. 174. Diagram of the Father's lodge during the singing of the second stanza of the song of 

the fourth ritual, part II. 

1, the entrance to the lodge; 2, the fireplace; 3, inner posts supporting the dome-shaped roof; 
4. the holy place; 5, the Ku'rahus; 6, his assistant; 7, the bearers of the eagle wings; 8, the Father 
(a chief j ; 9, the second chief; 10, members of the Hako party. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

178 H'Atira hn weti arisut! 

h', the sign of breath, of giving forth life. 

atira, mother; the term applied to the ear of corn. 

hn; ha, yonder; the vowel is changed for euphony. 

weti, starting forward. The object which was coming toward 

one has overtaken the speaker and has started onward 

before him. 
arisut , a living thing that is starting or has started to go a long 

distance, as into future time or on a long journey. 
L79-183 See line 178. 



FLETCHER] 



FOURTH RITUAL 



63 



Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

We sing this stanza four times, taking a step at each repeat, the two 
chiefs leading with Mother Corn and the sacred pipe. 

As we sing we think that Mother breathing forth life, who has come 
out of the past, has now started to lead ns on the journey we are to 
take and to the fulfilment of our desire that children may be given 
us, that generations may not fail in the future, and that the tie may 
be made strong between the Father and the Son. 

After this song the six men walk slowly toward the entrance to the 
lodge, going by the north, and all the others follow. 

Part III. The Hako Party Presented to the Powers 
Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When the Hako party are all outside of the door of the lodge, the six 
men stand abreast, the doctor with the left wing of the eagle to 
the north, on his right the Ku'rahus, then the principal chief, then 
the second chief, then the Ku'rahus's assistant, and the doctor witli the 
right wing of the eagle at the end of the line toward the south. 

At the word of the Ku'rahus the six men bearing the sacred objects 
advance abreast toward the east. The men of the Uako party fall in 
behind and are followed by the women. When all have walked for- 
ward a little way, the six men halt and sing the following song. 

As the party sings the Ku'rahus lifts and points his feathered stem 
toward the east; the assistant does the same with his feathered stem; 
the chief makes the same movement with the wildcat skin, from the 
head of which protrudes the ear of corn; the second chief offers the 
stem of the pipe, and the two doctors hold up their eagle wings. 

FIRST SONG 

Woi'ds and Music 



• - : Pulsation of the voice. 
Slow ad lib. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




JEg^g^S^l 



Hi-ru ra hi-ri ra \va, hi - ru ra wa hi-ri; Hi-ru ra hi - ri ra wa, 



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64 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

184 Hiru ra hiri ra wa, hiru ra wa hiri; 

185 Hiru ra hiri ra wa, hiru ra wa, hiri ra wa. hiri ra wa. He! 

186 Hiru ra hi ra wa hiri; 

187 Hiru ra hiri ra wa, hiru ra wa. He! 

Translation 

184 Hiru ra hiri ra wa, hiru ra wa hiri. 

hiru; iru, they yonder; the h is prefixed for euphony and to 

give ease in singing, 
ra, coming. 

hiri; iri, they who are far away; the h is prefixed for euphony, 
ra, moving, moving this way. 

wa, part of the word teware, passing through the air. 
hiru, they yonder; the h is for euphony, 
ra, coming. 

wa, from teware, darting through the air. 
hiri, they who are far away; the h is used for euphony. 

185 Hiru ra hiri ra wa, hiru ra wa, hiri ra wa, hiri ra wa. He! 

hiru ra hiri ra wa, hiru ra wa, hiri ra wa. See line 184. 

he! a part of the exclamation i'hare! meaning I think upon 
and consider the significance of (the act which accompanies 
the song) ; the change of the r to h is for euphony. 

186 Hiru ra hi ra wa hiri. 

hiru ra. See line 184. 

hi, part of the word hiri, translated above. 

ra wa hiri. See line 184. 

187 Hiru ra hiri ra wa, hiru ra wa. He ! All the words are trans- 

lated above. See lines 184 and 185. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

This song is addressed to Tira'wa atius. He is the father of all and 
all things come from him. We pray in our hearts as we sing. We 
ask Tira'wa to watch over the Ku'rahus, to guide his acts and to guard 
his words so that he may make no mistake and the ceremony may be 
complete. From the east the flashes of the eyes of Tira'wa come dart- 
ing through the air upon us and upon the sacred objects. 

We sing this song four times and then take sixteen steps to the 
east; there we turn and face the west, the people all behind us. 

As we stand and look toward the west we remember that it is there 
that the four lesser powers dwell who were permitted by Tira'wa atius 
to bring life to man. These powers also control the thunder, the 
lightning, the storm, and death. 

We sing the first stanza of the following song to them eight times. 



FLETCHER] 



FOURTH RITUAL, PART III 



65 



SECOND SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. j=42. 

• = Pulsation of the voice 

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188 
189 
190 
191 
192 
193 

194 
195 

196 
197 
198 
199 

200 
201 
202 
203 

204 
205 



A! 
A! 
A! 
A! 
A! 
A! 



I 

A! 
A! 



Hiri, ra rihiu! 
Hiri, ra rihiu! 
Hiri, ra rihiu! 
Hiri, ra rihiu! 
Hiri, ra rihiu! 
Hiri, ra rihiu! 

II 

Hiri re 



Hiri, ra rihiu! 
Hiri, ra rihiu! 



H'Uraru ha! 
H'Uraru ha! 
H'Uraru ha! 
H'Uraru ha! 
H'Uraru ha! 
H'Uraru ha! 



H'Uraru ha! Hiri re! 
H'Uraru ha! Hiri re! 



H'Uraru riri wari! 
H'Uraru riri wari! 
H'Uraru riri wari! 
H'Uraru riri wari! 
H'Uraru riri wari! 
H'Uraru riri wari! 



Hiri re 
Hiri re 
Hiri re 
Hiri re 
Hiri re 

III 

H'Uraru riri wari! 
H'Uraru riri wari! 



188 



Translation of First Stanza 

A! Hiri, pa rihiu! A! Hiri, ra rihiu ! 

a! apart of ha! behold! The exclamation nas here a double 
meaning; the people are to look toward the powers and the 
powers are called upon to behold the people. 

hiri, they far away; an address to the powers. The h is pre- 
fixed for euphony. 



ra, come. 



rihiu; rihi, is the place; u, a vocable to fill out the measure. 
180-19:3. See line 188. 
22 etii— ft 2—04 5 



66 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When we have finished singing the six men take sixteen steps back 
to the place where the first song was sung as we faced the east. Then 
they take eight steps toward the south, where they stand facing the 
south and sing the following stanza, the people being all behind them. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

194 H'Uraruha! Hiri re! H'Uraru ha! Hiri re! 

ITUraru, the earth. 

ha! behold! 

hiri, they far away; an address to the powers of the south. 

re, are, in the sense of being, living. 
195-199 See line 191. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When we sing this stanza we are standing and looking toward the 
south. That is the place where the sun travels, where the light 
comes, and the brightness of da}'. 

As we look we ask the powers of the south to give life and increase 
to us, as well as to the seeds within Mother Earth. 

After we have sung this stanza eight times to the powers of the 
south, we turn and take eight steps toward the entrance of the lodge, 
to a place just back of where we sang the first song to the east; then 
eight steps toward the north, all the people following. Here, facing 
the north, we sing the next stanza. 

Translation of Third Stanza 

200 . H'Uraru riri wari! H'Uraru riri wari! 

H'Uraru, the earth. 

riri, on. 

wari, walking. 
201-205 See line 200. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The people are now looking toward the north, the moon, the night, 
the mother of the day. 

We ask the powers of the north, they who can see the path of life, * 
to lead us and make us able to walk, us and our children. 

We sing this song eight times to the powers of the north. 

Then the six men turn south and take eight steps toward the entrance 
of the lodge, to a point before the place where we sang the first song 
to the east; there they turn and face east and walk to the place where 
they sang to the powers of the west, and there they halt. 

To all the powers of the east, west, south, and north we have sung 
and have presented ourselves. As we walked, Ave have traced upon 



FLETCHER] 



FOURTH RITUAL, PART III 



67 



WEST 






I 
h- 

o 

CO 








r 


1 I 


t 


* I 


T 


* 1 


t 


* J 


t 


* 1 


t 


I 1 


t 


I 4 


t 


1 J 


t 


1 1 


t 

t 


i 1 


t 


i i 


f 


1 1 


t 


4 1 


tun 
3*«- 


1 i 




i 7 




l 






EAST 

Fig. 17."). Diagram showing the movements of the principal members of the Father's party 

during the presentation to the powers. 

1. entrance to the lodge; 2, place where the first song is sung; 3, place where the flrsl stanza 
of the second song is snng; 4, place where the second stanza of the second song is sung; 5, place 
where tin- third stanza of t he Becond song is sung; 6, place where the halt is made after the last 
sixteen steps; 7, the four steps taken in t he presence of the powers. 

The dots represent the following persons, beginning at the left: the doctor with the left wing 
of the eagle, the Ku'rahus, the principal chief < the Father, if ho is a chief), the second chief, the 
Kn'rahus's assistant . and the doctor with the right wing of an eagle. The arrows attached to 
the dots show the direction in which the persons are facing. (By an error, bu1 five dots were 
drawn, instead of six.) Bach of the other arrows represents a step taken by the group, and 
points in the direction in which it is taken. 



68 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [kth. ann. 22 

the earth the figure of a man. This image that we have traced is 
from Tira'wa. It has gone around with us, and its feet are where we 
now si and ; its feet are with our feet and will move with them as we now 
take four steps, bearing the sacred objects, in the presence of all the 
powers and begin our journey "to the land of the Son (see figure 175). 

Second Division. The Journey 

fifth ritual 

Part I. Mother Corn Asserts Authority 

Explanation by the Ku ' rahus 

After we have taken the four steps in the presence of all the powers 
we are ready to begin our journey, but before we start, and while we 
stand facing the east, we sing the following song: 

FIRST SONG 

• Wo rds a i ? < I litis ic 



M. M. J =56. 

• — Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



? 






Hi 



=J5==J- 



4— 



3 — «i — m.-z^--M-tz^=-ii^=i-jz^:^-tzm==M==i^--j~Mz 



Ho-o-o-o-o! H'A - ti -ra shi-ra ti - wa - re! H'A-ti - ra shi-ra ti - 

J^ — 112. 9^3 A A AAA A 

■ A. tr.^^^r^-^r*. f i" * * * * f * ' f f f 

ft ^J E=3— -|**^ ^r z=i^ i =r_ ll ^i^=ps=i=izi — | — — R=g= -4 j ;=qzz=z y-T~~ PI 



wa - re! H'A-ti -ra shi-ra ti - wa - re! Whe-e ra-ti - wa! 

f Lj" Lj is U U £ i i i •> 
i ii 

206 Ho-o-o-o-o! 211 Ho-o-o-o-o! 

207 H'Atira shira tiware! 212 H'Atira shira tiwara! 

208 H'Atira sliira tiware! 213 H'Atira shira tiwara! 

209 H'Atira shira tiware! 214 H'Atira shira tiwara! 

210 Whe-e rati wa! 215 Weru tihiwa! 

Translation of First Stanza 

206 Ho-o-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

207 H'Atira shira tiware ! 

h', an aspiration, symbolic of a breathing forth, as the giving 

of breath so that a thing may live, 
atira, mother. The term is here applied to the ear of corn, 
shira, it and me; it refers to 1he ear of corn, Mother Corn; me 

refers to the Father's party spoken of or speaking in the 

singular, as one person, 
tiware, walking in a devious or a winding course. 
208-200 See line 207. 



fletchbr] FIFTH RITUAL, PART I 69 

210 Whe-e ratiwa! 

whe, now, at this time. 

e, prolongation of the final e in whe. 

ratiwa, walking, plural form; that is, Mother Corn and the 
Father's party are walking as two persons. See the trans- 
lation of shira (line 207). 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

Mother Corn, who led our spirits over the path we are now to travel, 
leads ns again as we walk, in onr bodies, over the land. 

When we were selecting the Son (second ritual) we had to fix our 
minds on Mother Corn and make our spirits as one spirit with her. 
We must do so now, as we are about to start on this journey; we must 
be as one mind, one person, with Mother Corn (h'Atira shira); we, 
as one person, must walk with her over the devious, Avinding path 
(tiware) which leads to the land of the Son. 

We speak of this path as devious, not merely because Ave must go 

over hills and through \ r alleys and wind around gulches to reach the 

land of the Son, but because Ave are thinking of the way by which, 

through the Hako, AA r e can make a man who is not of our blood a Son; 

a way which has come down to us from our far-away ancestors like a 

winding path. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

211 Ho-o-o-o-o! An introductor} 7 exclamation. 

212 H'Atira shira tiwara. 

h', symbolic of breathing forth. 

atira, mother; the term refers to the corn. 

shira, it and me ; the ear of corn and the party of the Father. 

tiAvara, walking in a definite path, a straight path. 
213, 214 See line 212. 
215 Wem tihiwa. 

weru, by or according to, indicating order or arrangement. 

tihiwa, equal stages; divided into equal lengths, as Avhen mark- 
ing a line of travel by a number of camps. 

Explanation by Hie Ku'rahus 

This stanza means that Mother Corn will lead us in the path she 
opened and made safe for us when she Avent in search of the Son. 
The path is definite to her, like a straight path, in Avhich Ave are to 
journey by equal stages (weru tihiAva). First we are to travel, then 
we are to camp, then travel, and again camp. This is the Avay our 
fathers did, and the knowledge has come down to us from father to 
son, from father to son, by generations, in equal stages all the AA\ay. 

After singing the stanza the six men with the Ilako move forward 
and all follow; Mother Corn is leading and breathing forth life. 

After Ave have moved on a little distance, and have left the village 



70 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. axn.22 

behind us so thai Ave can no longer see our homes, we halt and sing 
the first stanza of the following song. 

SECOND SONG 

Words and Music 
M. M. js =-112. 

• — Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

-m — m — m— c "—»^it—* m — *- a 

JIo-o-o-o! Ka - ra ba-tu-ru ta? Kara ba-tu-ru ta? H'A-ti - ra ku-hra 




A A % A A A A A A A 

Rattles. ?•£• S 1 i f f f f . f __f P . P t__f M* I - 



• 



:=|: 



rl-- 



_j — __. — .._— _t_S » m — mi— t-ai- 



r— 9 — mr- 9 
lia-tn-ru e? Ka-ra ha-tu - ru ta? H'A-ti - ra ku-hra ha-tu - ru e? 

U L- L- Lr L/ L^ Lr ■ t/--Lr 8' ■> ' i i 

I 

216 Ho-o-o-o! 

217 Kara haturu ta? Kara haturu ta? 

218 H'Atira kuhra haturu e? 

219 Kara haturu ta? H'Atira kuhra haturu e? 

II 

220 Ho-o-o-o! 

221 Wiri haturu ta, wiri haturu ta; 

222 H'Atira kuhra haturu e; 

223 Wiri haturu ta, h'Atira kuhra haturu e. 

Translation of First Stanza 

216 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

217 Kara haturu ta? Kara haturu ta? 
\ kara, is there? An inquiry. 

haturu, path, road, way. 

ta, a part of the word ruta, a long stretch, as a long stretch 
of road or of country. In order to make the words con- 
form to the rhythm of the music the final syllable of 
haturu is made to serve as the first syllable of the next 
word (ruta), so only the last syllable, ta, is given. 

218 H'Atira kuhra haturu e? 

h', symbolic of the breath; a breathing forth, 
atira, mother. The term applies to Mother Corn, 
kuhra, hers; the owner of. 
haturu, path, road, way. 

e, the equivalent of ta, a part of ruta. The change from ta to 
e is for euphony. 

219 Kara haturu ta? H'Atira kuhra haturu e? All the words are 

translated above. See lines 217 and 218. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

Iicfore us lies a wide pathless stretch of country. We are standing 
alone and unarmed, facing a land of strangers, and we call upon 



FLETCHER] 



FIFTH EITUAL, PART I 



71 



Mother Corn and we ask her: "Is there a path through this long 
stretch of country before us where we can see nothing? Does your 
path, the one which you opened for us, wherein is safety, lie here?" 



220 
221 



222 
22:5 



Translation of Second Stanza 

Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
Wiri haturu ta, wiri haturu ta. 

wiri; here, at this place; right before one. 

haturu, path, road, way. 

ta, part of the word ruta, a long stretch. 
See line 2 IS. v 

Wiri haturu ta, h'Atira kuhra haturu e. All the words are 
translated above. See lines 221 and 218. 



Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we stand and sing the second stanza, Mother Corn speaks to us 
and we are assured in our spirits. She answers our appeal; she says 
that here, right before us, stretches out the path she has made 
straight. Then our eyes are opened and we see the way we are to go. 

But although Aye se^ our way we are not to take the path by our- 
selves; we must follow Mother Corn; she must lead us, must direct 
and guide our steps. The next song is to enforce obedience to 
Mother Corn. 

THIRD SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. rf N = 112. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



th 



:=|v 



-X 



I 









A__ 



:l*±z b£*:iz^Ej=z=r 



Ho - o-o-o! 

Rattles, f • 



Ra ri - hi u ha-wa ra-ti ra 



A 





V 



I 



A 

m 



e; 

A 



Ra ri - lii u 



A 



A 

a 




zf^-Z). — C0..-0.0 -&—&■ 






ha-wa ra-ti - ra e; Ha-wa-a rari-hi u ha-wa ra- ti - ra e; 

i * •••#•• » « e • * me* 



Ra ri hi u 



r 




3* 



ha - wa rati 



ha - wa ra ti - ra e. 



224 
225 

220 
227 
22S 
229 



1 [o-o-o-o! 

Ra rihi u hawa ratira e; 
Ra villi u hawa ratira e; 
Hawa-a ra rihi u hawa ratira e; 
Ra rihi u hawa ratira e; 
Ra rihi u hawa ratira e. 



II 

230 Ho-o-o-o! 

231 Ti rihi u hawa ratira e; 

232 Ti rihi u hawa ratira e; 

233 Hawa-a ti rihi u hawa ratira e; 
23 I Ti rihi o hawa ratira e; 

235 Ti rihi u hawa ratira e. 



72 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Translation of First Stanza 

221 IIo-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

225 Ra rilii u hawa ratira e. 

ra, at a distance; yonder. 

rilii, a place; a locality. 

u, a particular place. 

hawa, whence; from where. 

ratira, I came. 

e, vowel prolongation to meet the rhymth of the music. 

226 See line 225. 

227 Hawa-a ra rihi u hawa ratira e. 

hawa, whence; from where, 
a, vowel prolongation, 
ra rihi u hawa ratira e. See line 225. 
228, 229 See line 225. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When this song is to be sung, f the Ku'rahus bids all the people go in 
front of him, then he and they all turn and face the west, and look 
toward the lodge of the Father within which the preliminary ceremonies 
have been performed, and before the entrance of which the powers 
have looked on the elevated sacred objects and upon all the people. 

In this song Mother Corn is speaking of the place whence she came 
when she was consecrated according to the rites given to our fathers. 
She led our fathers and she leads us now, because she was born of 
Mother Earth and knows all places and all people, and because she 
has on her the sign (the blue-paint symbol) of having been up to 
Tira'wahut, where power was given her over all creatures. She also 
is speaking of the path over which her spirit led our spirits when we 
were traveling in search of the Son. a 

Translation of Second Stanza 

330 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

331 Ti rihi u hawa ratira e; 

ti, this. 

rihi u hawa ratira e. See line 225. 

332 See line 331. 

333 • Hawa-a ti rihi u hawa ratira e. See lines 225, 227, and 331. 
334, 335 See line 331. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing the second stanza, the Ku'rahus points along the path 
we have already traveled under the leadership of Mother Corn. 

This act and the song are to impress upon the people that they 

a See first ritual, second ritual, and fourth ritual. 



FLETCHER] 



FIFTH KITUAL. 



73 



are not moving at random, but in a prescribed manner, which the 
Ku'rahus lias been taught and directed to follow; that they are led 
by Mother Corn authorized by the powers, and to her they must give 
unquestioning obedience throughout the ceremony. 

After this song the Ku'rahus and the other bearers of the sacred 
objects turn, and facing the east, pass on in front of the people, who 
also turn and follow as they go forth on the journey. 

The three songs we have just sung are in sequence. Their order 
can not be changed; they belong to the beginning of the journey, and 
teach us to obey Mother Corn. 

Part II. Songs and Ceremonies of the Way 
Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The journey we are taking is for a sacred purpose, and as we are led 
by the supernatural power in Mother Corn we must address with song 
every object we meet, because Tira'wa is in all things. Everything 
we come to as we travel can give us help, and send help by us to the 
Children. 

Trees are among the lesser powers, and the3 r are represented on the 
Hako which we carry, so when we see trees we must sing to them. 

Trees grow along the banks of the streams; we can see them at a 
distance, like a long line, and we can see the river glistening in the 
sunlight in its length. We sing to the river, and when we come nearer 
and see the water and hear it rippling, then we sing to the water, the 
water that ripples as it runs. 

SONG TO THE TREES AND STREAMS 

Words and Music 



M. M.;s=112. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



No drum 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




Wi-ra u - ha - ki, \vi - ra u-ha-ki; 

Battles. * • £• £• ? • r * • f 



Ka-tu - ha-ru 



u - ha - ki, 

U L 




23G 
237 

238 



Wira uhaki, wira uhaki; 
Katnharn uhaki, wira uhaki; 
Katnharu uhaki. 



II 

239 Wira uhaki, wira uhaki; 

240 Kichaharu uhaki. wira uhaki; 

241 Kichaharu uhaki. 



Ill 

242 Wira wihaku, wira wihaku; 

243 Kichaharu wihaku. wira wihaku; 

244 Kichaharu wihaku. 



74 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Translation 

I 

23* '> Wira uhaki, wira uhaki. 

wira; wi, a qualifying word meaning that an object is long or 

stretched out; ra, at a distance, yonder, 
uhaki, something that is in a line, a stretch. 

237 Katuharu uhaki, wira uhaki. 

katuharu, trees, timber, woods. 
uhaki, a long line, a stretch, 
wira uhaki. See line 236. 

238 Katuharu uhaki. See line 237. 

II 

239 See line 236. 

240 Kichaharu uhaki, wira uhaki. 

kichaharu, a stream, a river, 
uhaki, a long stretch, 
wira uhaki. See line 236. 

241 Kichaharu uhaki. See line 240. 

Ill 

242 Wira wihaku, wira wihaku. 

wira, something that is long seen at a distance, 
wihaku, rippling. 

243 Kichaharu wihaku; wira wiharu. 

kichaharu, a stream, a river, 
wihaku, rippling. 
, wira wihaku. See line 242. 

244 Kichaharu wihaku. See line 243. 

Explanation hy the Ku'rahus 

In this ceremony water is not used except for sacred purposes. We 
mix the paint- that we use upon the sacred objects with running water. 
When on our journey we come to a stream of running water we 
can not step into it to cross it without asking permission of Kawas. 
Kawas is the mother; she represents the night and the moon, and she 
can permit us to enter and wade through the stream. So, whenever 
we come to a river we call upon Kawas to protect us, that our act 
of passing through the water may not bring punishment, and may not 
cause the clouds to come between us and the blue dome, the dwelling 
place of Tira'wa, or break the continuity of life from one generation 
to another. 

The following song is our appeal to Kawas. When we sing the 
first stanza we enter the stream, the water touches our feet. 



fletcher] FIFTH RITUAL, PART II 75 



SONG WHEN CROSSING THE STREAMS 

Words and Music 



M. M. ^ - 



• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

No drum. _^ _ ^ 

Ho-o-o ! He! Ka-vvas si-re te - \vi hu-ku-ka, Te-wi hu-ku-ka. He ! Kawas si-re a he! 



m-m--z»=mz=x^=^-ti.^-^zz^-zJc^z : 



Kawas si-re te-wi hu-ku-ka. He! Ka-wassi-re te-wi hu-ku-ka. 

I 

245 Ho-o-o! 

246 He! Kawas sire tewi hukuka. 

247 Tewi hukuka. 

248 He! Kawas sire a he! Kawas sire tewi hukuka. 

249 He! Kawas sire tewi Tmkuka. 

II 

250 Ho-o-o! 

251 He! Kawas sire tewi hariki. 

252 Tewi hariki. 

253 He! Kawas sire a he! Kawas sire tewi hariki. 

254 He! Kawas sire tewi hariki. 

Ill 

255 Ho-o-o! 

256 He! Kawas sire tewi haiwa, 

257 Tewi haiwa. 

258 He! Kawas sire a he! Kawas sire tewi haiwa. 

259 He! Kawas sire tewi haiwa. 

IV 

260 Ho-o-c! 

261 He! Kawas sire tewi hawitshpa, 

262 Tewi hawitshpa. 

263 He! Kawas sire a he! Kawas seri tewi hawitshpa. 

264 He! Kawas sire tewi hawitshpa. 

Translation 

I 

245 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
240 He! Kawas sire tewi hukuka. 

he! a pari of the exclamation hiri! give heed! harken! 
Kawas; the brown eagle, which in this ceremony represents 

ihe feminine principle, the night, the moon, 
sire, ils; a possessive pronoun referring to Kawas. 
tewi, it lias; refers to the water. 

hukuka, a composite word; hu, from chaharu, water; knka, 
to step into, as to put one's feel in the water, to wade. 
247 Tewi hukuka, 

tewi, ii 1ms; the water has touched the feel. 
hukuka, slop into the water. The feel have stepped into the 
water. 



76 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. Ann. 22 

248 He! Kawas sire a he! Kawas sire tewi hukuka. 

he! give heed! harken! 

Kawas, the mother, the brown eagle. 

sire, its; refers to the control of the water b} r Kawas. 

a, a vocable used to fill out the measure of the music. 

he! Kawas sire tewi hukuka. See line 246. 

249 See line 246. 

II 

250 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

251 He! Kawas sire tewi hariki. 

he! part of the exclamation hiri! harken! give heed! 
Kawas, the brown eagle, representing the female principle, 
sire, its. 
tewi, it has. 

hariki, a composite word; ha, a part of chaharu, water; riki, 
standing. 

252 Tewi hariki. 

* 

tewi, it has. 

hariki, water standing. ' Our feet are standing in the water. 

253 He! Kawas sire a he! Kawas sire tewi hariki. See lines 248 

and 251. 

254 See line 251. 

Ill 

255 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

256 He! Kawas sire tewi haiwa. 

he ! part of the word hiri ! harken ! give heed ! 
Kawas, the brown eagle; the mother, the female principle, 
sire, its: refers to Kawas. 
tewi, it has. 

haiwa, a composite word; ha, part of chaharu, water; iwa, 
moving in: haiwa, moving in the water. 

257 Tewi haiwa. See line 256. 

258 He! Kawas sire a he! Kawas sire tewi haiwa. See lines 248 

and 256. 

259 See line 256. 

IV. 

260 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

261 He! Kawas sire tewi hawitshpa. 

he ! harken ! give heed ! 

Kawas, the brown eagle; the mother, the female principle. 

sire, its; refers to Kawas. 

tewi, it has; refers to the water. 

hawitshpa, a composite word; ha, part of chaharu, water; 
witshpa, completed, accomplished a purpose, reached an 
end. The meaning of the word is that the water has cov- 
ered the feet. 



FLETCHER] 



FIFTH EITUAL, PART II 



77 



262 Tewi hawitshpa. See line 261. 

263 He! Kawas sire a he! Kawas sire tewi hawitshpa. See lines 

248 and 261. 
204 See line 261. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When we sing the second stanza, our feet are standing in the water. 
When the third stanza is sung, our feet are moving in the water. At 
the fourth stanza the water covers our feet. So as we sing this song we 
enter the stream and, under the protection of Kawas, we pass through 
to the other side. 

Every time we come to a stream across which our path lies we must 
sing this song. 

After we have forded the stream we pause at the bank. We are 
wet with water through which we have just passed, but we must not 
touch our bodies where we are wet to dry ourselves, for the running 
water is sacred. 

So, we sing the first stanza of the following song and call on the 
Wind, Hotoru, to come and touch us that we may become dry. 



M. M. /s-132. 

• — Pulsation of the voice 
No drum. 



m 



a 



Ho-o-o-o! 

t a 



Rattles. 



SONG TO THE WIND 

Words and Music 

Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

A 

-3 Pa— --2 i ^^^ — &t — — f^ — ^h — ! ~^ i ~ a- 



Tu - ku - ka, 



tr.„ 



tu - ku - ka ha Ho - to - ru, 

A A A A 




265 Ho-o-o-o ! 

266 Tukuka. tukuka ha Hotoru, 
207 Tukuka ha Hotoru, 

268 Tukuka ha ! 

II 

269 Ho-o-o-o! 

270 Taiwa, taiwa ha Hotoru, 

271 Taiwa ha Hotoru, 

272 Taiwa ha I 



III 
27:> Ho-o-o-o ! 

274 Tawawe, tawawe lie Hotoru. 

275 Tawawe he Hotoru, 

270 Tawawe he! 



IV 



2~ 



i « Ho-o-o-o ! • 

278 Tawitshpa, tawitshpa ha Hotoru, 

27!) Tawitshpa ha Hotoru. 

2nd Tawitshpa ha ! 



78 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Translation 

I 

265 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
200 Tukuka, tukuka ha Hotoru. 

tukuka, touch or touched. 

ha, a syllable added to meet the rhythm of the music. 

Hotoru, the Wind, the supernatural power. 
207 Tukuka ha Hotoru. See line 266. 

268 Tukuka ha! See line 266. 

II 

269 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

270 Taiwa, taiwa ha Hotoru. 

taiwa, to touch lightly or brush on the sides of anything, 
ha, a syllable added for the sake of rhythm. 
Hotoru, the Wind, one of the lesser power . 

271 Taiwa ha Hotoru. See line 270. 

272 Taiwa ha! See line 270. 

* III 

273 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

274 Tawawe, tawawe he Hotoru. 

tawawe, a creeping touch, felt now here and now there, 
he, a syllable added to keep the rhythm of the music. 
Hotoru, the Wind, one of the lesser powers. 

275 Tawawe he Hotoru. See line 274. 

276 Tawawe he! See line 274. 

IV 

277 See line 265. 

278 Tawitshpa, tawitshpa ha Hotoru. 

tawitshpa, the completion of an act, the accomplishment of 
a purpose. Hotoru has completely touched all parts of 
the body. 

ha, a syllable added to fill out the rhythm of the music. 

Hoturu, the Wind; one of the lesser powers. 

279 Tawitshpa ha Hotoru. See line 278. 

280 Tawitshpa ha! See line 278. 

Explanation hy the Ku'rahus 

As we sing the second stanza the Wind brushes lightly the sides of 
our bodies and our wet legs and feet. With the third stanza the Wind 
circles about, touching us here and there. When we sing the fourth 
stanza the Wind completely envelops us, touching all parts of our 
bodies. Now, we are ready to move forward in safety. No harm 
will follow our passage of the river and we can pursue our journe}'. 

Whenever, as we travel, we have to cross a river we must sing this 
song to the Wind to conic and dry our bodies before we can continue 
our journey. 



FLETCHER] 



FIFTH RITUAL, PART II 



79 



When the spirit of Mother Corn was traveling in search of the Son 
(second ritual) she saw buffalo; the first stanza of the following song 
refers to that time (ira saka riki, an indefinite time in the past). So, 
when on our journey we come to buffalo trails, or see the herds at a 
distance, we know that they have been seen before, at this place, by 
the spirit of Mother Corn, and we sing this song. 

SONG TO THE BUFFALO 

Words and Music 



M.M.J = 120. 

• : Pulsation of the voice. 

'55 1 m i i i - M — _— m — — '-^-f- 

■V — I 1— — -* — m -P—m — -H--^ 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 






:=J: 






Ha a a a! 



Drum. 

Battles. 



Ha! Ira saka ri-ki; Ha!I-ra riki; Ha!I-ra sa-ka ri- ki; 

A 




F^ — »— *— F— !— r- 



Ha! I 



ra 

f 



riki; Ha! I - ra sa-ka ri-ki; 



r 




L_j' I - 



281 Ha-a-a-a! 

282 Ha! Ira saka riki; Ha! Ira riki; 

283 Ha! Ira saka riki: Ha! Ira riki; 

284 Ha! Ira saka riki: Ha! Ira riki. 

II 

285 Ha-a-a-a! 

286 Ha! Tira saka riki; Ha! Ire wawa; 

287 Ha! Tira saka riki; Ha! Ire wawa; 

288 Ha! Tira saka riki; Ha! Ire wawa. 

Translation 
I 

281 Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

282 Ha! Ira saka 1 riki; Ha! Ira riki. 

ha! behold! 

ira, a single object in the distance; ra, distant, also means in 
the past, distant as to time. 

saka, part of the word tarasaka, sun. 

riki, standing. Saka riki means present time; but, as the 
words follow ira, the phrase ira saka riki means an indefi- 
nite i Line in the past. 

ha! behold! see! 

ira, the object seen at an indefinite time in the past. 

riki, standing; referring to the object thai was seen. Al- 
though the objecl seen is not mentioned by name, it was 
known to be buffalo. 
283, 284 See Line 282. 



80 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



II 

-285 Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 
286 Ha! Tira saka riki; Ha! Ire wawa. 
ha! behold! 
tira, this. 

saka, part of the word tarasaka, sun. 

riki, standing. Saka riki means present time. The phrase 
tira saka riki means a definite time, at this time or 
moment, 
ha! behold! see! look! 

ire, many objects at a distance, as many trails with buffalo. 

wawa, many walking. The phrase "Ha! Ire wawa" means 

"Look, where many buffalo walk in many different 

trails ! ' This refers to different herds seen at a distance. 

287, 288 See line 286. 



Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The second stanza refers to our seeing with our own eyes the buffalo 
herds walking in many different trails. We sing of this sight and we 
carry its promise of plenty to the Children. 

These stanzas are not now sung upon the journey with the Hako, 
because the buffalo herds are all gone ; but we sing them in the lodge 
of the Son, in remembrance of the buffalo, the animal Tira'wa gave us 
for food. 

SONG OF THE PREMISE OF THF BUFFALO 



Words and Music 
Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



M. M. j — 120 



3m 



=1: 



\-zzzzrJz2.. 



B=»=«=F^^-g=i=*=i=£ 



im 



He-e-e-e! 



Were ru-wa-wa, we -re ru-wa-wa, Si - ra rit-ka 



Drum. . , . * . s 0*. 

Rattles. LJ LJ L_J L_J LS LJ 



A 

• 



Lf 



3=3=" 



• • • • r ^^ • 



ru-wa - wa, 

r t r 







We-re ru- wa-wa, 

» r » 



Si - ra rit-ka 

4 . 4 



ru-wa-wa-a ra. 
& n I I 



289 He-e-e-e! 294 

290 Were ruwawa, were ruwawa, 295 

291 Sira ritka ruwawa, 29C 

292 Were ruwawa, 297 

293 Sira ritka ruwawa-a ra. 298 



II 

He-e-e-e! 

Wera hara-a, wera hara-a, 

Taraha-a raliara, 

Wera hara-a, 

Taraha-a rahara-a ra. 



fletcher] FIFTH "RITUAL, PAKT II 81 

Translation 
I 

289 He-e-e-e! An introductory exclamation. 

290 Were ruwawa, were ruwawa. 

were, they; a number of persons or animals, 
ruwawa, running from, as from the place where one is stand- 
ing or where one is walking. 

291 Sira ritka ruwawa. 

sira, their. 

ritka, dust; the soil raised by the feet in running. 

ruwawa, running away from. 

292 Were ruwawa. See line 290. 

293 Sira ritka ruwawa-a ra. 

sira ritka ruwawa. See lines 290, 291. 

a ra, vocables used to fill out the rhythm of the music. 

II 

294 He-e-e-e! An introductory exclamation. 

295 Wera hara-a, wera hara-a. 

wera, one coming; we, one, it, singular number; ra, coming. 

hara-a, a composite word made up of the syllable ha, from the 
word iha're, the young of animals (the word is also used 
for offspring, children) and ra, coming. The final a is a 
vowel prolongation to fill the rhythm of the music. 
290 Taraha-a rahara. 

taraha, the female buffalo. 

a, vowel prolongation because of the rhythm of the music. 

rahara, a composite word; ra, from wera, one coming; ha, from 
iha're, young; ra, coming. The line "Taraha-a rahara" 
means that the female buffalo and her calf are coming. 

297 Wera hara-a. See line 295. 

298 Taraha-a rahara-a ra. See lines 293, 296. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

While we were traveling we sometimes saw a great cloud of dust 
rising in the distance. When we saw this cloud rolling up from the 
earth we knew it was caused by a herd of buffalo running away from 
us toward the land of the Children. 

Sometimes a cow and her calf would separate from the herd and 
come nearer us. We were taught to be mindful of all that we saw 
upon the journey, for t hese sights meant the promise of plenty of food 
Cor the Children. 

We do not sing this song any more as we travel, for now there are 
no buffalo herds to be seen sending the dust up to the sky as they 
run. We sing the song in the lodge of the Son, that we may remem- 
ber the buffalo, and that our children may hear of them. 

22 ETH—PT 2—04 1> 



8 



2 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



When as we travel we come to mountains or hills we sing the fol- 
lowing song. 

I Tills were made by Tira'wa. We ascend hills when we go away alone 
to pray. From the top of a hill we can look over the country to see if 
there are enemies in sight or4f any danger is near us; we can see if 
we are to meet friends. The hills help man, so we sing to them. 

SONG TO THE MOUNTAINS 

Words and Music 



M. M.,N=168. 
• — Pulsation of the voice. 
No drum. A 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



m 



3:zJ=E 



£H 



:=]: 



:> 



3z3=zjt= 



Ha-a-a-a-a! 



I - ra wha - ku we - re - chili wha - ra: 



I - n 



a 



=J= 






H^I 



wha - ku Ave - re - chili wha - ra. 






-* — 



Ha! 



Chih wha - ku we 



— 3*- 



I 



5=3=1*: 



re - chih wha - ra. 



Ha! Wha 



=£3==K 



I 



ku 



we - re - chih wha - ra. 
Ill 



299 
300 
301 
302 
303 



304 
305 
308 

307 
308 



Ha-a-a-a-a! 

Ira whaku werechih whara; 

Ira whaku werechih whara. 

Ha! Chih whaku werechih whara. 

Ha! Whaku werechih whara. • 

II 

i -tia~a-a-a-a! 

Ira whaku werechih katawara; 
Ira whaku werechih katawara. 
Ha! Chih katawara chih wara. 
Ha! Whaku werechih katawara. 



309 Ha-a-a-a-a! 

310 Ira whaku werechih kitta lira; 

311 Ira whaku werechih kitta lira. 

312 Ha! Chih e werechih kitta hra. 

313 Ha! Whaku werechih kitta hra. 



314 
315 
316 
317 

318 



IV 

Ha-a-a-a-a! 

Ira whaku werechih kitta witit; 
Ira whaku werechih kitta witit. 
Ha! Chih werechih kitta witit. 
Ha! Whaku werechih kitta witit. 



2D!) 
300 



301 
302 



Translation 

I 

Ha-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 
Ira whaku werechih whara. 

ira, yonder particular and single object. 

whaku, an elevation, a mountain, a hill. 

werechih, a party, a number of persons. 

whara, walking, traveling on foot. 
See line 300. 
Ha! Chih whaku werechih whara. 

ha! behold! 

chih, the last syllable of the word werechih, a party. 

whaku werechih whara. See line 300. 



303 Ha! Whaku werechih whara. 



See lines 300, 302. 



fletoher] FIFTH RITUAL, PART II 83 

II 

304 Ha-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

305 Ira whaku werechih katawara. 

ira, a particular and a single object at a distance. 
whaku, a mountain, a hill. 

werechih, a group of persons making an organized party, 
katawara, climbing as they walk. 
300 See line 305. 

307 Ha! Chih katawara chih wara. 

ha! behold! 

chih, the last syllable of the word werechih, a company of 

persons, a party having a common purpose, 
katawara, climbing, ascending a mountain or a hill, 
chih, part of the word werechih, party, 
wara, a part of the word katawara, ascending, climbing. 

308 Ha! Whaku werechih katawara. See lines 305, 307. 

Ill 

309 Ha-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

310 Ira whaku werechih kitta hra. 

ira, a particular and single object at a distance. 

whaku, a mountain or a hill. 

werechih, a party. 

kitta, top, as the top of a mountain or hill. 

hra, from whara, walking. 

311 See line 310. 

312 Ha! Chih e werechih kitta hra. 

ha! behold! 

chih, the last syllable of werechih, party. 

e, a vocable used to fill out the measure of the music. 

werechih, a party, a company of people. 

kitta, top; the summit of a mountain or a hill. 

hra, from Avhara, traveling on foot. 

313 I la! Whaku werechih kitta hra. See lines 310, 312. 

# 

IV 

311 Ha-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

315 Ira whaku werechih kitta witit. 

ira, yonder particular object. 

whaku, mountain or hill. 

werechih, an organized group of persons, a party. 

kitta, summit, top. 

wil it, sitt ing down. 

316 See Line 315. 



84 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETK. ANN. 22 



317 Ha! Chih werechih kitta witit. 

ha! behold! 

chih, the last syllable of werechih, a party, 
werechih, an organized group of persons, a part} 7 , 
kitta, summit of a mountain or hill, 
witit, to sit down, to rest. 

318 Ha! Whaku werechih kitta witit. See lines 315, 317. 

Explanation by the K a' r alius 

The first stanza is sung when we who are traveling see in the dis- 
tance the top of a mountain or hill rising above the horizon. The 
Ku'rahus calls the attention of the people and bids them look at the 
mountain that lies in the path before them. We sing the next stanza 
as we are about to climb the mountain. The third stanza is sun 12: 
when the party reaches the top of the mountain. While the people 
are sitting down to rest on the summit we sing the fourth stanza. 

As a Hako party does not now go in a direction where there are moun- 
tains and hills, they do. not sing these songs on the journey. They 
are generally sung in the lodge of the Son. 

t 
SONG TO THE MESAS 

Words and Music 



M. M. Melody. j= 58. 
M. M. Drum. \ = 116. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




^ 



Dram. 
Matties 



tu; 



ha- 







3v-=vn 



re wi - tu; 

« 



Ha - re wi - tu; ha- re wi - tu; 



c_r 



A 

• 



u 



? 



• 4 • 



ha- re wi - tu. 



319 Ho-0-0-0-0! 

320 Hare witu; hare witu; hare witu; hare witu; 

321 Hare witu; hare witu; hare witu. 

II 

322 Ho-0-0-0-0! 

323 Ha rha witu; ha rha witu; ha rha witu; ha rha witu; 

324 Ha rha witu; ha rha witu; ha rha witu. 



Ill 

325 Ho-0-0-0-0! 

326 Hare wawe; liare wawe; hare wawe; hare wawe; 

327 Hare wawe; hare wawe; hare wawe. 

IV 

328 Ho-0-0-0-0! 

329 Ha rha wawe; ha rha wawe; ha rha wawe; ha rha wawe; 

330 Ha rha wawe; ha rha wawe; ha rha wawe. 



FLETCHER] FIFTH RITUAL 85 

Translation 
I 

319 lloo-o-o-oi An introductory exclamation. 

320 Hare witu; hare witu; hare witu; hare witu. 

hare, yonder, at a short distance. 

witu, a mesa, an elevation or hill with a flat top. 

321 See line 320. 

II 

322 Ho-o-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

323 Ha rha witu; ha rha witu; ha rha witu; ha rha witu. 

ha, yonder. 

rha, beyond this one; meaning that another mesa is seen 

beyond the one in the foreground. 
witu, a mesa. 

324 See line 323. 

Ill 

325 Ho-o-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

326 Hare wawe; hare wawe; hare wawe. 

hare, yonder, at a short distance, 
wawe, the ridge or rim of the mesa. 

327 See line 326. 

IV 

328 Ho-o-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

329 Ha rha wawe; ha rha wawe; ha rha wawe; ha rha wawe. 

ha, yonder. 

rha, beyond this one; that is, the one in the foreground just- 
spoken of. 
wawe, the rim or sharp ridge of the mesa. 

330 See line 329. 

Explanation by tire Ku'rahus 

We are told that long ago our fathers used to see the mesas; that 
on their journeys with the Ilako they passed by or over these flat- 
topped mountains. This song has come down to us from that time. 
As we have never seen mesas, we do not sing the song on the journey; 
we sing it in the lodge of the Son, that we may not forget what our 
fathers saw when they traveled far from where Ave now dwell. 

Part III. Mother Corn Reasserts Leadership 
Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The next two songs are in sequence. 

When we have reached the borders of the country where the Chil- 
dren dwell we sing the first song. We give an exclamation of thank- 
fulness (Iri!) that we behold the land where they dwell. Mother Corn 
had passed here when she was seeking Ihe Son (second ritual), and 
now she has led us to this place. 



8(> 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



FIRST SONG 



M. M. J =60. 



s? 



Words and Music 
• — Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

mm 



:*--i> 




Ha-a-a-a! I - ri! Ho-ra - ro. I-ri! Ho - ra-ro. 



Dram. m m m i 
Battles. LJ U 



• 



Lr 



qvzqs^z; ■==: 

-j — i — i— —\- 

-m- -<m- -m- -m- -»- -m- -m- 

Ho-ra - ro e pi- ra- o 

b 



r • 



* • O B 6 



HI 



7 



B*—J-—^ 



ku - re ho - ra - ro 



? 



-331 

333 
334 



Ha-a-a-a! 

Iri! Horaro. Iri! Horaro. 
Horaro e pirao kure horaro. 
Iri! Horaro; horaro e. 



I - ril Ho - ra 



• 



=5 — 



ro; 



• 



ho - ra-ro 

J * - i 



II 



335 Ha-a-a-a! 

336 Weri shu riwa, weri shu riwa \vi; 

337 Shu riwa wi pirao, shu riwa wi; 

338 Weri shu riwa, shu weri wi. 



Ill 



339 Ha-a-a-a! 

340 Weri huriwa, weri huriwa wi; 

341 Huriwa wi pirao, huriwa wi; 

342 Weri huriwa, huriwa wi. 

Translation 



331 
332' 



333 



334 



335 

336 



Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 
Iri! Horaro. Iri! Horaro. 

iri! a part of nawairi! an exclamation of thankfulness. 

horaro, land, country. 
Horaro e pirao kure horaro. 

horaro, land, country. 

e, a vocable used to fill out the measure 

pirao, children; a general term. 

kure, their. 

horaro, country. 
Iri! Horaro; horaro e. See lines 332, 333. 

II 

Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 
Weri shu riwa, weri shu riwa wi. 

weri, here, at this place. 

shu, a part of the word asliuro, moccasin. 

riwa, an impress, as an imprint made by moccasins on the soft 
ground. 

wi, many. 



fletcher] FIFTH RITUAL, PART III 87 

337 Shu riwa wi pirao, shu riwa wi. 

shu riwa wi. See line 336. 

pin o, children; not necessarily one's offspring. 

shu riwa wi. See line 33G. 

338 Weri shu riwa, shu weri wi. See line 336. 

Ill 

339 lia-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

340 Weri liuriwa, weri huriwa wi. 

weri, here, 
huriwa, walking, 
wi, many. 

341 Huriwa wi pirao, huriwa wi. See lines 337, 340. 

342 Weri liuriwa, huriwa wi. See line 340. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we move on and enter the land of the Children we sing, in the 
second stanza, about their footprints, the marks of their moccasins 
where they have walked to and fro on the ground. 

AVe may not actually see these marks, but the song represents us 
as seeing them; Mother Corn has seen them, and she is leading us. 

Farther on we sing in the third stanza that we see the Children 
themselves walking over their land. Mother Corn can see them it we 
do not; she has been here before; she knows all the people and can 
reach them all, so she leads us where we can see them walking. 

This song represents the Fathers coining to the country where the 
Son lives. They first see his footprints; then they see him and his 
kindred, the Children, walking about where they live. So the way is 
made plain for us and we go forward. 

When the village of the Children is in sight the following song is 
sung. Mother Corn speaks in the first stanza and tells us she has 
come again to this place. Her spirit had been here before when she 
came seeking the Son. To-day we have arrived with her at this her 
destination, and we give thanks to Mother Corn. 



88 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



SECOND SONG 

Words and Music 




M. M. ^ - 112. 

*=r Pulsation of the voice 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



"!■ 



-&-F? 



=* 






~i(— -SzW=S=iE3 



— « — i — i- 



A ti-ra sa - ka ri - ki 



Drum. , 
Rattles. L 



? 



a - wa ra - ti whi-cha: 



A ti-ra sa - ka ri- ki 



J" L 



? 



3 




a- wa rati whi-cha. 
d • * • . ■ t 



I - ri! Ha- wa ra-ti whi-cha; 

• • • • • • • » 

L I L f i I L— 



A ti-ra sa- ka ri-ki 



£ 







■J-J-- 



-K- 



=« 



i— s=^- 



a - wa ra-ti whi-cha; 



~^*~*~ 



& 



a - wa ra-ti whi-cha. 

f f $ - i 



A ti-ra sa - ka ri- ki 

• I 

3*3 A tira saka riki awa rati whicha; 

344 A tira saka riki awa rati whicha. 

345 Iri! Hawa rati whicha; 

346 A tira saka riki awa rati whicha; r 

347 A tira saka riki awa rati whicha. 

II 

348 A tira saka riki awa rashihri whicha; 

349 A tira saka riki awa rashihri whicha. 

350 Iri! Hawa rashihri whicha; 

351 A tira saka riki awa rashihri whicha; 

352 A tira saka riki awa rashihri whicha. 

* 

Translation 

I 

343 A tira saka riki awa rati whicha. 

a, a vowel sound introduced for euphony 

tira, this. 

saka, part of the word tarasaka, sun. 

riki, standing; tira saka riki means this present time, to-day. 

awa, again. 

rati, a modification of the word itira, I coming. 

whicha, arrived. 

344 See line 343. 

345 Iri ! Hawa rati whicha. 

iri! thanks! a part of the word na'wairi, thanks, thankful, 
hawa, again. 

rati, I coming; refers to Mother Corn, 
whicha, arrived, reached the point of destination. 
346, 347 See line 343. 



fletce.er] FIFTH RITUAL, PART III 89 

II 

348 A tira saka riki awa rashihri whicha. 

a, a vowel sound used for euphony. 

tira. this. 

saka, sun; part of the word tara saka, sun. 

riki, standing, tira saka riki, to-day, this present time. 

awa, again. 

rashihri, you have brought. 

whicha, arrived, come. 

349 See line 348. 

350 Iri ! Hawa rashihri whicha. 

iri! an exclamation of thanks or thankfulness. A part of 

the word na'wairi, thanks, it is good. 
hawa, again. 

rashihri, you have brought, 
whicha, arrived. 
351, 352 See line 348. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The second stanza says that Mother Corn has arrived, bringing 
gifts for the Children. These gifts are not only the things in our 
packs; but they are the promise of long life, of children, of plenty, 
and of peace. It is for these that the Children will give thanks, and 
we sing their thanks in this song. 

Third Division. Entering the Village of the Son and Conse- 
crating His Lodge 

sixth ritual 

Part I. The Son's Messengers Received 
Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When the messengers sent by the Fathers (third ritual) turned 
homeward the Son began his preparations to receive the Ilako party. 
Each of* his relatives selected from among his ponies those which he 
desired to present to the Fathers. The Son chose a messenger as his 
representative to go out and receive the Ilako party when it should 
arrive within sighl of the village. He also selected the little child 
necessary to the performance of certain rites belonging to the fifth 
morning of the ceremony. 11 could be one of his own children or the 
child of a near relative. Finally, an earth lodge of suitable size was 
secured, the occupants with all their belongings moving out for the 
occasion. 

In this vacated lodge the ceremony was to be performed and the 
Fathers were to live day and night, for no member of t he Ilako party 
ever separated himself from 1 he sacred objects from t he time of start- 
ing on the journey until the close of the entire ceremony. 



90 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



Every Pawnee village keeps certain men on the lookont to give 
notice of the approach of strangers. As soon as the Ilako party was 
recognized one of these men ran with the news to the village. The 
Son at once dispatched his messenger, bidding him go to the Fathers 
and say, "I am ready." 

As soon as the Fathers discerned the messenger hastening toward 
them, the Kn'rahns sent two men to meet him and conduct him to the 
Ilako party. 

A cushion was placed for him to sit upon and a bowl of buffalo meat 
was given him. While he ate, the Ku'rahus, his assistant, and the 
chief, holding the sacred objects, sang the first stanza of this song. 

SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. \ = U6. 

• — Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 
No drum . ■ — s 



:*-*: 



Ho-o-o-o! Ti-we ra-ku-she . ti ha-o; 



Ti-we ra-ku-she 



ti ha o; 



.1 -g^ 






Ti-we ra-ku-she ha- wati ha-o; Ti-we ra-ku-she ti ha-o; Ti-we ra-ku-she. 



353 
354 
355 
35(3 
<357 
358 



Ho-o-o-o! 

Tiwe rakushe ti hao; 
Tiwe rakushe ti hao; 
Tiwe rakushe hawa ti hao; 
Tiwe rakushe ti hao; 
Tiwe rakushe. 



359 
380 

361 
362 
363 
364 



II 

Ko-o-o-o! 
Tiwe riata ti hao; 
Tiwe riata ti hao; 
Tiwe riata hawa ti hao; 
Tiwe riata ti hao; 
Tiwe riata. 



Translation of First Stanza 



353 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

354 Tiwe rakushe ti hao. 

tiwe, here. 

rakushe, he sitting. 

ti, my. 

hao, my own child; my offspring. 

355 See line 354. 

356 Tiwe rakushe hawa ti hao. 

tiwe, here. 

rakushe, lie sitting. 

hawa, again. 

ti, my. 

hao, my own child. 

357 See line 354. 

358 Tiwe rakushe. See line 354. 



fletcher] SIXTH RITUAL, PART I 91 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In this stanza we speak of the messenger as "my own child" (ti hao), 
because he represents the Son, to whom we are being led by Mother 
Corn. Although the man who is the Son is not and can not be of any 
blood kinship to us, yet by the power of the sacred objects in this 
ceremony lie is to be made as our own child, as our offspring, we are 
to be bound to him by a tic as unalterable as that which exists between 
father and son. So we sing, "My own child, my offspring, is sitting 
here. " 

When we sing "Tiwe rakushe hawa ti hao," we are thinking that 
our child lias again said "I am ready." 

Translation of Second Stanza 

359 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

300 Tiwe riata ti hao. 

tiwe, here. 

riata, he walking. 

ti, my. 

hao, my own child. 

301 See line 300. 

362 Tiwe riata hawa ti hao. 

tiwe, here. 

riata, he walking. 

hawa, again. 

ti, mv. 

hao, my own child. 
303 See line 300. 
364 Tiwe riata. See line 300. 

Explanation by Hie Ku'rahus 

The pack containing the clothing provided for this representative 
of the Son is now opened. After the messenger lias finished eating 
lie is dressed in the new clothing. 

We clothe him because that is an act which marks the care of a 
father for his child. The garments we put upon him are fine and 
embroidered; these fine and carefully made garments show that we 
have been thinking of him, thai we regard him highly and wish to do 
him honor. 

After the messenger is clothed he walks toward the village; we fol- 
low, walking slowly and singing the second stanza. The words tell 
that the Son is walking before us and that we again are walking 
toward the lodge of the Son. 

Just before we reach the village we halt and sing the next song. 



92 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



Part II. The Hako Party Enter the Village 

song 

Words and Music 



M. M. N = 116. 

• = Pulsation of tlie voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



-2— 
-Aziz: 



B 



z-l — __i -4 — -I 



=f=«^^£5=U3 



•*— *- 



fcifci: 



=3 



^--■"-gt 



Ho-o-o-o! 

Dram, a • • 
Rattles. ' 



Ki - ru ra - ka wi? 

? • r 



Ki-ru ra-ka wi, 



A A 

• 



A A 

,• • • * • 

I I 



-0- -m- -*- 
ti ha - o? 

A 



j* u 



i — -J 1— > h- 

-m>- -m- ■&- •*- s>- 

Ki - rn ra - ka wi, 

& • ; * • f 

L_l I I LJ 



J- J 



=l==1: 



^=3^=3: 



-jtzzM: 



■* — 



ti ha - o? Ki-ru ra-ka, ki-ru ra-ka wi? 

r i r J 



v 



I 



I i 



365 Ho-o-o-o! 

366 Kiru raka wi? 

367 Kiru raka wi, ti hao?' 

368 Kiru raka wi, ti hao? 

369 Kiru raka. kiru raka wi? 



II 

370 Ho-o-o-o! 

371 Tiwi reka wi! 

372 Tiwi reka wi, ti hao! 

373 Tiwi reka wi, ti hao! 

374 Tiwi reka, tiwi reka wi! 



Translation 

I 

365 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

366 Kiru raka wi? 

kiru? where? 

raka, a composite word ; ra, where; ka, part of akaro, a lodge. 

wi, is. 

367 Kiru raka wi, ti hao? 

kiru raka wi? See line 366. 

ti, my. 

hao, my own child, my offspring. 

368 See line 367. 

369 Kiru raka, kiru raka wi? See line 366. 

II 

370 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

371 Tiwi reka wi ! 

tiwi, here. 

reka, a composite word ; re, here ; ka, part of akaro, lodge. 

wi, is. 

372 Tiwi reka wi, ti hao ! 

tiwi reka wi. See line 371. 

ti, my. 

hao, my own child, my offspring. 

373 See line 372. 

374 Tiwi reka, tiwi reka wi! See line 371. 



Fletcher] SIXTH RITUAL, PART II 93 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When Mother Corn went in search of the Son (second ritual) she 
halted at the edge of the village where he lived. As we follow in the 
path that she opened for us, we must do as she did. So, when we are 
just outside the village, we halt and sing the first stanza. The words 
mean, "Where is the lodge 1 of my Son wherein he sits waiting 
for me? " 

By the time we have finished singing, the messenger, who has 
walked on in advance, has reached and entered the lodge set apart 
for the ceremony. 

When Mother Corn had decided which was the lodge of the Son 
she made ready to enter the village and go to that lodge (second 
ritual). Now, we follow her again and sing, as we walk, the second 
stanza: "Here is the lodge of my Son wherein he sits waiting for me." 

When Ave arrive at the lodge we halt, for we must enter cere- 
monially. 

SEVENTH RITUAL 
Part I. Touching and Crossing the Threshold 
Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When the Son has dispatched his messenger to the Hako party, he, 
with a few of his near relatives, enters the lodge set apart for the 
ceremony, there to await the return of his messenger and the coming 
of the Fathers. 

He seats himself at the south side of the lodge near the door. This 
is the humblest place, and he takes it to show that he is not seeking 
his own honor. By the choice of him as the Son a very high honor has 
been bestowed upon him, and his appreciation, of this is shown by his 
taking the seat of the lowliest and not assuming prominence before 
the people. 

When the Hako party arrive at the door of the lodge they halt and 
await the ceremony of touching and crossing the threshold, for no one 
can pass into the lodge until this has been performed. 

At the doorway the three men stand abreast — the chief with the ear 
of corn and the wildcat skin between the Ku'rahus and his assistant, 
each bearing a feathered stem — and behind these stand the two doctors, 
each with his eagle Aving. 

The Ku rali us directs the chief to advance one step and to stand 
upon the threshold while the first stanza of the next song is sung. 



94 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. J— 58. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tra^rr. 



_2 



:=K 



3=S 



■ • • 

Ho-o-o! IF A - ti - ra ra ko - ka, 



^-±= 



ri! IP A 



-3 
=4 



~m — m — * — <* — _g; 
ti - ra ra ko - ka 



-3=11=5 



:=^" 



Drnm & t & ^ 

Rattles. "~ ~-~ ^~~— ~-~-~-~ 



ri! H'A- 

_ r tr. 



!P=3=^=P^=r==p3 

*- • • • -^p- ~^P~ 



ii-a. 



375' 

.'370 



• • • « • 

ti-ra rakoka, ri! Wi ra ko-ka, ri! H'A 

? tr 



tr.. 



-m—m—m—m-^r 
ti-ra ra ko ka, 



-1=3- 



ri 



375 Ho-o-o! 

376 H'Atira ra koka, ri! 
37? H'Atira ra koka, ri! 

378 H'Atira ra koka, ri! 

379 Wi ra koka, ri! 

380 H'Atira ra koka, ri! 



387 
388 
389 
390 
391 
392 



III 

Ho-o-o! 

Kawas i ra koka, ri! 
Kawas i ra koka, ri! 
Kawas i ra koka, ri! 
Wi ra koka, ri! 
Kawas i ra koka, ri! 



381 
382 
383 
384 
385 
386 



II 

Ho-o-o! 

H'Atira ra koka, ri! 
H'Atira ra koka, ri! 
H'Atira ra koka, ri! 
We ra koka, ri! 
H'Atira ra koka, ri! 



IV 

393 Ho-o-o! 

394 Kawas i ra koka, ri! 

395 Kawas i ra koka, ri! 

396 Kawas i ra koka, ri! 

397 We ra koka, ri! 

398 Kawas i ra koka, ri! 



Translation of First Stanza 



Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

H'Atira ra koka, ri ! 

h', a symbol of breath; "breathing forth life." 
atira, mother. The term is applied to the ear of corn. 



ra, moving, walking, 
koka, enter. 

ri, part of the word nawairi, an expression of thankfulness, of 
confidence that all is well. 
377, 378 See line 370. 
379 Wi rakoka, ri! 
wi, now. 

ra koka, ri. See line 370. 
See line 370. 



380 



Explanation by the Ku'rahus 



The words of this stanza mean that Mother Corn, breathing life, 
lias come to the entrance. She is now moving there, bringing the 
promise of life, a promise that makes the heart of man glad, so we 
give the cry of thankfulness as we sing: "Nawairi ! " 



Fletcher] SEVENTH RITUAL, PART I 95 

This stanza is sung four times, for we are thinking that this prom- 
ise of life given by Mother Corn is known to the powers of the four 
directions. These powers give strength and make the promise sure. 

When we have finished singing, the Ku'rahus tells the chief to take 
four steps beyond the threshold within the entrance way. These 
four steps are in recognition of the same powers. 

While the chief stands there Ave sing the second stanza. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

381 Ho-o-o! Ah introductory exclamation. 

382 H'Atira ra koka, ri! 

h'j a symbol of breath; "breathing forth life." 
atira, mother; the term is applied to the ear of corn, 
ra, moving, walking, 
koka, entered. 

ri, part of nawairi, an expression of thankfulness. 
383, 384. See line 382. 

385 We ra koka, ri! 

we, it has. 

ra koka, ri. See line 382. 

386 See line 382. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The words of this stanza mean that Mother Corn has entered the 
doorway of the lodge, she has walked within the entrance way with 
her promise of life which makes the heart of man thankful. 

Mother Corn lias now opened the door of the lodge for the entrance 
of life, so we give the cry of thankfulness, " Nawairi! " 

This stanza is sung four times, and then the Ku'rahus tells the 
chief to step backward out of the entrance way and to stand two 
steps behind the Ku'rahus and his assistant, who now advance and 
stand upon the threshold while the third stanza is sung. 

Translation of Third Stanza 

387 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

388 Kawas i ra koka, ri ! 

Kawas, the name used in this ceremony to designate the brown 

eagle, 
i, it. 

ra, moving, 
koka, enter. 

ri, part of nawairi, an exclamation of thankfulness. 
38!), 390 See line 388. 

391 Wi ra koka, ri ! 

wi, DOW. 

pa koka, ri. Sec line 388. 

392 See Line 388. 



96 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The words of this stanza, mean that Kawas is now moving at the 
entrance way and is about to enter, carrying the promise of the powers 
above! a promise which makes the heart of man thankful. 

We sing this stanza four times, remembering the powers of the four 
directions. 

Then the Ku'rahus and his assistant advance four steps into the 
entranceway and pause while the fourth stanza is sung. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

393 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
304: Kawas i ra koka, ri! 

Kawas, the name given to the brown eagle in this ceremony. 

i, it. 

ra, moving. 

koka, entered. 

ri, part of nawairi, an expression of thankfulness. 
395, 396 See line 394. 

397 We ra koka, ri! 

we, it has. 

ra koka, ri. See line 394. 

398 See line 394. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The words of this stanza mean that Kawas has entered the passage^ 
way of the lodge bearing the promise that makes the heart thankful — . 
the promise of life from the powers above. 

After singing this stanza four times, the Ku'rahus and his assistant 
step back outside the lodge door and take their places at either side 
of the chief bearing the ear of corn. 

The three together now advance to the threshold, and the Ku'rahus 
tells the chief to go forward and keep a step in advance. The Ku'ra- 
hus and his assistant carrying the feathered stems follow the chief, 
and behind them walk the two doctors with the eagle wings. 

The five men walk slowly and silently down the long entrance way. 
When the chief reaches the ridge at the inner door of the passageway, 
he steps over it into the lodge and pauses. Mother Corn is the first 
to enter the lodge. The Ku'rahus and his assistant follow and take 
their places, the Ku'rahus on the left of the chief , the assistant on the 
right. Next the doctors step in ; the one with the left wing goes to 
the left of the Ku'rahus, and the other with the right wing to the right 
hand of the assistant. The five men, now abreast, walk slowly around 
the lodge, going by the south, west, and north to the east, while they 
sing the first stanza of the following song four times. They move in 
step, keeping close together, the chief with the ear of corn just a little 
forward of the line. As they sing they sway the feathered stems, the 
ear of corn, and the eagle wings. 



FLETCHER] 



SEVENTH KITUAL 



97 



Part II. Consecrating the Lodge 



FIRST SONG 



Words and Music 

Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



M. M. ,K= 120 



• • • 

A-a-a! 

Drum, i 
Rattles. ^ «, I 



S=3 




H' A - ti - ra 
ft . ft • 



we 



ri - ka \va - ra; H'A - ti 



ra 



we 

A 
P 



I 



EH=H 



=0E3E^^ 



52E== 






:?. — 9 — 3-" 



ka wa - ra; 
ft # ft • 



"We ri - ka wa- ra ; IP A - ti - ra we ri - ka wa 



ra. 



» • 






I 



II 



399 A-a-a! 

400 H'Atira we rika wara: 

401 H'Atira we rika wara: 

402 We rika wara: 

403 H'Atira we rika wara. 



404 A-a-a! 

405 H'Atira wetih ka wara; 

406 H'Atira wetih ka wara; 

407 Wetih ka wara; 

408 H'Atira wetih ka wara. 



Translation 



ri - 

• 



II 



399 A-a-a! An introduction to the song. 

400 H'Atira we rika wara. 

h', a symbol of breath, a breathing forth. 

atira, mother; the term refers to the ear of corn. 

we, his; refers to the owner of the lodge, the Son. 

rika, a composite word, ri, this; ka, part of the word akaro, 

lodge. 
wara, walking. 

401 See line 400. 

402 We rika wara. See line 400. 

403 See line 400. 

II 

404 A-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

405 H'Atira wetih ka wara. 

h', a symbol of breath, a breathing forth. 
atira, mother; the term is here applied to the ear of* corn, 
wetih, it has; an act accomplished. 
ka, part of the word akaro, lodge. 
wara, walked. 
40i; See line 405. 

407 Wetih kawara. Sec Line 405. 

408 See line 405. 

22 ETH— FT 2—04 7 



98 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

The words of the hist stanza mean that Mother Corn breathing 
life is now walking in the lodge. We sing this stanza four times, 
remembering the four directions where the paths are down which the 
powers, descend to man. 

When we have passed entirely around the lodge and reached the 
east, we begin the second stanza and sing it four times as we make the 
second circuit around the lodge. 

The words tell that Mother Corn has walked within the lodge, 
bringing the promise of life. 

After a short pause at the east the five men turn again toward the 
south and begin a third circuit of the lodge. This time the chief with 
the ear of corn falls back into line with the Ku'rahus and his assistant, 
who bear the feathered steins, and, as they walk, sing the following 



song: 



SECOND SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. JS- 126. 



Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



A 




• •• •• • • * • 

Ho-o-o! Ka-was te-wi ka-we he-ra ti ra - o; Ka-was te-wi ka - we 

Drum. b*bm b * b m bsbm b • b mb » •.*.*•»* 

Rattles.^ U _ U U 'J U L LJ _ LJ C— LJ 



^ H= 5^E^^ :i B E l-?^=i^^5=i^ !! ]=^ 



he-ra ti ra - o; Ka-was te- wi ka - we he-ra ti ra - o. 

L'UU Ls U UU I * 1 1 



I II 

409 Ho-o-o! 413 Ho-o-o! 

410 Kawas tewi kawe hera ti rao; 414 Kawas tewi kire hera ti rao; 

411 Kawas tewi kawe hera ti rao; 415 Kawas tewi kire hera ti rao; 

412 Kawas tewi kawe hera ti rao. 416 Kawas tewi kire hera ti rao. 

Translation of First Stanza 

409 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

410 Kawas tewi kawe hera ti rao. 

Kawas, the name given to the brown eagle in this ceremony. 

Kawas represents the female and the beneficent powers. 
tewi, hovering, with a slow circling movement, 
kawe, a composite word, meaning within the lodge, 
hera, my. 

ti, possessive pronoun, 
rao, part of the word pirao, child. 
411, 412 See line 410. 



fletchek] SEVENTH RITUAL, PART II 99 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The words of the first stanza tell us that Kawas is now hovering 
overhead in the lodge. 

The eagle soars in the skies and can communicate with the powers 
that are above; so the eagle represents these powers. As we stand 
facing the east the white-eagle feathered stem, on the right, toward the 
south, represents brightness, the light, the day, the sun, and it is the 
male. It is for defense and is carried on the side farthest from the 
people. The brown-eagle feathered stem, Kawas, is to the left, toward 
the north; it represents darkness, the night, the moon, and is the 
female. Kawas is carried nearest the people. Kawas has the right 
to make the nest and to seek help from Tira'wa for the Children. 

Kawas leads in this ceremony, which is to ask for the gift of chil- 
dren, not only that children may be born to us, but that the tie of 
parent and child may be established between us and those to whom 
we are bringing these sacred objects, that peace may be between the 
tribes, and plenty and long life and prosperity. So we sing that 
Kawas is hovering in the lodge, as an eagle hovers over her nest. 

This stanza is sung slowly, for the eagle as it hovers is slow in its 
movements. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

413 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

414 Kawas tewi kire hera ti rao. 

Kawas, the brown eagle, representing the beneficent powers, 
tewi, hovering, moving with a slow, circling movement, 
kire, starting to fly. 
hera, my. 

ti, possessive pronoun, 
rao, part of the word pirao, child. 
415,416 See line 414. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

We sing the second stanza faster, for now Kawas has stretched her 
mighty wings and is flying within the lodge, driving away all harm- 
ful influences and making the place ready for all the good that is 
promised to us through this ceremony. 

When, on the fourth circuit, the west is reached, we pause and face 
ilic cast, but we continue to sing until we have repeated this second 
stanza four 1 imes. 

As soon as we have reached the west the two doctors with the eagle 
wings move away, the one with the left wing going by the north and 
the one with ili<' right wing going toward the south. They raise and 
lower the wings to simulate the eagle cleaning its nest, flapping and 
blowing out all impurities. When the doctors meet at the east they 



100 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

face the open entrance way and flirt the wings toward the opening, as 
though brushing out something from the lodge. These motions mean 
that Kawas has now cleared the lodge of all that is bad, of all disease 
and trouble, and made the place ready for the coming ceremony. 

Then the doctors join the Ku'rahus, his assistant, and the chief. 

At the west, back of the fire, a space is now set apart and made 
sacred. Here the wildcat skin is spread and at its head the crotched 
stick is thrust into the ground; one end of the feathered stems is laid 
against the crotch, the other upon the skin, and the rattles are placed 
under the eagle pendants. The wings are laid on the edge of the 
skin. In front of the wildcat the ear of corn is held in an upright 
position by one of the sticks to which it is tied being thrust into the 
ground. The sacred objects are always laid at rest in this position, 
and are never left alone or unguarded. 

The members of the Hako party now enter and place the packs 
containing the ceremonial gifts at the north side of the lodge. Mean- 
while the women of the party are busy pitching tents, for, as only a 
few of the Hako party remain and live within the lodge, all the other 
men must camp with their families in a place set apart for them. 

The Ku'rahus at this time appoints certain men to attend to special 
duties. 

Some are to bring wood and water and attend to the cooking. 
They divide themselves into different groups, one for each day of 
the ceremony, so that the work will be evenly distributed and there 
will be no confusion or delays. 

Others are appointed to fill the pipes for the Children to smoke. 
To attend to this duty they are required to be always present in the 
lodge. 

Some eight or ten men are chosen to be in readiness to do any 
work that may be demanded of them. For instance, if the crops of 
the Children are being planted or gathered, these men are to attend 
to this work, so that the Children can at all times be present at the 
ceremony and suffer no loss. 

A man is selected to notch a stick as a record of the number of 
ponies presented to the Fathers and to whom each pony is given. 

In this way the labor attendant upon the long ceremony is planned 
and divided so that nothing will be neglected and there will be no 
dispute or confusion. 

While these appointments are being made the Son dispatches 
runners to notify the people that the Hako party has arrived and to 
bid his relatives come to the lodge. 



FLETCHER] 



SEVENTH RITUAL 



101 



Part III. Clothing the Son and Offering Smoke 
Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The Ku'rahus orders that the pack containing- the new garments 
brought for the Son be opened, and he directs the chief to clothe the 
Son. The embroidered shirt, leggings, and moccasins are then put 
upon him and he is wrapped in a fine robe. 

The Ku'rahus asks the priest of the shrine which controls the rain 
to take its sacred pipe and direct the Son how to offer tobacco and 
smoke to Tira'wa. 

The priest fills the sacred pipe and carries it toward the south, 
where he sits down beside the Son and instructs him what to do. 

The Ku'rahus, his assistant, and the chief, bearing the sacred 
objects, follow the priest and halt before the Son. 

The priest puts the sacred pipe in the hand of the Son, and the 
first stanza of the following song is sung. 

FIRST SONG 

Words and Music 




M. M. J = 52. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 
Slow. 



4 







Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



Ho-o-o ! Suks pa-ka wa - wa hi ra-ta - a ha - o ha! Hi - ril Hi ra-ta - a 



Drum, p t p t 
Rattles. I ir - I tr - 



A 

f tr. 




Suks pa-ka 



A 

*tr.. 



A 



II 



417 
418 
419 
42o 



417 
418 



Ho-o-o: 



421 Ho-o-o! 



Suks paka wawa hi rata-a hao ha! 422 Ti wawaka wawa hi rata-a haoha! 

Hiri! Hi rata-a hao ha! 423 Hiri! Hi rata-a hao ha! 

Suks paka wawa hi rata-a hao ha! 424 Ti wawaka wawa hi rata-a haoha! 

Translation of First Stanza 

Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
Suks paka wawa hi rata-a hao ha! 
suks, a command; you must, 
paka, pako, speak. The change in the last vowel is for 

euphony, 
wawa, part of rawawa, to send something; in this instance, i<> 

send the words or thoughts of the prayer. 
hi, that person. 
rata, my or mine, 
a. vowel prolongation, 
hao, child; offspring, 
ha. a musical vocable used In fill onl the measure. 



102 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

419 Iliri! Hi rata-a hao ha! 

hiri! an exclamation meaning give heed ! harken! 
hi rata-a hao ha! See line 418. 

420 See line 418. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The words of this stanza are a command to the Son. They are, 
" Give heed, my child; you must now send your prayers to the powers 
which dwell above." 

This stanza is sung four times. 

Then the Son takes a pinch of tobacco from the bowl of the pipe 
and passes it along the stem and offers it as the priest directs. 

There is a certain order to be observed in the offering of tobacco 
and smoke to the powers above peculiar to each of the sacred shrines, 
and only the priest or keeper of a shrine knows the order in which 
the powers which preside over his shrine should be approached. The 
sacred pipe belonging to the Rain shrine is used in this ceremony, and 
its priest must direct the Son how to make the offering. I do not 
know this order; it does not belong to me to know it. 

When the pinch of tobacco has been presented to the powers above 
it is placed upon the earth. 

After this act the second stanza is sung. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

421 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

422 Ti wawaka wawa hi rata-a hao ha ! 

ti, he. 

wawaka; wako, spoken; the added wa indicates that he has 
spoken to those who are at a great distance. 

wawa, part of tiwari, traveling from one, and towawa, travel- 
ing in many ways, to many different places. 

hi, that person. 

rata, my or mine. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

hao, child. 

ha, a musical vocable. 

423 See line 419. 

424 See line 422. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As the Son offers tobacco in the directions indicated by the priest, 
he prays to the powers that dwell in these directions. What he says 
is not audible to us, for it is not intended for us to hear. 

The words of this stanza refer to the prayers of the Son. 

We are bidden to take heed that the prayers of the Son, who is as 
our child, have been spoken and have traveled far, going on and on 
to the different distant places where the great i>owers abide which 
watch over the rain. 



fletcher] SEVENTH EITUAL, PART III 103 

This stanza is sung four times. 

The priest now lights the pipe and the Son smokes, sending little 
puffs in the directions indicated by the priest. As he smokes we sing 
the first stanza of the following song. 

SECOND SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. J- 56. 



• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



• • • • ~ar ~at •&■ 

Ho-o-o-o! Ra-wi-su ha-ku ri! Ti we-ri ha-ku ra-wi-su ha-ku ri! 



_, A A A 

Drum. m m » m P tr P tr 

Rattles.^ LJ l n — ~~~ ~ -~ , lr 



iH 



^^ 



=3=^=2 



■mt -at at 
Ti we-ri ha-ku! Ra-wi-su ha-ku ri ti we-ri ha - ku ! Ra-wi-su ha-ku ri! 

£ tr.^^.^^.^^.^^. & tr. J ._ rj . J . J . J . J . J . J . J . J . J . J . J . J . J . J . J . J . J . J . J . J . J ._ rJ . J ._ rri . ^ > 

I 

425 Ho-o-o-o! 

426 Rawisu haku ri! 

427 Ti weri haku rawisu haku ri! 

428 Ti weri haku! 

429 Rawisu haku ri ti weri haku! 

430 Rawisu haku ri! 

II 

431 Ho-o-o-o! 

432 Rawis kaha witshpa! 

433 Ti weri witshpa rawis kaha witshpa! 

434 Ti weri witshpa! 

435 Rawis kaha witshpa ti weri witshpa! 

436 Rawis kaha witshpa! 

Translation of First Stanza 

425 llo-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

426 Rawisu haku ri. 

rawisu, smoke, 
haku, passes by. 
ri, present time. 

427 Ti weri haku rawisu haku ri. 

ti, it. 

weri; we, now; ri, present time. 

haku, passes by. 

rawisu haku pi. Sec line 426. 

428 Ti weri haku. See Line 427. 

429 Rawisu haku pi ti weri haku. Sec Lines 426,427. 

4:50 Sec line 426. 



104 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The words tell us that the smoke offered by the Son is now passing 
by, leaving us and going on its way to the different places where the 
powers dwell that guard the rain. 

We sing this stanza four times as the smoke passes by us. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

431 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

432 Rawis kaha witshpa. 

rawis, part of the word rawisu, smoke. 

kaha, part of the word kaharu, smell, savor, odor. 

witshpa, reached, arrived at, completed. 

433 Ti weri witshpa rawis kaha witshpa. 

ti, he or it. 

weri; we, now; ri, is; denotes present time, 
witshpa, has completed, reached, arrived, 
rawis kaha witshpa. See line 432. 

434 Ti weri witshpa. See line 433. 

435 Rawis kaha witshpa ti weri witshpa. See lines 432, 433. 

436 See line 432. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As the smoke disappears we sing the second stanza, which tells 
that the odor of the smoke has'reached the abode of the mighty pow- 
ers and that our offering to them is now completed. 

We sing this song four times. 

The ceremony of offering smoke over, the priest with the sacred 
pipe of the Rain shrine, and the Ku'rahus with his assistant and 
the chief, bearing the sacred objects, return to the west and there, 
upon the space set apart and made holy, lay them down. 

The Son takes off the fine garments with which the Father has 
clothed him and places them in a pile before a chief of his village, 
that they may be distributed to the young men of the receiving party — 
that is, the Children. 

The lodge has now been opened by Mother Corn and cleansed of all 
bad influences by Kawas; the Son, clothed as a child by the Father, 
has offered prayer and smoke to the powers above; the garments worn 
during this act have been removed and given away; and now every- 
thing is ready for the public ceremony to begin. 



FLETCHER] 



EIGHTH RITUAL 



105 



THE CEREMONY 

First Division. The Public Ceremony 

eighth ritual (first day). the fathers feed the children 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

The runners dispatched by the Son deliver their message, and soon 
men, women, and children, dressed in their best attire, can be seen 



EAST 




Fig. 17*1. Diagram of the Son*s lodge at the beginning of the public ceremony. 

1, the entrance to the lodge; 2, the fireplace; 'S, inner posts supporting the dome-shaped roof; 
4, the Ku'rahus; 5, his assistant; 6, the Father (a chief;; 7, the server; 8, the Son; 9, the Hako 
at rest upon tin- holy place; 1<», the ear of corn (should be represented by a dot just below the 
number i ; 11, members of the Son's party; 12, members of the Hako party; 13, the bearers of 
the eagle win^s. 

walking through the village toward the lodge set apart for the 
ceremony (figure 170). 

As they pass into the lodge they see the Ku'rahus and his assist- 
ant with the chief between them sitting behind the Hako at the west, 



106 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

facing the entrance at the east. The} 7 who have brought gifts to the 
Fathers go around to the sacred place and lay them down upon the 
ground between the central fire and the Hako. All gifts are received 
silently unless someone brings a present of food ; for such an offering 
the Ku'rahus gives thanks. 

In old days it was not unusual for the Children to bring packs filled 
with dried buffalo meat; sometimes the packs contained the entire 
product of a hunt. 

When all the Children are gathered within the lodge the Ku'rahus 
directs that the Hako be taken up. When this is done, the five men 
stand facing the east. The chief, in the center, holds the wildcat 
skin and the ear of corn; on his left and toward the north is the 
Ku'rahus with the brown-eagle feathered stem, and at his left is the 
doctor with the left wing of the eagle. On the right of the chief and 
toward the south is the Ku'rahus's assistant holding the white-eagle 
feathered stem, and at his right the doctor with the right wing of the 
eagle. The Ku'rahus now addresses the Children: 

"Mother Corn has led us to the border of your land. Mother Corn 
has brought us to your village. Mother Corn has guided us to the 
entrance of this lodge. Mother Corn has crossed the threshold and 
entered. The lodge has been swept and made ready for tr e ceremony. 
Kawas has flown about the lodge seeking its child, and nere he has 
been found. 

" You must all help me by reverent conduct as I try to perform faith- 
fully the rite handed down from our fathers, so that all the promise 
of good which follows the Hako may come to us here." 

No particular form of speech was taught me to be used on this 
occasion. Every Ku'rahus can choose his own words, but he must at 
this time tell the people of the sacredness of this ceremony and call 
upon them to give reverent attention that the rite may go forward to 
the end and be the means of bringing good to all who take part in it. 

By this time those appointed to attend to the cooking have prepared 
food outside of the lodge. This is now brought in and placed near 
the fireplace, toward the east. 

Before anyone can be served the thoughts of the Fathers and of 
the Children must be turned toward Tira'wa, the father of all things, 
so we sing the following song as we carry the Hako around the lodge 
and wave the feathered stems over the heads of the people. 



Fletcher] EIGHTH RITUAL 107 

FIRST SONG 

Words and Music 

M. M. J =126. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

n A A 






i i"T— i -^r — i =S=^= =3=^N=^ 



:z2: 



Ha - a - a - a! H'A-ars Ti - ra - wa ha - ki; H'A-ars Ti - ra - wa ha - ki; 

Drum. » . , * . * , » A • 00.000 . 

Battles." I I I I II I I I I I I 



A __A _A A t A A 

1 — *— rj J tildSj i si L *: --J — f- d+m-^wi — s> — F*;— ^Ftj — shrai-^ *__sj F l 



H'A-ars Ti-ra-wa ha-ki; II'A-ars Ti-ra-wa ha-ki; H'A-ars Ti-ra-wa ha-ki. 

. . , S , . . . . * . . . > w 

ri rril mi iiiri rii i i * 

437 Ha-a-a-a! 

438 H'Aars Tira'wa liaki; 

439 H'Aars Tira'wa haki; 

440 H'Aars Tira'wa haki; 

441 H'Aars Tira'wa liaki; 
44*2 H'Aars Tira'wa haki. 

Translation 

437 Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

438 H'Aars Tira'wa haki. 

h', a part of the word ha, your. 

aars, a contraction of the word atius, father. 

Tira'wa, the designation of the great power Tira'wa atius, 

thought to be above all other powers, 
haki, many. 
439-442 See line 438. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

When the Ku'rahus begins to sing this song he must think what this 
ceremony is for and be mindful that all the powers that the heavens 
contain and all the powers that are felt over the earth are now coming 
near and bending over the Hako. 

All the powers thai are in the heavens and all those that are upon 
the earth are derived from the mighty power, Tira'wa alius. He a is 
the father of all things visible and invisible. He is the father of all 
the powers represented by the Hako. lb? is the father of all the 
lesser powers, those which can approach man. He is t lie father of all 
the people, and perpetuates the life of the tribe through the gifl of 
children. So we sing, your father, meaning the father of all people 
everywhere, the father of all things that we see and hear and feel. 

As we sing the words over and over we think about Tira'wa atius 
being the father of all things. This and all stanzas are sung four 
t Lines. 

When we have gone entirely around the Lodge and have returned 



oThe Pawnee pronoun here translated "he" does not in the original in<li<-ut.> Bex, nor Is it 
equivalent t<> "it." sis the word relates to a person. 



108 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



to the west we pause, and start again to make the second circuit, 
always going by the north, the east, the south, to the west. On this 
second circuit we sing this song, which must always follow the one we 
have just sung. Both songs are about Tira'wa atius, the father of all. 
These two songs belong to the first two of the first four circuits of 
the lodge, which are made in the presence of all the Children. We 
shall sing these same songs twice again; the first time, after the sacred 
feast of corn and, the second time, when we are beginning the last 
four circuits of the lodge on the fourth and last night of the ceremony. 



SECOND SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. J=]26. 

• — Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



i 



H3=^^^gi^s^^=H3=3=3=iifl 



Ha- a - a - al 



Drum. % 
Matties. I 



I 



H'A- ars e he! Ti-ra-wa ha - ki 

£-^ r £_A_A._A. 



r r 



A A A 

t r r r t 



r r 



H'A-ars e he I 

, 4 r f r 



f/\ i\ /\ r\ 

\^ • • \^ s .... . . Sm ^ r . . v 



:22=£ 



* B f > 



Ti-ra-wa ha-ki; 

trtrtr 



Ti-ra-wa ha-ki. 



Hi-dhi! Ti-ra-wa ha-ki; H'A - ars 

UU Prfrfr t r tr 

443 Ha-a-a-a! 

444 H'Aars e he! Tira'wa haki; 

445 H'Aars e he! Tira'wa haki; 

446 Kidhi! Tira'wa haki; 

447 H'Aars Tira'wa haki. 

Translation 

443 Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

444 H'Aars e he ! Tira'wa haki. 

h', a part of the word "ha", your. 

aars, an abbreviation of atius, father. 

e, a vocable used to fill out the rhythm. 

he! an exclamation indicating that something is brought to 

one's attention which demands thoughtful consideration. 
Tira'wa, a part of Tira'wahut, the dwelling place of the lesser 

powers, those which can come near to man. 
haki, many. 

445 See line 444. 

446 Hidhi ! Tira'wa haki. 

hidhi, on high; above, as when one points upward. 

Tira'wa, a part of Tira'wahut, the dwelling place of the lesser 
powers. The word Tira'wa is not the same as in the pre- 
ceding song and therefore has not the same meaning. 

haki, many. The phrase Tira'wa haki in this song refers to 
the many lesser powers which dwell above. 

447 H'Aars Tira'wa haki. See line 444. 



fletcher] EIGHTH EITUAL 109 

Explanation by the Kn'r alius 

When we begin this song and sing "H'Aars" (your father), we think 
of what we have been told in the first song, that Tira'wa atius is the 
father of all things; that he is the father of all those lesser powers 
which come to us in our visions and dreams. These lesser powers are 
many, but Tira'wa atius is the father of them all. 

When we sing, "Hidhi!" we think that all these powers have their 
dwelling jnace on high, Tira'wahut, and that above them all is the 
abode of Tira'wa atius, their father. It is he who sends help to us by 
these lesser powers, because they alone can come to us so that we 
can see and feel them. 

When we have reached the west we pause and then begin the third 
circuit of the lodge. On this round we sing of Mother Corn, she who 
has led us on our journey, who has entered the lodge of the Son, and 
is now to walk before the Children with the promise of plenty. 

THIRD SONG 

Words and Music 
M. M. ^ = 126. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 










Ho-o! Ho-o! Nawa 'Ti - ra, na - wa 'Ti - ra, na'Ti-ra we-ri-ra ! Na ' Ti-r 



:i 



Drum. . . , , , m r » . m * • • . * o * * . . , * 

Rattles. 1 ^ L^ LJ . L_J ' ' — - LJ — . — 



3=*r- 







we-ri-ra! Na-wa 'Ti - ra, na - wa 'Ti - ra, na - wa. Ha! We-ri-ra! 

6 _ A _ A _ £ _ £ - £ _ t - £ 



UU tj i • l^t : r U u i i * 

i 

448 Ho-o! Ho-o! 

449 Nawa 'Tira, nawa 'Tira, na "Tira werira! 

450 Na 'Tira werira! 

451 Nawa 'Tira, nawa 'Tira, nawa. Ha! Werira! 

II 

452 Ho-o! Ho-o! 

453 Ha wa 'Tira, ha wa 'Tira, ha "Tira werai! 

454 Ha 'Tira werai! 

455 Ha wa 'Tira, ha wa 'Tira. ha 'Tira werai! 



Translation of First Stanza 

448 Ho-o! Ho-o! Introductory exclamations. 

44 ( .) Nawa 'Tira, nawa 'Tira, na 'Tira werira! 



nawa, now. 



'tira, pari of ili<' word atira, mother. The term refers 1 <> 1 lie 
ear of corn. 

na, pari of nawa, now. 
'1 ira, ai Lra, mo1 her. 
werim. she comes. 



110 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

450 Xa 'tira werira! See line 449. 

451 Nawa 'tira, nawa 'tira, nawa. Ha! Werira! 

ha! behold! look! For the other words, see line 449. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In the first stanza the Fathers speak; they tell the Children to 
behold Mother Corn, who comes bringing the promise of good gifts. 
They must fix their eyes and thought upon Mother Corn, who now 
comes hither. They must give her thanks for all she is bringing to 
make their hearts glad. 

We sing this stanza four times as we go around the lodge. 

When we reach the west we pause and then start on the fourth 
circuit singing the second stanza. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

452 Ho-o ! Ho-o ! Introductory exclamations. 

453 Ha wa 'Tira, ha wa 'Tira, ha 'Tira werai! 

ha, yonder. 

wa, part of nawa, now. 

'tira, part of atira, mother. Refers to the corn. 

ha, yonder. 

'tira, atira, mother. 

werai, she is coming. 

454 Ha 'Tira werai! See line 453. 

455 See line 453. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In this stanza the Children speak. Yonder Mother Corn is coming. 
She is bringing good gifts of peace and plenty to make glad our hearts. 

TJie Fathers, they who are carrying the sacred objects, are singing, 
but if the Children choose they can join in the song as the waving 
feathered stems are passing by. 

When we have sung this stanza four times and have reached the 
west we have completed the fourth circuit of the lodge. 

We sing each stanza four times during one circuit and we must 
make four circuits of the lodge after we have taken up the Hako and 
before we can lay them down. 

The four circuits of the lodge are made in recognition of the four 
directions, the four powers at the west and the four sacred objects, 
the two eagles, the ear of corn, and the wildcat skin. 

Up to this time the feathered stems have been simply laid down 
upon the wildcat skin without ceremony, but now and hereafter 
during the ceremony, whenever we complete a fourth circuit of the 
lodge and return to the west, they are laid to rest upon the skin with 
certain peculiar movements made to the rhythm of song. a The songs 
which belong to this act explain its meaning. 

« In the following pages the places will be indicated where these songs must be sung, but to 
avoid unnecessary repetition the songs themselves will be omitted. 



Fletcher] 



EIGHTH RITUAL 



111 



The feathered stems represent the eagle ; the holy place, where the 
stems are laid to rest, represents the eagle's nest. A nest is made for 
the young; the making of a nest in the lodge of the Son by Ka- 
was presages the fulfilment of the promise of children to the Son, as 
well as the establishment of a close bond, like that of father and son, 
between the members of two unrelated clans or tribes. 

The cat skin lies next to the ground on the holy place; it protects 
by its skill the nest and all that the nest represents. 

Whenever we lay the feathered stems down, after they have been 
carried four times around the lodge and waved over the heads of the 
people, they are moved in a Avay to represent the eagle hovering over 
her nest and then alighting on her young. These songs and these 
movements are a prayer for the gift of children, and that the bond 
between the Father and the Son may be true and strong. 

There are four songs for the ceremony of laying down the feathered 
stems. Each song has two stanzas. We sing two of these songs every 
time we lay these objects to rest. We sway the stems over the cat 
skin, dropping them lower and lower, then suddenly we raise them 
again and finally let them gently down on the nest. The eagle acts in 
this manner when going to her nest. She does not at once settle 
down ; she flies over it, sweeping lower and lower, then rises to see if 
all is well, and slowly descends to drop lightly on the nest. 

When the young eagles see the mother coming and hear her call, 
they answer back, they are glad. We are like the young birds in the 
nest, so we cry "Hiri!" expressing our gratitude to Kawas, who is 
making her nest with ns. We pray in our hearts as we sing. 

SONGS FOR LAYING DOWN THE FEATHERED STEMS 

SONG 



Words and Music 
M. M. J.= 69. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




Drum, p tr 
Rattles. 



=HT ri — | i i^ r i i ; — i i i 



a 



a; whe ri - a - a; 

A 
P 



I 



tr 






li - ri! Wlie ri a a; whe ri - a - a; whe ri - a. Hi- ri! 



m 



A 

P 



tr.. 



A 
P 



112 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

I 

456 He-e-e-e! 

457 Wheria-a; whe ria-a: whe ria. Hiri! 

458 Whe ria. Hiri! 

459 Whe ria. Hiri! 

460 Whe ria. Hiri! 

461 Wheria-a; wheria-a; whe ria. Hiri! 

II 

462 He-e-e-e! 

463 Whe ria-a; whe ria-a: whe ria. Hiri! 

464 Whe ria. Hiri! 

465 Whe ria. Hiri! 

466 Whe ria. Hiri! 

467 Whe ria-a; whe ria-a; whe ria. Shpetit! 

Translation 



456 He-e-e-e! An introductory exclamation. 

457 Whe ria-a; whe ria-a; whe ria-a. Hiri! 

whe, now. 

ria, flying and circling over something, as a nest, 
a, vowel prolongation. 

hiri! part of naAvairi! thanks! The initial h is added for 
euphony. 
458, 459, 460 Whe ria. Hiri ! See line 457. 

461 See line 457. 

II 

462 He-e-e-e ! An introductory exclamation. 

463 See line 457. 

464, 465, 466 See line 458. 

467 Whe ria-a, whe ria-a, whe ria. Shpetit! 

whe ria-a, whe ria-a, whe ria. See line 457. 

shpetit, to light upon, as on a nest, and sit down upon it. 



fletcher] EIGHTH RITUAL 113 



SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. J =108. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

A A A 




Hi- ri!Hawara-ti - ra. Hi - n ! Hawa ra-ti - ra! Hi tu-ka i ra-ra-spi! 

AAA 

Drum. f> tr _~„_~ f */-.~~~~~~~~~ f tr 

Rattles. I ~~— ~™~— ~ I l 




■r** 



Hi - ril Hawa rati - ra. Hi - ri! Hawa ra-ti - ra! Hi tu-ka i ra-ra - spi. 

AAA 

P tr.^^^^r~^~~~~~. P tr.^^^, r^s-^j-j- P tr.* 



468 Hiri! Hawa ratira. Hiri! Hawa ratira! 

469 Hi tuka i raraspi! 

470 Hiri! Hawa ratira. Hiri! Hawa ratira! 

471 Hi tuka i raraspi! 

II 

472 Hiri! Hawa rassira. Hiri! Hawa rassira! 

473 Hi tuka i rarispi! 

474 Hiri! Hawa rassira. Hiri! Hawa rassira! 

475 Hi tuka i rarispi! 

Translation 



468 Hiri! Hawa ratira. Hiri! Hawa ratira. 

hiri! part of nawairi! an exclamation of thanks, gratitude, of 

confidence that all is well. The initial h is added to iri 

for euphony and ease in singing. 
hawa, again, 
ratira, coming. 
400 Hi tuka i raraspi. 

hi, it; refers to the eagle. 

tuka, slantwise. 

i, vocable to fill out the measure. 

raraspi, very near to alighting, referring to the movements of 

the eagle, which makes feints of descending upon her nest 

and then rises again. 

470 See line 408. 

471 See line 469. 

22 eth— pt 2—04 8 



114 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

II 

472 Hiri! Hawa rassira. Hiri! Hawa rassira! 

hiri! an exclamation of thankfulness. See explanation in 
line 468. 

hawa, again. 

rassira, yon coming, or returning. Refers to the movements 
of the eagle. After the feint of alighting she rises and 
then she returns again preparatory to settling on her nest. 

473 Hi tuka i rarispi. 

hi, it; refers to the eagle. 

tuka, slantwise. 

i, vocable used to fill out the measure of the music. 

rarispi, has alighted. 

474 See line 472. 

475 See line 473. 

SONG 



Words and Music 



M. M. j=56. 



• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracj. 



;**-% 



4 -.-y^- 



Kt=r=i 



:EE*^--fc3z i i=*z=EE^r T -"3=5zs=*^EE^2 = ^-:*z 



Ha-a-a! E - ra he-ra i - ru - wa. Ha! Ti wi ru-wa, ti wi ru-wa, ka- 

A A A A A 

Drum. P tr P tr ^^*~^~ f tr f tr & tr 

Rattles. I *"~~ ' I -~~~~ | .^^^ <^ 

_ A " A__ 




rawi-ti-ka? Ka-was ti wi ru-wa, ti wi ruwa, ka - rawi-tika? E- 

A A A A 

f Jr.™™™ f 7 *r.™™„ f* <r___ f> *,-.„ m f W.„ 




C=lS=S 






ra he-ra i ru-wa. Ha! Ti wi ru-wa, ti wi ruwa, ka- ra wi-ti-ka? 

*i 

I 

476 Ha-a-a! 

477 Era hera iruwa. Ha! Ti wi ruwa, ti wi ruwa, kara witika? 

478 Kawas ti wi ruwa, ti wi ruwa, kara witika? 

479 Era hera iruwa. Ha! Ti wi ruwa, ti wi ruwa, kara witika? 

II 

480 Ha-a-a! 

481 Era hera eria. Ha! Ti wi ria, ti wi ria, hara witika; 

482 Kawas ti wi ria, ti wi ria, hara witika. 

483 Era hera eria. Ha! Ti wi ria, ti wi ria, hara witika. 



fletcher] EIGHTH RITUAL 115 

Translation 



476 Ha-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

477 Era hera iruwa. Ha! Ti wi ruwa, ti wi ruwa, kara witika? 

era, it coming; refers to the eagle. 

hera; era, it coming; the h is added for euphony. 

iruwa, one flying this way, toward us one (singular) is flying. 

ha! look! behold! 

ti, here. 

wi, is. 

ruwa, flying this way. 

kara? has it? a question. 

witika, sat down within, or alighted and settled on, its nest. 

478 Kawas ti wi ruwa, ti wi ruwa, kara witika? 

Kawas, the brown eagle, the leading bird in the ceremony. 

ti wi ruwa. See line 477. 

kara witika? has it alighted and sat down within its nest? 

479 See line 477. 

II 

480 Ha-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

481 Era hera eria. Ha! Ti wi ria, ti wi ria, hara witika. 

era, it coming. 

hera, a repetition of era, the h being added for euphony. 

eria, circling overhead ; refers to the movements of the eagle. 

ha! look! behold! 

ti, here. 

wi, is. 

ria, a part of the word eria, circling over. 

hara, it has. 

witika, sat down within, or settled on, its nest. 

482 Kawas ti wi ria, ti wi ria, hara witika. 

Kawas, the brown eagle, the leading symbolic bird in the cere- 
mony, 
ti wi ria, hara witika. See line 481. 

483 See line 481. 



116 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 



SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M.J =58. 



• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



Ha-a-a a! Ka-ra wi-tit?Ka-ra wi-tit? Ka-ra wi-tit? Ka-ra wi-tit?Ka-ra wi-tit? 
ESt^ftr.fa fa fa fa. ~ ftr ™ 



53E 



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^PS: 






:z)=z*==j: 



*^S=g=i j?z±g^=g— i^2^=^^:=tzS^=2 



Ka-ra e? Ka-ra wi-tit?Ka-ra wi-tit? Ka-ra wi-tit? Ka-ra e? 

A A A A A 

484 Ha-a-a-a! 

485 Kara witit? Kara witit? Kara witit? Kara witit? Kara witit? Kara e? 

486 Kara witit? Kara witit? Kara witit? Kara e? 

487 Ha-a-a-a! 

488 Hara witit; hara witit; hara witit; hara witit; hara witit; hara e! 

489 Hara witit; hara witit; liara witit; hara e! 

Translation 



484 Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

485 Kara witit? Kara witit? Kara witit? Kara witit? Kara witit? 

Kara e? 

kara? has it? a question. 

witit, sat down or lit upon (its nest). The iteration of the 
words follow the picture made by the movements of the 
feathered stems as they are waved now lower and now 
higher over the cat skin, simulating the eagle as she pre- 
pares to alight on her nest. 

e, a vocable to fill out the measure of the music. 
48 G Kara witit? Kara witit? Kara witit? Kara e? See line 485. 

II 

487 Ha-a-a-a ! An introductory exclamation. 

488 Hara witit; hara witit; hara witit; hara witit; hara witit; harae! 

hara, it has. 

witit, sat down or alighted and settled upon (its nest). The 
repetition of the words accompanies the movements of the 
feathered stems as they are waved lower and lower toward 
the cat skin. 

e, a vocable to fill out the measure of the music. 

489 Hara witit; hara witit; hara witit; hara e! See line 488. 



Fletcher] EIGHTH AND NINTH RITUALS 117 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When the Hako are at rest, the food which lias been standing 
beside the fire is served by the Fathers to the Children. Certain men 
are appointed for this task. 

It is the duty of a father to provide food for his child, and not to 
partake himself until the child is satisfied. As we are to simulate the 
relation of father to child, we prepare a meal for the Children twice 
and sometimes thrice a day during the continuance of this ceremony. 
We are obliged to bring much food for this purpose, as the Children 
are sometimes many, and we have also ourselves to feed. 

Where we must travel far to reach the tribe of the Son, the burden 
of carrying so much food is hard upon our ponies. So much cooking 
for the Children keeps the women very busy, but they are willing, for 
the ceremony brings good to them. 

After the Children have eaten they rest a while and then go home, 
returning to the lodge when the sun has set. Before they go they 
generally make gifts of ponies to the Fathers. 

When the Fathers are left alone in the lodge they eat their evening 
meal. 

The Hako throughout this ceremony are never left unattended by 
night or day. When the Ku'rahus, or his assistant, or the chief needs 
to leave the lodge, someone is requested to take his place during his 
absence. 

NINTH RITUAL (FIRST NIGHT). INVOKING THE VISIONS 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When the sun has set and it is dark and the stars are shining, then 
the Children gather in the lodge. Some, as they come in, will advance 
to the holy place and there drop a stick; this means the gift of a pony. 
For every such gift the Ku'rahus returns thanks to the giver. 

After all are seated, wood is piled upon the fire, and when the flames 
leap high the Ku'rahus rises, then his assistant and the chief rise and 
the Hako are taken up. 

The singers carrying the drum follow the Hako bearers as they move 
slowly around the lodge, singing the following song. 



118 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. J> - 132. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 




Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



as 



ZWL--B: 



&-m: 



3=* 



3= 



Ho-o-o-o ! Hit - ka - sha - ru ! 



Drum, i , i # i m , . 
Hat ties. \j U — - 



Ru - hu 

? r p 



ri 



hi 



hit- ka-sha-rul 



33S=*=3fc J=^-*=g_-^Oz*— i =i t=i-B31-i=J=it 



n 



Ru-hu - ri-hil Ru-hu - ri-hi 

U U Lr Lr Lj- Lr 

I 

490 Ho-o-o-o! 

491 Hitkasharu! 

492 Ruhurihi hitkasharu! 

493 Ruhurihi! 

494 Ruhurihi hitkasharu! 

495 Ruhurihi! 



hit-ka-sha-ru! 

Lj- * ' 



Ru-hu - ri-hi! 

S H i 1 

Y 

514 Ho-o-o-o! 

515 Hitkasharu! 

516 We rakawa hitkasharu! 

517 We rakawa! 

518 We rakawa hitkasharu! 

519 We rakawa! 





II 




YI 


496 


Ho-o-o-o! 


520 


Ho-o-o-o! 


497 


Hitkasharu! 


521 


Hitkasharu! 


498 


Weri rawha hitkasharu! 


522 


We riteri hitkasharu! 


499 


Weri rawha! 


523 


We riteri! 


500 


Weri rawha hitkasharu! 


524 


We riteri hitkasharu! 


501 


Weri rawha! 


525 


We riteri! 




Ill 




YII 


502 


Ho-o-o-o! 


526 


Ho-o-o-o! 


503 


Hitkasharu! 


527 


Hitkasharu! 


504 


Weri whicha hitkasharu! 


528 


We rahwara hitkasharu! 


505 


Weri whicha! 


529 


We rahwara! 


506 


Weri whicha hitkasharu! 


530 


We rahwara hitkasharu! 


507 


Weri whicha! 


531 


We rahwara! 




IY 




YIII 


508 


Ho-o-o-o! 


532 


Ho-o-o-o! 


509 


Hitkasharu! 


533 


Hitkasharu! 


510 


We rahruka hitkasharu! 


534 


Wera rawhishpa hitkasharu! 


511 


We rahruka! 


535 


Wera rawhishpa! 


512 


We rahruka hitkasharu! 


536 


Wera rawhishpa hitkasharu! 


513 


We rahruka! a 


537 


Wera rawhishpa! a 



Translation of First Stanza 

490 Ho-o-o-o ! An exclamation introductory to the song. 

491 Hitkasharu! A composite term; hit, from hittu, feather; ka, 

from rotkaharu, night; sharu, visions, dreams. Hittu, 
feather, refers to the birds represented upon the feathered 
stems. The term indicates the night visions which attend 
or belong to these symbolic objects, the feathered stems. 



« Here the Hako are laid at ceremonial rest. See pages 111-116. 



FLETCHER] NINTH RITUAL 119 

492 Ruhurihi hitkasharu! 

ruhurihi, a command, a call; "let it be so!" 
hitkasharu. See line 491. 

493 Ruhurihi! See line 492. 

494 See line 492. 

495 See line 493. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

We siug about the visions which the birds on the feathered stems 
are to bring to the Children. 

Visions come from above, they are sent by Tira'wa atius. The 
lesser powers come to us in visions. We receive help through the 
visions. All the promises which attend the Hako will be made good 
to us in this way. 

Visions can come most readily at night; spirits travel better at that 
time. Now when we are met together we, the Fathers, call upon the 
visions to come to the Children. 

The spirits of the birds upon the feathered stems join our spirits 
in this call to the visions. That is what the words of this stanza 
mean. We sing it four times as we make the first circuit of the 
lodge. 

When we reach the west we pause. 

Translation of Seconal Stanza 



Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

497 Hitkasharu! The visions that attend the Hako. See line 491. 

498 Weri rawha hitkasharu ! 

weri, they. 

rawha, are coming. 

hitkasharu, the visions which attend the Hako. 

499 Weri rawha! See line 498. 

500 See line 498. 

501 See line 499. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahi 

As we go around the lodge the second time we sing this stanza. 

The visions have heard the call of the spirits of the birds upon the 
feathered stems, joined to the call of our spirits, and they are 
descending by the east from their dwelling place above, and are com- 
ing toward the lodge. 

We sing ''They are coming," and the Children join in the song, as 
we pass around and wave the feathered stems. 

When we reach the west we pause. 



120 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [kth. ann. 22 

Translation of Third Stanza 

502 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

503 Hitkasharu! The visions that attend the Hako. See line 491. 

504 Weri whicha hitkasharu ! 

weri, they. 

whicha, a part of the word ra whicha, arrived, have arrived. 

hitkasharu, the visions which attend the Hako. 

505 Weri whicha. See line 504. 

506 See line 504. 

507 See line 505. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

We start on the third circuit of the lodge, singing this stanza. We 
sing it four times. 

The visions have been traveling from the east, whence they 
descended; they have been passing over the quiet earth, coming 
nearer and nearer in answer to our call, and at last they reach the 
door of the lodge. There they pause. 

When we reach the west we pause. We are waiting, all the Chil- 
dren are waiting. We are thinking of these visions, of the place where 
they dwell, of their coming at our call, of all they are to bring to us. 
They are holy visions. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

508 Ho-o-o-o ! An introductory exclamation. 

509 Hitkasharu! The visions that attend the Hako. See line 491. 

510 We rahruka hitkasharu ! 

we, a part of the word weri, they. 

rahruka, a composite word; rahru, to go through or enter; ka, 
a part of the word akaro, lodge; the word means entered 
and passed through the long passageway that leads into 
the earth lodge. 

hitkasharu, the visions that attend the Hako. 

511 We rahruka! See line 510. 

512 See line 510. 

513 See line 511. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

We turn toward the north to make the fourth circuit of the lodge, 
singing this stanza. We sing it four times. 

As we sing the visions touch and cross the threshold and then pass 
down the long passageway leading into the lodge. As we reach the 
west they have entered the lodge. 

Kawas and all the birds have called these visions to bless the Chil- 
dren. The visions have heard, they have traveled far, they have 



FLETCHER] NINTH EITUAL 121 

reached the lodge, and now they have entered and are in the presence 
of the Children. 

Kawas now goes to her nest, so we lay the Hako down with the move- 
ments and songs which belong to this act, a and then we sit down 
behind the Hako and are quiet. 

Perhaps some one of the Children may rise and come to the holy 

place and there lay down a stick, signifying the gift of a horse to the 

Fathers in recognition of their having called the visions which are 

now present. 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

514 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

515 Hitkasharu ! The visions that attend the Hako. See line 491. 

516 We rakawa hitkasharu! 

we, part of weri, they. 

rakawa, walking, moving; conveys the idea of spreading 

through, pervading the space within the lodge, 
hitkasharu, the visions that attend the Hako. 

517 We rakawa! See line 516. 

518 See line 516. 

519 See line 517. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

Near midnight the Ku'rahus, his assistant, and the chief rise and 
take up the Hako, and we go around the lodge again and sing this 
stanza four times. 

As we walk, the visions walk; they fill all the space within the 
lodge; they are everywhere, all about us. 

When we reach the west we pause. 

Translation of Sixth Stanza 

520 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

521 Hitkasharu! The visions that attend the Hako. See line 491. 

522 AVe riteri hitkasharu! 

we, a part of the word weri, they. 

riteri, touching in different places, touching here and there. 

hitkasharu, the visions that attend the Hako. 

523 We riteri! See line 522. 

524 See line 522. 

525 See line 523. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we go around the second time we sing the next stanza four 
times. 

The visions which attend the Hako are now touching the Children, 
touching them here and there and by their touch giving them dreams, 
which will bring them health, strength, happiness, and all good things. 

a See pages 111-116. 



122 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

The visions touch all who are in the lodge, so it is a good thing to 
be there, to be touched by the visions. 
At the west we pause. 

Translation of Seventh Stanza 

526 Ho-o-o-o ! An introductory exclamation. 

527 Hitkasharu! The visions that attend the Hako. See line 491. 

528 We rahwara hitkasharu ! 

we, a part of the word weri, they, 
rahwara, walking away, departing, 
hitkasharu, the visions that attend the Hako. 

529 We rahwara! See line 528. 

530 See line 528. 

531 See line 529. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

We go around the lodge for the third time and sing this stanza four 
times. 

As we sing, the visions are walking away; they have done what 
they came to do; they are now leaving the lodge, and when we reach 
the west the space they had filled is empty. 

We pause and we think of the visions going away over the silent 
earth to ascend to their dwelling place. 

Translation of Eighth Stanza 

532 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

533 Hitkasharu! The visions that attend the Hako. See line 491. 

534 Wera rawhishpa hitkasharu! 

wera, they have. 

rawhishpa, arrived at the place from which the start was 

made, 
hitkasharu, the visions that attend the Hako. 

535 Wera rawhishpa! See line 534. 

536 See line 534. 

537 See line 535. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

Once more, for the fourth time, we go around the lodge singing this 
stanza four times. 

As we sing, the visions ascend to their dwelling place; they have 
returned whence they came, to their abode in the sky. 

When we reach the west we lay the Hako down with the songs and 
movements which accompany the act. a Kawas rests in her nest. 

One by one the Children go to their homes, and the dreams brought 
by the visions which attend the Hako go with them to make their 
hearts glad. 

a See pages 111-116. 



FLETCHER] 



TENTH RITUAL 



123 



TENTH RITUAL. THE DAWN 



Part I. The Birth of Dawn 
Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As the night draws to a close, the Ku'rahus orders the server to 
lift the skins which hang at the outer and inner doors of the long 
passageway of the lodge, and to go outside and watch for the first 
glimmer of light. 

The Ku'rahus, his assistant, and the chief, sitting behind theHako, 
where they lie at rest, look toward the east through the open doorway 
and watch for the first signs of the dawn. 

At the first indication of a change, when the air begins to stir, the 
server comes in with the tidings, and we rise, take up the Hako, and 
stand at the west, behind the holy place; there, looking toward the 
east, we sing this song. We sing it slowly and with reverent feeling, 
for it speaks of the mysterious and powerful act of Tira'wa atius in 
the birth of Dawn. 

SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. N = 116. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 




Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



Ho-o-o! H'A - ti-ra si wha-ta 



Drum. % 
Battles, r tr -< 



i; H'A - 

tr.^ 



ti - ra si wha-ta 



Re- 



A 

P 



A 
P 



tr. 




— q^:zz 



538 
539 
540 
541 
542 



543 
544 

5 \:> 
546 
547 

548 
549 
550 
55 1 



sliu -ru ti - a 



ra 



:*=?: 



Ho-o-o! 

H'Atira si whata i; 
H'Atira si whata i; 
Reshuru tiara i; 
H'Atira si whata i. 

II 

Ho-o-o! 

H'Atira ta wata i; 
H'Atira ta wata i; 
Reshuru tiara i; 
H'Atira ta wata i. 

Ill 
Ho-o-o! 

H'Kawas si whata i; 
H'Kawas si whata i: 
Reshuru tiara i: 
H'Kawas si whata i. 



i;H'A 

tr 



A 
P 



• • • • ^ 

ti - ra si wha-ta i. 



q*=sp: 



563 



A 
• 



I 



IV 

553 Ho-o-o! 

554 H'Kawas ta wata i; 

555 H'Kawas ta wata i; 

556 Reshuru tiara i : 

557 H'Kawas ta wata 1. 



558 Ho-o-o! 

■ >~) ( .) Kawas ti waku ka riki; 

560 Kawas ti waku ka riki; 

561 Reshuru tiara i: 

562 Kawas ti waku ka riki; 



VI 



Ho-o-o! 

564 We tatichiri wak ka riki; 

565 We tatichiri wak ka riki; 
56(5 Reshuru tiara i; 

567 We tatichiri wak ka riki. 



124 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

VII VIII 

568 Ho-o-o! 573 Ho-o-o! 

569 Pirau si whata i; 574 Pirau ta wata i; 

570 Pirau si whata i; 575 Pirau ta wata i; 

571 Reshuru tiara i; 576 Reshuru tiara i; 

572 Pirau si whata i. 577 Pirau ta wata i. 

Translation of First Stanza 

538 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

539 H'Atira si whata i. 

h', the sign of breath, of breathing forth life. 

atira, mother. The term here refers to Mother Earth, repre- 
sented by the ear of corn. 

si, yon; singular number, used in addressing a person. 

whata, arise, move, stir about. The word is used when mak- 
ing a request or a suggestion, not a command. 

i, a part of the word riki, now, the present time. 

540 See line 539. 

541 Reshuru tiara i. 

Reshuru, the Dawn. 

tiara, a birth, a transformation, one form proceeding from 

another, 
i, part of the word riki, now, the present time. 

542 See line 539. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

We call to Mother Earth, who is represented by the ear of corn. 
She has been asleep and resting during the night. We ask her to 
awake, to move, to arise, for the signs of the dawn are seen in the 
east and the breath of the new life is here. 

H'Atira means Mother breathing forth life; this life is received 
from Tira'wa atius with the breath of the new-born Dawn. 

Mother Earth is the first to be called to awake, that she may receive 
the breath of the new day. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

543 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

544 H'Atira ta wata i. 

h', the symbol of breath, life. 

atira, mother; refers to the earth. 

ta, a personal pronoun referring to atira; she. In the original 

no sex is indicated; there are no pronouns he or she; ta 

applies to either sex. 
wata, has arisen, 
i, a part of the word riki, now, present time. 

545 See line 544. 



Fletcher] TENTH RITUAL, PART I 125 

540 Reshuru tiara i. 

Reshuru, the Dawn. 

tiara, born. 

i, a part of riki, now, present time. 

547 See line 544. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

Mother Earth hears the call; she moves, she awakes, she arises, she 
feels the breath of the new-born Dawn. The leaves and the grass 
stir; all things move with the breath of the new day; everywhere life 
is renewed. 

This is very mysterious; we are speaking of something very sacred, 
although it happens every day. 

Translation of Third Stanza 

548 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

549 H'Kawas si whata i. 

h', the symbol of breath, breathing forth life. 

Kawas, the brown eagle, representative of the lesser and 

beneficient powers above. 
si, yon; a personal pronoun, singular number, 
whata, arise, stir, move about. 
i, a part of riki, now, the present time. 

550 See line 549. 

551 See line 546. 

552 See line 549. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

We call upon Kawas to awake, to move, to arise. Kawas had been 
sleeping and resting during the night. 

Kawas represents the lesser powers which dwell above, those which 
are sent by Tira'wa atius to bring us help. All these powers must awake 
and arise, for the breath of the new life of the Dawn is upon them. 

The eagle soars where these powers dwell and can communicate 
with them. The new life of the new day is felt by these powers 
above as well as by Mother Earth below. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

553 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

554 H'Kawas ta wata i. 

h', the symbol of breath, life. 

Kawas, the brown eagle, representative of the lesser powers 

above, 
ta, a personal pronoun referring to Kawas. 
wata, lias arisen. 
i, a part of the word riki, now, the present time. 

555 See line 554. 
550 See line 540. 
557 See Line 554. 



126 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

H'Kawas hears the call and awakes. Now all the powers above 
wake and stir, and all things below wake and stir; the breath of new 
life is everywhere. With the signs in the east has come this new life. 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

558 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

559 Kawas ti waku ka riki. 

Kawas, the brown eagle, the intermediary as well as the repre- 
sentative of the lesser and beneficent powers above. 

ti, a personal pronoun referring to Kawas, singular number, 
spoken of. 

waku, speaks. 

ka, a part of the word akaro, lodge; refers to the space 
within the lodge about the fire. In this instance ka indi- 
cated the holy place set apart for the sacred objects. 

riki, standing ; the word implies the present time. 

560 See line 559. 

561 Reshuru tiara i. See line 546. 

562 See line 559. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

Kawas, the brown eagle, the messenger of the powers above, now 
stands within the lodge a»d speaks. The Ku'rahus hears her voice 
as she tells him what the signs in the east mean. 

She tells him that Tira'wa alius there moves upon Darkness, the 
Night, and causes her to bring forth the Dawn. It is the breath of the 
new-born Dawn, the child of Night and Tira'wa atius, which is felt by 
all the powers and all things above and below and which gives them 
new life for the new day. 

This is the meaning of this stanza. The words of the song do not 
tell all that the song means; the meaning has been handed down 
from our fathers and taught to the Ku'rahus, who may teach it to 
anyone who is serious-minded and sincerely desires to learn these 
sacred things. 

Translation of Sixth Stanza 

563 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

564 We tatichiri wak ka riki. 

we, I. 

tatichiri, understand, have knowledge of the meaning. 

wak, a part of the word waku, speech, to speak. 

ka, a part of akaro, lodge; within the lodge. See line 559. 

riki, standing. 

565 See line 564. 

566 Reshuru tiara i. See line 546. 

567 See line 564. 



Fletcher] TENTH RITUAL PART I 127 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In this stanza the Ku'rahus answers Kawas. Pie tells her that he 
understands the words she spoke to him when standing there in the 
lodge, that now he knows the meaning of the signs in the east; that 
night is the mother of the day, that it is by the power of Tira'wa 
atius moving on Darkness that she gives birth to the Dawn. 

The Dawn is the child of Tira'wa atius. It gives the blessing of life; 
it comes to awaken man, to awake Mother Earth and all living things 
that they may receive the life, the breath of the Dawn which is born 
of the Night by the power of Tira'wa atius. 

Our fathers were taught by Kawas and understood what she told 
them, and what they then learned has been handed down to us. 

Translation of Seventh Stanza 

568 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

569 Pirau si whata i. 

pirau, my son. The term refers to the Son, the person to 
whom the Father has brought the Hako to establish a 
bond between the two by means of this ceremony. The 
Son has remained in the lodge through the night. 

si, you. 

whata, arise. See line 539. 

i, a part of riki; now, present time. 

570 See line 569. 

571 See line 546. 

572 See line 569. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

We now call upon the Son, who has been asleep and resting in the 
lodge, to awake, to move, and to arise, for the east gives signs of the 
birth of the dawn, whose breath is on all things. 

Translation of Eighth Stanza 

573 IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

574 Pirau ta wata i. 

pirau, my son; the term refers to the Son. 
ta, a personal pronoun referring to the Son. 
wata, has arisen, 
i, a part of riki; now. 

575 See line 574. 

576 See line 546. 

577 See lino 574. 

Explanation of the Ku'rahus 

The Son hears the call. lie wakes, he moves, he rises, he looks to 
the east and sees the signs of the dawn. 



128 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



Part II. The Morning Star and the New-born Dawn 
Explanation by the Ku'ralius 

Now all have risen and have received the breath of the new life 
jnst born, all the powers above, all things below. Kawas has stood 
and spoken in the lodge; the Ku'rahus has heard and understood; the 
Son is awake and stands with the Ku'rahus awaiting the coming of 
dawn. The Kn'rahus has sent the server outside the lodge to watch 
for the morning star. We stand at the west and wait its coming. 
When it appears he sings the following song: 



SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. ^- 132. 



Pulsation of the voice. 




Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



Drum. 

Matties. 



Ho-o-o-o! H'O-pi 

A A A 

Lf Lr u t 



rit ri - ra 

r * r 



f 



fc=3M: 



ri - sha; 

A A 

*-4 



H' O - pi - rit ri - ra ri 

A A 



! I I ! 



fFgi^C ^ ^ Uj J J | j J 3 ^ d 4J L ^lU3 3 1 



sha; IPO - pi - rit ri 




578 
579 
580 
581 

582 



583 
584 
585 
586 

587 



A 
f 



Ho-o-o-o! 

H'Opirit rira risha; 
H'Opirit rira risha; 
H'Opirit rira risha; 
H'Opirit rira risha. 

II 

Ho-o-o-o! 

H'Opirit ta ahrisha; 
H'Opirit ta ahrisha; 
H'Opirit ta ahrisha; 
H'Opirit ta ahrisha. 



sha; 



H'O - pi 


- rit ri - ra ri - sha. 






Ill 


588 


Ho-o-o-o! 


589 


Reshuru rira risha; 


590 


Reshuru rira risha; 


591 


Reshuru rira risha; 


592 


Reshuru rira risha. 




IV 


593 


Ho-o-o-o! 


594 


Reshuru ta ahrisha; 


595 


Reshuru ta ahrisha; 


596 


Reshuru ta ahrisha; 


597 


Reshuru ta ahrisha. 



578 
579 



Translation of First Stanza 

H-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
H'Opirit rira risha. 

h', the symbol of breath, breathing forth life. 
Opirit, the Morning Star, 
rira, coming; approaching toward one. 

risha, something seen at a great distance; it seems to appear 
and then to be lost, to disappear. The word conveys the 
picture of a gradual advance, as from a great distance, 
where the object was scarcely discernable, to a nearer 
point of view, but still distant. 
580, 581, 582 See line 579. 



fletcher] TENTH KITUAL, PART II 129 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

We sing this song slowly with reverent feeling, for we are singing 
of very sacred things. 

The Morning Star is one of the lesser powers. Life and strength 
and fruitf ulness are with the Morning Star. We are reverent toward 
it. Our fathers performed sacred ceremonies in its honor. 

The Morning Star is like a man; he is painted red all over; that is 
the color of life. He is clad in leggings and a robe is wrapped about 
him. On his head is a soft downy eagle's feather, painted red. This 
feather represents the soft, light cloud that is high in the heavens, 
and the red is the touch of a ray of the coming sun. The soft, downy 
feather is the symbol of breath and life. 

The star comes from a great distance, too far away for us to see the 
place where it starts. At first we can hardly see it; we lose sight of 
it, it is so far off; then we see it again, for it is coming steadily toward 
us all the time. We watch it approach; it comes nearer and nearer; 
its light grows brighter and brighter. 

This is the meaning of this stanza, and the star comes as we sing it 
four times. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

583 H-o-o-o ! An introductory exclamation. 

584 H'Opirit ta ahrisha. 

h', the symbol of breath, life. 

Opirit, the Morning Star. 

ta, approaching. 

ahrisha, coming still nearer, but at the same time disappear- 
ing. The word conveys the picture of the morning star by 
its increased brilliancy coming nearer, and then fading, 
disappearing in the light of day. 
585, 586, 587 See line 584. 

Explanation by the Kn'rahus 

As we sing this stanza the Morning Star comes still nearer and now 
we see him standing there in the heavens, a strong man shining 
brighter and brighter. The soft plume in his hair moves with the 
breath of the new day, and the ray of the sun touches it with color. 
As he stands there so bright, he is bringing us strength and new life. 

As we look upon him he grows less bright, he is receding, going 
back to his dwelling place whence he came. We watch him vanish- 
ing, passing out of our sight. He has left with us the gift of life 
which Tira'wa atius sent him to bestow. 

We sing this stanza four times. 
22 eth— pt 2—04 9 



130 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Translation of Third Stanza 

588 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

589 Reslmru rira risha. 

Reshuru, the Dawn. % 
rira, coming toward one. 

risha, something scarcely to be seen because of its distance; 
it eludes, seems to appear and then to disappear. 
590, 591, 592 See line 589. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing this stanza we are still standing at the west of the 
lodge, looking through the long passageway toward the east. Now 
in the distance we see the Dawn approaching; it is coming, coming 
along the path of the Morning Star. It is a long path and as the 
Dawn advances along this path sometimes we catch sight of it and 
then again we lose it, but all the time it is coming nearer. 

The Dawn is new born, its breath has sent new life everywhere, all 
things stir with the life Tira'wa atius has given this child, his child, 
whose mother is the Mght. 

We sing this stanza four times. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

593 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

594 Reshuru ta ahrisha. 

Reshuru, the Dawn. 

ta, approaching, coming. 

ahrisha, coming nearer but only to disappear. The Dawn 

comes nearer, grows brighter, but disappears in the 

brighter light of day. 
595, 596, 597 See line 594. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we stand, looking through the long passageway of the lodge, 
watching and singing, we see the Dawn come nearer and nearer; its 
brightness fills the sky, the shadowy forms on the earth are becoming 
visible. As we watch, the Dawn, like the Morning Star, recedes. It 
is following the star, going back to the place whence it came, to its 
birthplace. 

The day is close behind, advancing along the path of the Morning- 
Star and the Dawn, and, as we watch, the Dawn vanishes from our 
sight. 

We sing this song four times. 



FLETCHER] 



TENTH RITUAL 



131 



Part III. Daylight 
song 



/- 



Words and Music 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

2 r_r I f gzg ;fes^&ig^i ll ^ 




Ta-he-sha! Ta-he - slia! Pi- ra- orux ki-rika. Ta-he - slia!. 



Ta-he 



Drum. 
Rattles 



i 11 i u U ! ^ 




q — f*- q — m—*- 



st 



3*=L-J-tt 




Ta-he-sha! Ta-he- sha! Pi - ra - o ruxki-ri ka. Ta-he-sha! 



A "i A. A A 

* . m 9 • * » . » . . 

: 1 I U U L 



u 



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n A 



tt 



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af* 






Ta- he 



sha!. 



Ta - he- sha! 



A A A A 



^^m 



Ta-he - sha!. 



I 



o98 Tahesha! Tahesha! 

.">99 Pirao rux kiri ka. Tahesha! Tahesha! 

600 Tahesha! Tahesha! 

601 Pirao rux kiri ka. Tahesha! Tahesha! 

602 Tahesha! Tahesha! 

II 

603 Taira! Ta ira! 

604 Ira, ta ira! Hern rera, ta ira! 

605 Ta ira! Ta ira! 

606 Ira, ta ira! Hern rera, ta ira! 

607 Ta ira! Ta ira! 

Translation of First Stanza 

598 Tahesha! Tahesha! 

tahesha, daylight, the lighl of day, before the sun rises. 

599 Pirao rux kiri ka. Tahesha! Tahesha! 

pirao, child, son. 

nix, let; a command or a bidding, as, Let him, or, do this. 

kiri, a part of kiriku, eyes. 

ka, a part of taka, to come out, to be seen by coming out from 
under a covering. The meaning of these words becomes 
clear when the custom of sleeping with the robe over ihe 
head is remembered; the Son is bidden to throw the robe 
off his head and let Ins eyes be Uv<> to behold the day. 

tahesha, the light of day. 

600 See line 598. 

601 See Line 599. 

602 Sec Line 598. 



13L } THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth.ann.22 

Explanation by the Ku'raTius 

We sing this song with loud voices, we are glad. We shout, " Day- 
light lias come ! Day is here !" The light is over the earth. As we look 
out through the door of the' lodge we can see the trees, and all things 
st a ii< I out clearly in the light. 

We call to the Children, we bid them awake and throw off the robes 
that covered their heads as they slept and let their eyes look out and 
behold the light of day, the day that has come, that is here. 

This stanza is sung four times. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

603 Taira! Ta ira! 

ta, deer, a general term, 
ira, coming into sight. 

604 Ira, ta ira; hern rera, ta ira. 

ira, ta ira. See line 603. 
heru, there, 
rera, coming. 

605 See line 603. 

606 See line 604. 

607 See line 603. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

♦ 

Still we sing and shout, "Day is here! Daylight has come!" We 
tell the Children that all the animals are awake. They come forth 
from the places where the} 7 have been sleeping. The deer leads them. 
She comes from her cover, bringing her young into the light of day. 
Our hearts are glad as we sing, "Daylight has come! The light of 
day is here ! " 

We sing this stanza four times. 

Part IV. The Children Behold the Day 

song 

Words and Music 
M. M. ^"160. 



• = : Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin R. Tracy 

i '^^^^ 

3E3 






3= 



Ho-o-o! Rux ki - ri ka, hi - ra-ti ha - o! Ruxki-ri ka, hi-ra-ti ha 

Drum. ? • • • •& *r.____ ? • t • r f -i • r ■ f i • ? • 

■1 - 






o! Pi-ra - o ra-ti ha - o; Rux ki - ri ka, hi-ra-ti ha - o! 

Lr Lr L* Lr Lr U L? Lr Lf-X.\i *. * 



FLETCHER] 



TENTH RITUAL, PART IV 



133 



608 
609 
610 
611 
612 



Ho-o-o! 

Rnx kiri ka, hirati hao! 

Rux kiri ka. hirati hao! 

Pirao rati hao: 

Rux kiri ka. hirati hao! 



II 

613 Ho-o-o! 

614 Ti kiri ka, hirati hao! 

615 Ti kiri ka, hirati hao! 

616 Pirao rati hao; 

617 Tikirika. Ha! Witahesha! 



Tra n si a tion of First Sta / 1 za 



608 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

609 Rux kiri ka, hirati hao! 

rux, a command, let him now. 

kiri, a part of the word kiriku, eyes. 

ka, a part of the word taka, to become visible, to come out. 

hirati, my or mine. The common word is kurati; the ku is 
changed in this ceremony to the aspirate syllable hi, mak- 
ing the word hirati. The idea of breath, as significant of 
life, is united to desire in the change from ku to hi, in 
this word meaning my. 

hao, offspring, my own child. 

610 See line 609. 

611 Pirao rati hao. 

pirao, child, a general term, 
rati, my, mine, 
hao, offspring. 

612 See line 609. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus, 

In this stanza the Son (pirao), the man who is not of our kindred, 
but who through this ceremony is made as our offspring, our own son 
(hao), is commanded by the Ku'rahus to go forth and arouse the Chil- 
dren, to bid them awake, and open their eyes to behold the light 
of day. 

The Son, who with the Ku'rahus has been watching for the dawn, 
receives the order and sends his messengers to the lodges of his rela- 
tives to arouse them from sleep. 

This is done that the Children may be in readiness to come to the 
lodge before the sun is above the horizon. 

This stanza is sung four times. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

613 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

614 Ti kiri ka, hirati hao! 

ti, he. 

kiri, a part of the word kiriku, eyes. 

ka, a part of the word taka, to become visible, to be seen. * 

hirati, my or mine. See explanation of the word in line <>()9. 

hao, offspring, my own child. 

615 See line 614. 



134 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [kth. ann. 28 

61 G Pirao rati hao. 

pirao, child, a general term, anybody's child. 

rati, a part of the word hirati, my. 

hao, my own child. 
617 Tikirika. Ha! Witahesha! 

ti kiri ka. See line 614. 

ha! behold! 

wita, coming. 

hesha, a part of the word tahesha, daylight. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

While the messengers are going from one lodge to another to awake 
the people and bid them come to the lodge where the eeremon}' is 
being performed, we sing this second stanza. 

It tells that the Son, now become as our own offspring, has gone 
forth to awake the Children, who have heard his call, and now, behold! 
they come forth to look upon the light of day. 

This stanza is sung four times. 

ELEVENTH RITUAL (SECOND DAY). THE MALE ELEMENT INVOKED 

Part I. Chant to the Sun 
Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

On this, the second dav of the ceremony, we remember our father 
the Sun. The sun comes directly from Tira'wa atius, and whoever is 
touched by the first rays of the sun in the morning receives new life 
and strength which have been brought straight from the power above. 
The first rays of the sun are like a young man, they have not yet 
spent their force or grown old, so, to be touched by them is to receive 
an accession of strength. 

The door of the lodge where the ceremony is performed must face 
the east, so that the first rays of the sun can enter and reach the 
Children. I believe that as we sing this song and as the first rays 
touch the Children they will receive help and strength. I was told by 
my predecessor that it would be so, and he was taught by those who 
had received the knowledge from the fathers ; therefore I tell the same 
to the Children. All the time I am singing this song I remember the 
Sun, the Moon, the Stars, the Corn; all these were made by Tira'wa 
atius, and I ask them to give us success and plenty; success in hunt- 
ing and in war; plenty of food, of children, and of health. The Sun, 
the Moon, the Stars, the Corn, are powerful. 

The Children, who have been aroused by the messengers of the Son, 
gather at the lodge before the sun is up. They must be there when 
the first ray appears if they would gain its blessing. 

As soon as we who are standing at the west of the lodge, looking 
through the doorway, catch sight of the first ray of the sun on the 
horizon, we take up the Ilako and move by the north to make a first 
circuit of the lodge, and sing the first verse of this chant. 



fletcher] ELEVENTH RITUAL, PART I 135 



CHANT 

Words and Music 



M. M. S - 



• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



l=3_^^E^^y^^^^iE3^^Er^E?J^ 



Ho-o-o! Hi-ra h'A-ars i - ra ■ a, we-re hu-ka-wi, hu-ru kaha-a 

m. . sd * i> 00 

Rattles. I ' L ! I i _ L 



rtr'tim A A A f A A A A A A 

urum. 00bb00 0:b 0000 0000000 00000 

ill r i riri i * i i i I i~,i! 



— a — m — 9 — i 5 - — * — v — v — * — m — * u - a — *- — * *^ v — m m ™ 



hu-ka-wi, hu-ru ka hu-ka-wi, hu-ka-wi hu - ru ka ha. 

A A f A A A - -v ., 

r • f r r [r [j - c_r p ■ n i l 



i 

618 Ho-o-o! 

619 Hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi. hum ka ha-a hukawi, hum ka hukawi, 

hukawi hum ka ha. 

II 

620 Ho-o-o! 

621 Hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi, ta kusi hi-i hukawi, ta kusi hukawi, 

hukawi ta kusi hi. 

Ill 

622 Ho-o-o! 

628 Hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi, ta wira ka-a hukawi. ta wira hukawi, 
hukawi ta wira ha. 

IV 

624 Ho-o-o! 

625 Hira h'Aars ira-a. were hukawi, ka hakidhihi hukawi, ka hakidhihi 

hukawi, hukawi ka hakidhihi. 

V 

626 Ho-o-o! 

627 Hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi, ka waraha ha hukawi, ka waraha hukawi, 

hukawi ka waraha. 

VI 

628 Ho-o-o! 

» 

629 Hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi, ta wara ka-a hukawi, ta wara hukawi, 

hukawi ta wara ha. 

VII 

630 Ho-o-o! 

631 Hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi. ta riki hi-i hukawi, ta riki hukawi, hukawi 

ta riki hi. 

VIII 

682 Ho-o-o! 

638 Hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi, ta witspa ha-a hukawi, ta witspa hukawi, 
hukawi ta witspa ha. 



136 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [ETH.ANN.2ii 

Translation of First Verse 

618 IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

619 I lira H'Aars ira-a, were hukawi, huru ka ha-a hukawi, hum ka 

hukawi, hukawi huru ka ha. 
liira, will come. The word is ira, the h is added for euphony 

and greater ease in singing. 
h', the symbol of breath, life, breathing forth, giving life, 
aars, a contraction of atius, father, 
ira, will come. 

a, a prolongation of the last syllable of ira. 
were, at that time, when, or then, 
hukawi, the ray or beam of the sun. 
huru, entering, 
ka, a part of akaro, lodge. Ka, however, refers to the open 

space within, around the fireplace, where the people 

gather, where they sit and pursue their avocations, 
ha-a, a prolongation of ka. 
hukawi, huru ka hukawi, hukawi huru ka ha. All the words 

are translated above. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

We speak of the sun as Father breathing forth life (h'Aars), causing 
the earth to bring forth, making all things to grow. We think of the 
sun, which comes direct from Tira'wa atius, the father of life, and 
his ray (hukawi) as the bearer of this life. (You have seen this ray 
as it conies through a little hole or crack.) While we sing, this ray 
enters the door of the lodge to bring strength and power to all within. 

We sing this verse four times as we go around the lodge. When 
we 1 reach the west we pause. 

Food, which has been prepared outside the lodge, is now brought in, 
and the Children are given their morning meal. Then we sing the 
second verse. 

Translation of Second Verse 

620 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

621 Hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi, ta kusi hi-i hukawi, ta kusi 

hukawi, hukawi ta kusi hi. 
hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi. See line 619. 
ta, a spot; the word refers to the place where the ray touches 

and makes a bright spot, 
kusi, alights upon, rests upon, 
hi, a part of hira, will come. See line 619. 
i, a prolongation of the syllable hi. 
hukawi, the ray or beam of the sun. 
ta kusi hukawi, hukawi ta kusi hi. Translated above. 

Explanation by the Kn'rahus 

As the sun rises higher the ray, which is its messenger, alights 



Fletcher] ELEVENTH RITUAL, PAET I 137 

upon the edge of the central opening in the roof of the lodge, right 
over the fireplace. We see the spot (ta), the sign of its touch, and 
we know that the ray is there. 

The fire holds an important place in the lodge; you remember we 
sang about it when we were preparing the sacred objects (first ritual, 
first song, line 49). Father Sun is sending life by his messenger to 
this central place in the lodge. 

As we sing we look at the bright spot where the ray has alighted, and 
we know that life from our father the Sun will come to us by the ray. 

We sing this verse four times, and when we have completed the sec- 
ond circuit of the lodge and have reached the west we pause. 

Translation of Third Verse 

622 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

623 Hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi, ta wira ka-a hukawi, ta wira 

hukawi, hukawi ta wira ha. 
hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi. See line 619. 
ta, the spot, the place that is touched by the ray 
wira, climbing down, descending into, 
ka, a part of the word akaro, lodge, 
a, a vowel prolongation, 
hukawi, the rav or beam. 

ta wira hukawi, hukawi ta wira. Translated above, 
ha, a vocable to fill out the measure. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahu.s 

As the sun rises higher we turn toward the north and begin the 
third circuit of the lodge. The ray is now climbing down into the 
lodge. We watch the spot where it has alighted. It moves over 
the edge of the opening above the fireplace and descends into the 
lodge, and we sing that life from our father the Sun will come to us 
by his messenger, the ray, which is now climbing down into the space 
wiili in the lodge where we are gathered together. 

We sing this verse four times, and after the third circuit we pause 
at the west. 

Translation of Fourth Verse 

624 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

625 Hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi, ka hakidhihi hukawi, ka haki- 

dhiki hukawi, hukawi ka hakidhihi. 
hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi. See line 619. 
ka, a part of the word akaro, lodge, particularly the space 

within the lodge, about the fire, 
hakidhiki, walking, moving about the room, the open space 

within the lodge, 
hukawi, the ray. 
ka hakidhiki hukawi, hukawi ka hakidhiki. Translated above. 



138 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 32 

Explanation by the Ku'rdhus 

When the spot where the ray lias alighted reaches the floor, we 
turn toward the north and begin the fourth circuit of the lodge. 

Now the spot is walking here and there within the lodge, touching 
different places. We know that the ray will bring strength and 
power from our father the Sun as it walks within the lodge. Our 
hearts are glad and thankful as we sing. 

When we reach the west the fourth circuit is completed. Then 
we lay the Hako down upon the holy place and sing the songs which 
tell what that act means/ 

The first four verses of this chant are sung in the morning; they 
follow the movements of the ray. When the spot has reached the 
floor we stop singing and do not begin again until the afternoon, so 
that our song can accompany the ray as it leaves the lodge, touches 
the hills, and finally returns to the sun. 

All through the ceremony we must be careful as to the time when 
we sing the songs, for each has its own time of day. If we do not 
observe this teaching of our fathers we shall fail to receive the benefits 
of the ceremony. 

Between the two parts other songs can be sung; it will not interfere 
with this chant to the Sun. 

Translation of Fifth Verse 

626 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

627 Hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi, ka waraha ha hukawi, ka waraha 

hukawi, hukawi ka waraha. 
hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi. See line 610. 
ka, a part of the word akaro, lodge, the space within, 
waraha, walked here and there, in different parts of the lodge, 
ha, a repetition and prolongation of the last syllable of waraha. 
hukawi, ka waraha hukawi, hukawi ka waraha. Translated 
above. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In the afternoon when we observe that the spot has moved around 
the lodge, as the sun has passed over the heavens, we sing the fifth 
verse. The ray has touched the Children and all of us as it has 
walked here and there in different parts of the lodge. It has brought 
strength to us from our father the Sun. 

We sing the verse four times as we make the first circuit of the 
lodge, and we pause when the west is reached. 

« See pages 111-116 for these songs. 



fuetcher] ELEVENTH RITUAL, PART I 139 

Tranlation of Sixth Verse 

628 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

629 Hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi, ta wara ka-a hukawi, ta wara 

hukawi, hukawi ta wara ha. 
hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi. See line 619. 
ta, the spot, the place where the ray touches, 
wara, climbing up, ascending. 

ka, a part of akaro, lodge, the space within the lodge, 
a, a vowel prolongation. 

hukawi, ta wara hukawi, hukawi ta wara. Translated above, 
ha, a vocable to fill out the measure. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

After a little time we see the spot leave the floor of the lodge and 
climb up toward the opening over the fireplace, where it had entered 
in the morning. As we see it climbing up out of the lodge and leav- 
ing us we sing this verse four times. 

We reach the west at the completion of the second circuit of the 
lodge, and there we pause. 

Translation of Seventh Verse 

630 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

631 Hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi, ta riki hi-i hukawi, ta riki 

hukawi, hukawi ta riki hi. 
hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi. See line 619. 
ta, the spot, the place touched by the ray. 
riki, standing. 

hi, a part of hiri, will come. See above, 
i, a vowel prolongation, 
hukawi, ta riki hukawi, hukawi ta riki hi. Translated above. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

Later, when the sun is sinking in the west, the land is in shadow, 
only on the top of the hills toward the east can the spot, the sign of 
the ray's touch, be seen. Then we sing this stanza as we go around 
the lodge the third time. 

The ray of Father Sun, who breathes forth life, is standing on the 
edge of the hills. We remember that in the morning it had stood on 
the edge of the opening in the roof of the lodge over the fireplace ; now 
it stands on the edge of the hills that, like the walls of a lodge, inclose 
the land where the people dwell. 

When the third circuit of the lodge is completed we again pause at 
the west. 



140 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



Tra nsla t ion of Eiy ft f It T "e fse 

632 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

633 Hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi, ta witspa ha-a hukawi, ta witspa 

hukawi, hukawi ta witspa ha. 

hira h'Aars ira-a, were hukawi. See line 619. 

ta, the spot, the place touched by the ray. 

witspa, destination, the end of a journey, a completion. 

ha-a, a prolongation of the last syllable of witspa. 

hukawi, ta witspa hukawi, hukawi ta witspa ha. Translated 

above. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

When the spot, the sign of the ray, the messenger of our father the 
Sun, has left the tops of the hills and passed from our sight, we sing 
this verse as we make the fourth circuit of the lodge. 

We know that the ray which was sent to bring us strength has now 
gone back to the place whence it came. We are thankful to our father 
the Sun for that which he has sent us by his ray. 

At the west we lay the Hako down to rest and sing the songs which 
belong to that action/' 

Part II. Day Songs 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

We sing each stanza of the two following songs four times, and we 
make four circuits of the lodge, one stanza to a circuit; then we lay 
the Hako down to rest with songs that belong to that act. a 

SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. N = 112. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




Ha-a-a-a! Ha! Re-ri-re-a-wa; Ha! Re-ri-re-a-wa.pi-ras-ki ka si- rihu-ra! 



Drum. 

Rattles ^ L- 



000 







A 

• 



A A /\ A 



I I [ I 



A A A 

* • 

r i ; i i 




Ha! Re-ri - re-a-wa; 



A A A 

r • r f r r 



Ha! Re-ri -re-a-wa, pi-ras-ki ka si - ri hu-ra! 

A A A A A . 

I 



084 Ha-a-a-a! 

635 Ha! Rerireawa; Ha! Rerireawa, piraski ka siri hura! 

636 Ha! Rerireawa; Ha! Rerireawa. piraski ka siri hura! 

II 

637 Ha-a-a-a! 

638 Ha! Rerireawa: Ha! Rerireawa, piraski kat tsiri huwa! 

639 Ha! Rerireawa; Ha! Rerireawa. piraski kat tsiri huwa! 



« See pages 111-116 for these songs. 



fletcher] ELEVENTH RITUAL, PART II 141 

Translation of First Stanza 

634 Ila-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

635 Ha! Rerireawa; Ha! Rerireawa, piraski ka siri hura. 

ha! an exclamation directing attention; in this instance, hark! 

listen ! 
rerireawa, the sound made by the flapping of wings, as in the 

alighting of birds, 
piraski, boys. 

ka, now, a form of command, 
siri, you. 
• hura, come. 

636 See line 635. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

This song likens the bustle and stir of the Ilako party as it comes 
into the village to the flapping of the wings of a flock of birds as they 
come to a place and alight. It refers also to the birds represented on 
the feathered stems — the eagle, the duck, the woodpecker, and the owl. 
The noise of the wings of these birds is what is meant, for they are 
moving with the Fathers toward the Children. 

In this stanza the Fathers speak : ' ' Hark to the sound of wings ! The 
Ilako is here. Now, boys, you are to come forward!' That is, the 
Children are now to send their gifts of ponies to the Fathers as a 
return for the promised good brought to them by the Hako. The 
ponies are always led up to the Fathers by a small boy, the child of 
the man making the gift. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

637 Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

638 Ila! Rerireawa; Ha! Rerireawa, piraski kat tsiri huwa. 

ha! hark! listen! 

rerireawa, the sound of the wings of birds as they alight. 

piraski, boys. 

kat, come, the response to the command ka, come. 

tsiri, we. 

huwa, go. 

639 See line 638. 

Explanation by flu j Ku'rahus 

The second stanza is a response to the call made by the Fathers. 
The people in the camp say, "Hark! The Ilako comes. Now we go 
to meet the Fathers with our gifts." 



142 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ask. 22 

SONG 

Words and Music 
M. M. ,S = 132. 
. = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



IT — < te 



_Z=SZ 

Ho-o-o-o! I-ri! Ha-ko ti-we ra-tu riwi-cha; I-ri! Ha-ko ti-we ra-tu riwi-cha; 

T>v.^.^-> A»1A A AAA AAA 

Drum 000sm0m* • m 00 00 0000 m0 00 00 

Battles. lS U LJ U LJ L- U LJ L— ' LJ LJ LJ 



'-^.{^iJEJihi^ 



we ra-tu riwi-cha; I- ri! Ha-ko ti-we ra-tu ri wicha. 

Lj Lj Lr L/ Lj Lj £ . i 

i 

640 Ho-o-o-o! 

641 Iri! Hako tiwe ratu ri wicha: 

642 Iri! Hako tiwe ratu ri wicha; we ratu ri wicha; 

643 Iri! Hako tiwe ratu ri wicha. 

II 

644 Ho-o-o-o! 

645 Iri! Hako tiwe rus kori wicha; 

646 Iri! Hako tiwe rus kori wicha; we rus kori wicha; 

647 Iri! Hako tiwe rus kori wicha. 

♦ 
Translation of First Stanza 

640 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
341 Iri! Hako tiwe ratu ri wicha. 

iri! a part of nawairi! an exclamation of thankfulness, of grati- 
tude, of confidence. 

Hako, the general term for the symbolic objects peculiar to 
this ceremony. 

tiwe, have. 

ratu, to me; 

ri, modified from the word tara, to bring. 

wicha, reached a destination, arrived. 
642 Iri ! Hako tiwe ratu ri wicha ; we ratu ri wicha. 

Iri! Hako tiwe ratu ri wicha. See line 641. 

we, a part of the word tiwe, have. 

ratu ri wicha. See line 641. 
64)3 See line 641. 



fletcher] ELEVENTH EITUAL, PART II 143 

Explanation by th< j Ku'rahus 

In the first stanza the Fathers speak. They tell the Children that 
with the Ilako comes the promise of good. For this thanks are given 
to Mother Corn, who has led us to the Son, and also to the birds upon 
the Hako, which come from Tira'wa alius and make us father and son. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

644 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

645 Iri! Hako tiwe rus kori wicha. 

iri! a part of nawairi! an exclamation of thankfulness. - 

Hako, the symbolic objects peculiar to this ceremony. 

tiwe, have. 

rus, a modified form of the word wasu, you. 

kori, you bring. The word implies that what you bring is 

something that is yours, or something over which you have 

control, 
wicha, reached a destination; arrived. 

646 Iri! Hako tiwe rus kori wicha, we rus kori wicha. 

Iri! Ilako tiwe rus kori wicha. See line 645. 
we, a part of the word tiwe, have, 
rus kori wicha. See line 645. 

647 See line 645. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

In the second stanza the Children respond. They thank the 
Fathers for bringing the Ilako, and they thank all the powers repre- 
sented on the Hako. Their hearts are glad, for they are to be as 
sons. 

I have explained to you that there are certain songs to be sung at 
certain times and in a fixed order, but there are not enough of these 
songs to fill all the time of the ceremony. 

It may be that the Children who wish to make presents will ask 
the Fathers to sing for them, and there are several songs that can 
be sung at such times. 

All songs must be chosen in reference to the time. Songs of the 
visions can only be sung at night. Songs like the following one of 
Mother Corn can be sung in the daytime, and in the night after the 
day when we sing of the earth and have had the sacred corn cere- 
mony, but can not be sung in any other night. None of these extra 
songs can interrupt those which have a fixed sequence. 



144 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [Sara. Ann. 22 

EXTRA DAY SONG 

Words dud Music 
M. M. J = 116. 

• — Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



mi^- fe^p^raggg 



Ho-o-o-o! H'A-ti-ra! H'A-ti-ra! IT'A-ti - ra! Ki - ra i - tsi. 

Drum 0m ^ b %T 4 & m 00000 . 



RatUes. 



'S f r 

r 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 • r 



p 






H'A-ti- ra! H'A-ti-ra! Ki - ra i - tsi wa - ha - ra. 

•* r 1 I 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 r r ' * 

1 

648 Ho-o-o-o! 

649 H'Atira! H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira itsi. 

650 H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira itsi wahara. 

II 

651 Ho-o-o-o! 

652 H'Atira! H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira tatsi. 

653 H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira tatsi wahara. 

Ill 

654 Ho-o-o-o! 

655 H'Atira! H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira itsi. 

656 H'Attra! H'Atira! Kira itsi wehitshpa. 

IV 

657 Ho-o-o-o! 

658 H'Atira! H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira tatsi. 

659 H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira tatsi wehitshpa. 

Translation 
I 

648 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

649 H'Atira! H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira itsi. 

h', the symbol of breath, life, 
atira, mother. The term refers to the corn, 
kira, now, at this time, under these conditions, 
itsi, let us. 

650 H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira itsi wahara. 

H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira itsi. See line 649. 
wahara, go. 



fletcher] ELEVENTH RITUAL, PART II 145 

II 

651 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
G52 H'Atira! H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira tatsi. 

h'Atira. See line 649. 

kira, now. 

tatsi, we are. 

653 H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira tatsi wahara. 

H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira tatsi. See lines 640, 652. 
wahara, go, going. 

Ill 

654 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
(\or> See line 649. 

6d(] H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira itsi wehitshpa. 

H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira itsi. See line 649. 
wehitshpa, to approach one's destination, the object of one's 
journey, or the end sought after. 

IV 

657 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

658 See line 652. 

659 H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira tatsi wehitshpa. 

H'Atira! H'Atira! Kira tatsi. See lines 649, 652. 
wehitshpa, to approach one's destination. 

Explanation by the Ku'ralius 

This song is a prayer to Mother Corn to give life and plenty to us 
all, and to make strong the bond between the Fathers and the Chil- 
dren, by the power granted to her by Tira'wa atius. 

In the first stanza we ask Mother Corn, who breaths forth life and 
gives food to her children, to lead us to the Son. 

In the second stanza we sing that she consents, and we start upon 
our wav with our mother. 

In the third stanza we ask Mother Corn if we are drawing near to 
the Son. 

In the fourth stanza we see our journey's end; we are approaching 
our destinal ion, led by her who breathes forth life to her children. 

We sing each stanza four times and make four circuits of the lodge 
as we sing this song; at the west we pause and there lay down the 
Hako upon the holy place, singing as we do so the songs which belong 
to that action. a 

" See pages 111-116 for these songs. 
22 ETH— PT 2— 04 10 



14t*> THE HAKii, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

EXTRA DAY SONG 

Words and Music 

M. M. s = 116. 

. = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



•J — bj a w*-^- •*- 

Ho-o-o-o! Ki ru-ra hi? Ki ru-ra - a, ki ru-ra-a, ki ru-ra -a hi? 

Drum. A • A , . , » # » . •»•»••»* .***.» 



^^^^^^^^^^g 



'=* 



— — * ' — l-i=j — -d — M l— H~# — |J — — i ^^ — —f 



Ki ru - ra hi? Ki ru-ra - a, ki ru-ra-a hi? A - ru - sha - ha? 

A A AAAA -_ 

l-j C_j # C-J* CLJ Li P ^ * i 



i ii 

660 Ho-o-o-o! 666 Ho-o-o-o! 

661 Kirurahi? 667 Iru ra-a; 

662 Ki rura-a. ki rura-a, ki rura-a hi? t>68 Iru ra-a, iru ra-a, iru ra-a hi; 

663 Ki rura hi? 669 Iru ra-a: 

664 Ki rura-a, ki rura-a hi? 670 Iru ra-a. iru ra-a hi; 

665 Arushaha? 671 Arushaha. 

Translation 

I 

660 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

661 Ki rura hi? 

ki? where? a question. 

rura, moving, traveling. 

hi, a part of the word arushahi, arushaha, horse. 

662 Ki rnra-a, ki rura-a, ki rura-a hi? 

ki rura. See line 661. 
a, vowel prolongation, 
ki rura-a, ki rura-a hi. See lines 661, 662. 

663 See line 661. 

664 Ki rura-a, ki rura-a hi? See line 661, 

665 Arushaha? Horse. 

Translat ion of Second Stan za 
II 

666 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

667 Iru ra-a. 

iru, yonder moving, 
ra, coming this way. 
a, vowel prolongation. 

668 Iru ra-a, iru ra-a, iru ra-a hi. 

Iru ra-a, iru ra-a, iru ra-a. See line 667. 

hi, a part of the word arushahi, arushaha, horse. 

669 See line 667. 

670 Iru ra-a, iru ra-a hi. See lines 667, W>$. 

671 Arushaha. Horse. 



FLETCHER] 



ELEVENTH AND TWELFTH RITUALS 



147 



Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

It may happen during the ceremony that a young man of the vil- 
lage who is not a relative of the Sou may desire to lay up for himself 
an honor which will help him to advance his social position in the 
tribe. He mounts a horse, rides to the lodge, and there makes a gift 
of the animal to the Fathers. On such an occasion this song is sung. 

The words are few, but the meaning of the song has been handed 
down to the Ku'rahus. It is not intended that everyone should know 
all that these songs imply. 

The first stanza means: Whence has he come? Where does he go, 
lie who rides his horse so fast? Who is the man? 

The second stanza means : He is coming this way on his horse. I ie 
is bringing it to the Fathers; he is in earnest to make them a gift. 

TWELFTH RITUAL (SECOND NIGHT ). THE RITES CAME BY A VISION, 

FIRST SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. ^=126. 

• — Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracv. 



Sl^iH 



I=SS=&1! 



--S-— "S=S: 



i^i 



Ho-o-o-o! AVhi-tit 



Drum. 000 
Rattles. I 



ka - sba 

A 



ru, 



ha! ki - ra re - lira 



? 



A 



wi; 

A 







— 3- 






Whi-tit ka sba - ru, ha! ki-ra re-hra wi: 



A 

u 



L' 



Ta ha - o! 



A 





Hi-ri! Ha- 



-fy 



ko - o! 

u L 



Sig^ 



ra; 



-3^-A^~?Ejzz? 






AVhi-tit ka-sha-ru, ha! ki-ra re-hra wi; 



Ta ha-o! 
I I 



672 Ho-o-o-o! 

07)5 Whitit kasharu, ha! kira rehra wi: 

074 Whitit kasharu, ha! kira rehra wi: 

675 Ta hao! 

676 Hiri! Hako-o! 

077 Whitit kasharu. ha! kira rehia wi: 

678 Ta hao! 

II 

679 Ho-o-o-o! 

0*0 Kutit kasharu. ha! kira relira wi: 

681 Kutit kasharu. ha! kira rehra wi: 

682 Ta hao! 

683 Hiri! Hako-o! 

684 Kutit kasharu. ha! kira rehra wi: 

685 Ta hao! 



148 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [bth.akn.28 

Translation of First Stanza 

672 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

673 Whitit kasharu, ha! kira rehra wi. 

whitit, it is believed, it is supposed. The word implies a ques- 
tion with the desire to know the truth of the belief. 

kasharu, a composite word; ka, from rotkaharu, night; sham, 
dreams, visions. 

ha! behold! 

kira, accomplished or brought to pass. 

rehra, I hold standing; present tense. 

wi, from wirit, an article swinging. The word tells that the 
article which the person stands holding is swinging in his 
hand ; this refers to the rhythmic swaying of the feathered 
stems during the singing of the songs of the ceremony. 

674 See line 673. 

675 Ta hao ! 

ta, a part of kutati, my. 

hao, offspring; 'my own child. The term refers to the Son. 

676 Hiri! Hako-o! 

hiri! give heed; harken. 

Hako-o; Hako, the sacred articles of tne ceremony; o, vowel 
prolongation. 

677 See line 673. 

678 See line 675. 

Explanation by the Ku ' ralms 

This stanza asks about the origin of the Hako, about the account 
which has come down to us that the Hako and its ceremonies were 
sent by the powers above to our fathers through a vision. 

We have been taught that in a vision our fathers were told how to 
make the feathered stems, how to use them, how to sway them to the 
songs, so that they should move like the wings of a bird in its flight. 
It was in a vision that our fathers were told how they could cause a 
man who was not their bodily offspring to become a Son, to be bound 
to them by a tie as strong as the natural tie between father and son. 

For this knowledge our fathers gave thanks and we give thanks, 
for by this ceremony peace and plenty, strength, and all good things 
come to the peorjle. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

67!> Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
680 Kutit kasharu, ha! kira rehra wi. 

kutit, it is; an assertion. The word gives a definite answer to 
the implied question in the first word of the first stanza, 
whitit. The belief, the supposition, is declared to be the 
truth, 
kasharu, ha! kira rehra wi. See line 673. 



FLETCHER] 



TWELFTH KITUAL 



149 



681 See line <580. 

682 See line 675. 

683 Hiri! Hako-o! See line 676. 

684 See line 680. 

685 See line 675. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

This stanza tells the Children that it is true that the knowledge of 
this ceremony was given to our fathers by the powers above through 
a vision. We speak of the vision as kasharu, because visions are apt 
to come in the night when all is still; they then descend, pass over 
the earth, and come to man. 

This stanza also tells that the man to whom we have brought the 
Hako is to be made a Son in the way our fathers were directed in the 
vision. 

None of the songs of this ceremony can be changed; they must be 
sung accurately, just as they have been handed down to us, for the 
words speak of the powers above and their gifts to us, and we must be 
careful of such words. 

SECOND SONG 



M. M. ^N — 116. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Words and Music 

Transcribed bv Edwin S. Tracv. 



b-a-- 



r— P 



SFfc 



z?=qt—-j: 



ifeS: 



itzzsfc 



W* 



-§! 



-J*=0z 



Ho-o-o-o! He! Hit-ka - sha-ru; He I Hit-ka - sha- ru; Ta ki - ra ru te - 



i 



Drum 3 0*0 
Rattles. U U L 



tfc 






:=j: 



zatzit.— ^=bs nLj-=*z=il : 



i=g: 






m 



ru lie; He! Hit-ka-sha-ru; He! Ilit-ka-sha-ru; Ta ki-ra ru te - ru he; 







Lj u u 



rr - * ~E5 ~- ■ r '»-=*--^ e - 






=-t=gp* 



q 



JV - 



1 



He! Hit-ka - sha-ru; He! Hit-ka - sha-ru; Ta ki-ra ru te - ru he. 

t f rr ; f r r £ r p 2 1 



686 Ho-o-o-o! 

687 He! Hitkasharu: He! Hitkasharu; 

688 Ta kira ru teru he; 

689 He! Hitkasharu; He! Hitkasharu; 

690 Ta kira ru teru he; 

691 He! Hitkasharu; He! Hitkasharu; 

692 Ta kira ru teru he. 



150 



THE HAKO. A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[KTH. ANN. 22 



693 

094 
695 
696 
697 
698 
699 



II 

Ho-< >-<)-<)! 

He! Hitkasharu; 
Ta kira te ra-a he; 
He! Hitkasharu: 
Ta kira te ra-a he; 
He! Hitkasharu; 
Ta kira te ra-a he. 

Translation 



He! 
He! 



Hitkasharu: 
Hitkasharu: 



He! Hitkasharu : 



686 



f 87 



688 



689 
690 
691 
692 

693 

694 
695 



696 
697 

CDS 

699 



Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

He! Hitkasharu; He! Hitkasharu. 

he, an exclamation calling" attention to a subject or a teaching. 

hitkasharu; hit, from hittu, feather, referring to the birds that 

attend the Hako; ha, part of rotkaharu, night; sharu, 

dreams, visions. This composite word refers to the visions 

or dreams brought by the birds that are associated with 

the Hako. 

Ta kira ru teru he. 

ta, verily. 

kira, brought to pass. 

ru, it, the rite, or ceremony. 

teru, is; the entire ceremony with its promises 

he, vocable. 

See line 687. 

See line 688. 

See line 687. 

See line 688. 

II 

Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
See the first stanza, line 687. 
Ta kira te ra-a he. 

ta, verily. 

kira, brought to pass. 

te, it; the good promised through the ceremony. 

ra-a, is coming. 

he, vocable. 
See line 687. 
See line 695. 
See line 687. 
See line 695. 



Explanation by tlie Ku'rahus 

In this song we are told that verily it is a truth that everything per- 
taining to this ceremony came through a vision. All the good, all the 
happiness that comes to those who take part in these rites have been 
promised in a dream, and the dreams which brought this ceremony 
and it s promises came from the east; they always descend from above 
by that path. 



fletcher] TWELFTH RITUAL 151 

Were it not true that these dreams come to us and bring us all the 
good things^ promised our fathers, we should long ago have abandoned 
the Hako and its ceremony. 

This song says to the Children : "As you listen you will have dreams 
brought you by the birds represented with the Hako. The visions 
will bring you help; they will bring you happiness. They are coming 
to you from the east." 

SONG TO THE PLEIADES 

Words and Music 
M. M. j* = 116. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



= ^feE -^E*EEA 




Ho-o-o-o! We - ta ra-cha; ha! We - ta ra - cha; We - ta ra-cha, 



Drum. m £>., 

Battles.^ I l 



i 



2 



^£E3T:==--=EEiEiO 






-n — 



• • • • • • 

Cha-ka - a! Ru-tochi-ra- o! Ha! Wira; ha! Ha! We-ra; ha! 

L-f C_j' C— ' Lf IT i B P " i * 



700 Weta racha; ha! 

701 Weta racha: weta racha; 

702 Chaka-a! 

703 Ruto chirao! Ha! Wira; ha! 

704 Weta racha; weta racha; 

705 Chaka-a! 

706 Ruto chirao! Ha! Wera; ha! 

Translation 

700 YVeta racha, ha! 

weta, coming, advancing. 
racha, rising, moving upward, 
ha! look! behold! 

701 Weta racha; weta racha; 

weta racha. See line 700. 

702 Chaka-a! The name of the Pleiades. 
70:5 Ruto chirao! Ha! Wira, ha! 

ruto, it is. "It" refers to the coining of the constellation. 

chirao, good, well. 

ha! behold! 

wira, wera, them coining. 

ha! behold! 

704 Weta racha; weta racha; See line 700. 

705 Chaka-a! See line 702. 

706 lia! Wera: ha! See line 703. 






I III II \k<>. \ PAWN I 1 I I lM M«>\ ^ 



I I II \\\ 



/■. j)/(i nnf ion hi/ tin K it in Juis 

When, during the cei^monj «>r the [lako, the Pleiades appear above 
tin- horizon, this song must !><• sune. It. when i h< • coming of these 
stars is reported, we should tie singing, we must break off at the third 
stanza and sim: this song for the fourth circuit of tin- Lodge. 

This song to the Pleiades is to remind the people that Tira'wa has 
appointed the stars to guide their steps. Ii is very old and belongs 
to the time when this ceremony was being made This is i li<' story to 
explain its meaning which has been handed down from our fathers: 

A man set <»ui upon a journey; he traveled far; then he thought 
he would return to his own counl ry, so he turned about. He traveled 
Long, yet at night lie was always in the same place. II<' Lay down 
and slept and a vision came. A man spoke to him; he was the 1 ader 
of the seven stars. He said: "Tira'wa made those seven stars to 
remain together, and he fixed a path from east to west for them to 
travel over. He named the seven stars Chaka. It" the people will 



[( to 



k at these stars they will be guided aright. 



*• 



When the man awoke he saw the Pleiades rising; he was glad, and 
he watched the stars 1 ravel. Then he turned to the north and reached 
his own country. 

* 

The stars have many things to teach us, and the Pleiades can guide 
us and teach us how to keep together. 

We sing this song four limes as we make the circuit of the Lodge; 
then we lay the Ilako down to rest upon 1he holy place and sing the 
songs which belong to thai action. 

The following songs can be sung at night after the regular song has 
n completed, if the Children should call for them: 



EXTRA NIGHT SONG 

Words "tul Music 



M. M. S = 132. 

Pulsation of tho voice. 



Transcribed h 1 * Edwin S. Tracy. 



1 A feH?=i * £§1 „ ^ , J!'l , \ «, „ *3il * - - /J 



Ho-o-o! Ili-ri! K:i sha ru ka ta-sha-a; ha I Ili-ri! Ka -sha-rii ka ta Bha-a -a; 



Jtnnit. m m m 
Rati 



m m 




A f 



x - 



Ha-wa! Ka-ta-sha-a; hal Ili-ri! Ka-sha- ru ka ta-sha-a - a; Iial 

....... L_* i i i l 



;<>; ii,,, 

Biril Kasharu katasha-a; ha! 

709 Biri! Kasharu katasha-a-a; ha! 

710 Eawa! Katasha a; ha! 

7 11 1 liri! Ka-liaru katasha a a: ha! 



fi.kkhkk] TWELFTH RITUAL 153 

II 

712 Ho-o-o! 

713 He! Hitkusharu shkatasha-a; ha! 

714 He! Hitkasharn shkatasha-a-a; ha! 

715 Hawa! Shkatasha-a; ha! 

71<) He! Hitkasharn shkatasha-a-a: ha! 

Ill 

717 Ho-o-o! 

718 Hiri! Kasharu katata-a; ha! 

719 Hiri! Kasharu katata-a-a; ha! 

720 Hari! Katata-a: ha! 

721 Hiri! Kasharu katata-a-a: ha! 

IV 

722 Ho-o-o! 

7'-2-"> He! Hitkasharn slikatata-a: ha! 

724 He! Hitkasharn shkatata-a-a: ha! 

725 Hari! Shkatata-a; ha! 

726 He! Hitkasharn shkatata-a-a; ha! 

V 

7 -J 7 Ho-o-o! 

728 He! Hitshkasharu kitta sha-a; ha! 

729 He! Hitshkasharu kitta sha-a-a; ha! 
7:><> Hari! Kitta sha-a; ha! 

7:!l He! Hitshkasharu kitta sha-a-a: ha! 

VI 

732 Ho-o-o! 

733 He! Hitkasharn shkitta sha-a; ha! 

734 He! Hitkasharn shkitta sha-a-a; ha! 

735 Hari! Shkitta sha-a; ha! 

736 He! Hitkasharn shkitta sha-a-a; ha! 

Translation of 



707 Ho-o-o! An introductory explanation. 

708 Hiri! Kasharu katasha-a; ha! 

hiri! an exclamation, give heed! harken! the word implies 

reverenl feeling, 
kasharu; ka, from rotkaharu, night; sharu, vision, dream. 
Katasha, the place where the visions dwell. 
a, vowel prolongat ion. 
ha! behold! 

709 See line 708. 

710 Hawa! Katasha-a; ha! 

hawa, truly; the word refers to something singular in number. 
Katasha-a ; ha ! See Line 708. 

71 1 & e line 708. 



L54 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [mffc.ANN.28 

II 

712 IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

713 He! Hitkasharu shkatasha-a ; ha! 

he! an exclamation calling attention to a subject or teaching, 
hitkasharu; hit, from hittu, feather; ka, from rotkaharu, 

night; sharn, dream, vision; the visions brought by the 

birds of the Hako. 
Shkatasha; sh, a prefix denoting feminine gender; Katasha, 

the place where the visions dwell when they are at rest. 
a, vowel prolongation, 
ha! behold! 

714 See line 713. 

715 llawa! Shkatasha-a; ha! See lines 710, 713. 

716 See line 713. 

Ill 

717 llo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

718 Iliri! Kasharu katata-a; ha. 

hiri! harken! give heed! 

kasharu, night visions or dreams. See line 708. 

katata, climbing. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ha! behold! ♦ 

719 See line 718. 

720 Hari! Katata-a; ha! 

hari, truly. The word refers to more than one; it is plural, 
katata-a; ha! See line 718. 

721 See line 718. 

IV 

722 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

723 He! Hitkasharu shkatata-a; ha! 

he ! an exclamation calling attention to a teaching. 

hitkasharu, feather night dreams. See line 713. 

shkatata; sh, feminine prefix; katata, climbing. The word 
implies that the visions which were climbing were femi- 
nine, those which belonged to the brown eagle feathered 
stem. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ha! behold! 

724 See line 723. 

725 Hari! Shkatata-a; ha! 

hari, truly. The word is plural, 
shkatata-a; ha! Translated above; see line 723. 
720 See line 723. 



fletcher] TWELFTH RITUAL 155 



727 Ho-o-o! Aii introductory exclamation . 

728 lie! Hitshkasharu kitta sha-a; ha! 

lie! an exclamation calling attention to a teaching. 

hitshkasharu; hit, from hittu, feather; sh, feminine prefix; 

ka from rotkaharu, night; sharn, dreams, visions. The 

composite word refers to the visions which pertain to the 

promises of the Ilako ceremony. 

kitta, the top; refers to the locality of Katasha, the dwelling 

place of the visions, 
sha, lying down, as to rest, 
a, vowel prolongation, 
ha! behold! 
720 See line 728. 
730 Hari! Kitta sha-a; ha! 

hari, truly; plural number, 
kitta sha-a; ha! See line 728. 
7:5 1 See line 728. 

VI 

732 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

733 He! Hitkasharu shkitta sha-a; ha! 

he ! an exclamation calling attention to a teaching, 
hitkasharu, feather night dreams. See line 713. 
shkitta, sh, feminine prefix; kitta, the top. 
sha, lying down, reposing, 
a, vowel prolongation. 
ha! behold! 

734 See line 733. 

735 Hari! Shkitta sha-a; ha! See lines 730, 733. 

736 See line 733. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

Visions come in the night, for spirits can travel better by night than 
by day. Visions come from Katasha, the place where they dwell. 
This place is up in the sky, just below where Tira'wa atius appointed 
the dwelling place of the lesser powers (eighth ritual, part I, second 
song). Katasha, the place where the visions dwell, is near the dwelling 
place of the lesser powers, so they can summon any vision they wish to 
send to us. When a vision is sent by the powers, it descends and goes 
to the person designated, who sees the vision and hears what it has to 
say; then, as day approaches, the vision ascends to its dwelling place, 
Katasha, and there it lies at rest until it is called again. 

This song tells about Katasha, where the visions dwell. This is its 
story : 



156 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [kth.ann.22 

A holy man who lived long ago, no one knows how long, for there 
have been many generations since, had a dream. He was taken up to 
the place where all the visions dwell, those that belong to Kawas, the 
brown eagle, and those that belong to the white eagle, the male. 
While he was there the day began to dawn and he saw the visions that 
had been sent down to earth come climbing up, and he recognized 
among them some of the visions that had visited him in the past. 
Then lie knew of a truth that all visions of every kind dwell above 
in Katasha, and that they descend thence to us in the night, and that 
as the day dawns they ascend, returning to rest in their dwelling place. 

The holy man made this song about his dream and told its meaning, 
and the song and the story have been handed down to us that we 
might know where visions come from, where they dwell and where 
they go to when they depart from us. 

Among the Pawnees there are shrines, in the keeping of certain men, 
which contain articles that are used in the sacred ceremonies of the 
different bands of the tribe. These shrines are very old, they were 
given by the lesser powers to our fathers with a knowledge of their 
contents and how to use them. 

An ear of corn belongs to one of these shrines. It is a peculiar ear. 
It is white, with perfect and straight lines of kernels, and there is a 
tassel on its tip. In the fall the priest of the shrine tells the women 
to look carefully for such ears when they gather their corn, for 
Tira'wa causes such ears to grow in the fields for the purposes of 
this shrine and they belong to it. The little tassel on the tip of the 
ear of corn represents the feather worn on the head of the warrior. 
The sacred ear of corn is sometimes borrowed from the priest by the 
leader of a war party. The ear of corn is born of Mother Earth, she 
knows all places and the acts of all men who walk the earth, so she is 
a leader. 

Sometimes a young man who proposed going to war would request 
the following song to be sung. He desired success and wished Mother 
Corn to lead him. After the Hako ceremony was over he would 
borrow a sacred ear of corn and put it in a pack which the leader of 
the war party would sling upon his back. When the party was suc- 
cessful, he would thrust into the ground the stick upon which the ear 
of corn was tied and as this ear stood before him he would give thanks 
to it for having led him in safety. 



FLETCHER] 



TWELFTH RITUAL 



157 



EXTRA NIGHT SONG 

M^orcls and Music 



M. M. Melodv. '=60. 



M. M. Drum. 



120. 



• — Pulsation of the voice. 



±= :(F= 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



fcg-^ 






^-^=zzz^=^-^—m5^ziz=^ 



Ha-aa- a-a-a! A - ti - ra!. 



Drum. 2 
Rattles. 4 ta- 



Ptr. 



A - 

?tr. 



ti - ra 



hi 



l - ra 



i: 



• » 




fcE*E*=3 



:3^=*z^— &±=* 



: — I 1 1 =~3 K~F~~) q»=zqs=zq> 



Hi - ri! Hi - ri! Ri whi - e ri; Sa-wi ra-re ka wa - ra, sa - wi ra - 

i i i i i : i i i : i i i i r 



fcfc 



-IV 



:i=^ 



^ssr 



:S=S- b g=*=t=5- 



re ka wa-ra; A - ti 



A 

r 



ra! 



A - ti 



L_/ C_f 



ra 



hi - ra 

• t 



>_* — q- 



1 



a. 



I 

737 Ha-a-a-a-a-a! 

738 Atira! Atira hira i; 

739 Hiri! Hiri! Ri whie ri: 

740 Sawi rare ka war a. sawi rare ka wara; 

741 Atira! Atira hira-a. 

II 

742 Ha-a-a-a-a-a! 

743 Hitkasharu, hitkasharu, iri! 

744 Hiri! Hiri! Ri rai i; 

745 Sawi rare ka wara, sawi rare ka wara: 

746 Hitkasharu, hitkasharu. iri! 

Translation 
I 

737 Ila-a-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

738 Atira! Atira hira i. 

atira, mother. The term applied to the ear of corn. 

hira, coming. 

i, it; refers to the corn. 

739 Hiri! Hiri! Ri whie ri. 

hiri! harken! give heed! 
ri, has, possesses, 
whie, it, within itself. 
ri, has. 

740 Sawi rare ka wara, sawi rare ka wara. 

sawi, part of asawiu, a trap or snare. 

rare, it has a likeness to. 

ka, part of akaro, the open space bounded by the horizon. 

wara, walking. 



158 THE HAKiK A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

741 At Lra ! Atira hira-a. 

Atira! Atira liira. See line 738. 
a, vowel prolongation. 

II 

74l> Ila-a-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

74*1 Hitkasharu, Hitkasharu, iri! 

hitkasharu, a composite word; hit, from hittu, feather; ka, 
from rotkaharn, night; sharu, dream. The word refers 
to dreams brought by the birds that attend the Hako. As 
the song refers to war, the word refers to the white eagle 
stem, the male, the warrior, the dream that attends that 
eagle, 
iri ! a part of the exclamation nawairi ! expressing thankful- 
ness that all is well. 

744 Hiri ! Hiri ! Ri rai i ; 

hiri ! harken ! give heed ! 
ri, has. 

rai, coming; in the future. 
i, it. 

745 Sawi rare ka wara, sawi rare ka wara. See first stanza, line 740. 
740 See line 743. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

There are not many words to this song, but the meaning and the 
story have been handed down from our fathers. 

The first stanza tells of a war party which started out carrying 
Mother Corn. As the warriors left the village the old men wished 
them good luck, and said: "Mother Corn will be like a snare to 
entangle the enemy, so that they will fall' easily. Mother Corn will 
be like a trap into which the enemy will fall and out of which there 
will be no escape." 

The young men started and took a straight course for the enemy's 
country; they knew the land and they went directly there, but they 
found nothing. They went to the east, there was nothing. They 
turned to the west, there was nothing. They traveled to the north, 
there was nothing. They went to the south, there was nothing. Then 
they made their way back to the point from which they had started 
on the border of the enemy's land. 

The leader said: "I am worn out, our moccasins are in holes, we 
are without food, we must turn back. We will return to our home 
tomorrow." 

That night they lay down and slept. The leader placed the pack 
with the ear of corn under his head, and with a heavy heart he fell 
asleep. 

The second stanza tells that in the night the ear of corn spoke to 
the leader in a dream and said: "Tira'wa bade me test you, and I 



Fletcher] TWELFTH RITUAL 159 

have been putting you on trial. I am able to bring strength to the 
people, the gift of life, and good fortune and success in war. I caused 
all your misadventures that I might try your courage. Now, you 
shall not go home on the morrow. If you should, the people would 
say, 'Mother Corn is powerless.' In the morning you must do as I tell 
you. You must go toward the southeast; there you will come upon a 
village where the people have many ponies; these you shall capture 
and return safely and in triumph, and learn that I have power to lead 
to success." 

The leader did as Mother Corn had directed, and everything came 
to pass as she had said. 

This song has no fixed place in the ceremony but it must be sung 
at night, because the dream came at that time to the warrior. 

The next song is about a man to whom Mother Corn came in a dream; 
it happened very long ago. The song and the story are very old and 
have come down to us from our fathers, who knew this ceremony. 

Mother Corn spoke to this man in his dream. We are not told what 
she said to him, but when he aw r oke he started out to find the man in 
whose keeping was a shrine containing the ear of corn. As he walked 
he met a man and asked him, "Is it far to the lodge where the corn 
is?' The man pointed to a lodge some distance off and said, "It is 
within." Then the man who had had the dream walked toward the 
place. As he entered the lodge he saw a shrine hanging on one of the 
poles and he asked the keeper if it contained the sacred ear of corn, 
and he was told that it did. Then he took his pipe and offered smoke 
and prayer in the presence of the corn; because Mother Corn had 
appeared to him in a dream and had spoken to him he came to offer 
her reverence. 

EXTRA NIGHT SONG 

Words and Music 
M. M. ,N = 126. _ 

• == Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




ru! Ra hi ra " hi ru - ra e; E - ru! Ra hi ra 

A A A A A 

• • • • P • * * ' * * * • 



Drum, q m » • • 
Raffles. 4 I ! 




=^§^==^3=^ 



Kits Sti-ra ka-ra-ka - we? Kits Sti-ra ka-ra-ka - we? 

A / ' \ A A 

• • • • * 0.0 

I || I | 



1(50 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 



747 Eru! Ra hi ra hi rura e: 

748 Eru! Ra hi ra hi rura e; 

749 Kits Stira karakawe? Kits Stira karakawe? Hi rura e; 

750 Eru! Ra hi ra hi rura e. 

II 

751 Eru! Ra hi ra hi rura e; 

752 Eru! Ra hi ra hi rura e; 

753 Kits Stira karatawi; kits Stira karatawi; hi rura e; 

754 Eru! Ra hi ra hi rura e. 

Translation 

I 

747 Eru! Ra hi ra hi rura e. 

eru! an exclamation of reverence. 

ra, part of rura, coming. 

hi, it. 

ra, coming. 

hi, it. 

rura, coming. 

e, vocable. 

748 See line 747. 

74!) Kits Stira karakawe? Kits Stira karakawe? Hi rura e. 

kits, an abbreviation of kerits? is it? 

stira; s, feminine sign; tira, part of atira, mother; refers to 
the ear of corn. 

karakawe? is it inside? 

hi rura e. See line 747. 
750 See line 747. 

II 

751, 752 See the first stanza, line 747. 

753 Kits Stira karatawi; kits Stira karatawi; hi rura e. 
. kits? is it? See the first stanza, line 740. 

stira, she who is the mother, the corn. See the first stanza, 

line 749. 
karatawi, it is hung up. Refers to the shrine in which the 

sacred ear is kept being hung on one of the posts within 

the lodge of the priest, 
hi rura e, translated above. See the first stanza, line 747. 

754 See line 747. 

Explanation of Ku'rahus 

About midnight the Children disperse to their homes and all the 
members of the Father's party except those who must remain in the 



fletchek] TWELFTH AND THIRTEENTH EITUALS 161 

lodge in charge of the Ilako go to their tents. Soon all is quiet within 
the lodge, the fire burns down to coals and every one sleeps except 
the man on guard. He must watch through the night and give warn- 
ing of the first sign of a change in the appearance of the east. As 
soon as this is seen the skins that hang over the doors of the lodge 
are lifted and the Ku'rahus makes ready to repeat the songs to the 
Dawn (tenth ritual). We sing these sacred songs at the dawn of the 
second day, the day when we chant to our father the Sun, and we 
sing them again at the dawn of the third day, when we sing to our 
mother the Earth. 

THIRTEENTH RITUAL (THIRD DAY). THE FEMALE ELEMENT INVOKED 

Part I. The Sacred Feast of Corn 
Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

With the morning sun the Children gather at the lodge to receive 
their morning meal given them by the Fathers. Soon afterward the 
sacred feast of the Corn takes place. For this feast the Children pre- 
pare the food in the manner our fathers did. They pound the dried 
corn in a wooden mortar and boil the coarse meal until it is thoroughly 
cooked. They do this in their own homes and then carry the food 
in the kettles in which it has been cooked to the lodge where the 
ceremony is being performed, and set them near the fireplace toward 
the southeast, where wooden bowls and horn spoons have been pro- 
vided for the occasion. 

When all the company have been seated the Fathers ladle out the 
food into the bowls. The Ku'rahus takes up a little of the food on 
the tip of a spoon, offers it toward the east, flipping a particle toward 
the horizon line. He then passes to the north, drops a bit on the rim 
of the fireplace, and goes to the west, where,^ facing the east, he lifts 
the spoon toward the zenith, pauses, waves it to the four quarters and 
slowly lowers it to the earth and drops a bit on the rim of the fire- 
place. After this ceremony of offering thanks the filled bowls are 
placed before the people. Two or more persons take a few spoonfuls 
from the same bowl, then, hanging the spoons on the edge to prevent 
their falling into the food, they pass the bowl on to the next group 
at the left. In this way all the people partake of a common feast. 

Part II. Song to the Earth 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

On the third day of the ceremony it is the duty of the Ku'rahus to 
tear-h the Children concerning h'Uraru, Mother Earth, and of those 

22 ETH— IT 2—04 1 1 



162 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY (eth.ann.22 

things which she brings forth to sustain the life of the people. The 
Ku'rahus lias received these teachings from older Ku'rahus, who also 
received them, and so on through generations back to the time when 
they were revealed to our fathers through a vision from the myste- 
rious powers above. A Ku'rahus must devote his life to learning 
these songs and their meaning and the ceremonies which accompany 
them. He must spend much of his time in thinking of these things 
and in praying to the mighty powers above. 

The Ku'rahus speaks to the Children and tells them that Tira'wa 
atius is the father of all things. Then the feathered stems are taken 
up and we sing again the song which we sang the first day before the 
Children had partaken of the food prepared for them by the Fathers. 
We sang it then remembering Tira'wa atius, the father of all, of whose 
gift of food we were about to receive. Now we sing it, remembering 
that he is the father of the sun which sends its ray, and of the earth 
which brings forth. 

FIRST SONG 

Words and Music 
M. M. J =126. 




• — Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy 

__ -r-1 . _ ■ 



A A A ■ A 

1 1 -t— F — I K- 



:z2: 



22: 



Ha - a - a - a! ITA-arts Ti- ra - wa ha - ki; H'A-ars Ti - ra - wa ha - ki; 

i 

Rattles. . 



Drum. A , g . • - i . # . ■ A m . , , » m o m * 

r r r t ! i r i rrrrriri i i i 




^— FJ— j h~*+»- ^> — ?a — F"— *— *— ^-FaK 



-?2l 



H'A-ars Ti-ra-wa ha-ki; H'A-ars Ti-ra-wa ha -ki; H'A-ars Ti -ra-wa ha-ki. 

• t ft ft r t ft r t rt r t'ft f fi - 

755 Ha-a-a-a! 

756 H'Aars Tira'wa haki; 

757 H'Aars Tira'wa haki; 

758 H'Aars Tira'wa haki; 

759 H'Aars Tira'wa haki; 

760 H'Aars Tira wa haki. 

For translation, see eighth ritual, first song, page 107. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

On the second circuit of the lodge we sing the song which follows 
the first. It tells us that all the lesser powers are from Tira'wa atius, 
the father of all. As we sing we remember the power given to Mother 
Earth. 



FLETCHER] 



THIRTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 



163 



SECOND SONG 



M. M. J =126. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




^, 



:S=3«— z=3zja 



zi— d:^z«£*— *— i 



rst. 



Drum. £ 
Matties. I 



Ha - a - a - a ! 

* A • 



H'A 

t r 



ars 

6 



e he! Ti-ra-wa ha-ki; 

r f r t r f r f r 



IPA-ars e he! 

ff f f 






=>- 



Ti-ra-wa ha-ki; 

PrPrfr 




Ti-ra-wa ha-ki. 



Hi-dhi! Ti-ra-wa ha-ki; 

t-U f r , 3 r Pr P r fr 

761 Ha-a-a-a! 

762 H'Aars e he! Tirawa haki; 

763 H'Aars e he! Tirawa haki; 

764 Hidhi! Tirawa haki; 

765 H'Aars Tirawa haki. 

For translation, see eighth ritual, second song, page 108. 

Explanation by the Ku'ralius 

Now we begin the song of Mother Earth, making a circuit of the 
lodge to each of the eight stanzas, but not laying down the Hako at 
the close of the fourth circuit, nor at the end of the song. 

THIRD SONG 

Words and Music. 
M. M. ,N = 1?6. 



— Pulsation of the voice. 

A A 




d?T3IZ 



53 



. =3 



ilzg— 3: 




m$-A 



ril- 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

A A _mwm« 

... ^*i 

Ho-o-o! I-ri! H'U-ra-ru ti ra - sha-a; ha! I - ri! H'U-ra-ru ti ra - sha-a; 

LJ C— J . LJ 



Drum 

Rattles. U r £J 



A A 

• o e 



A 

• 




z AzM: 



55 ^ 



Ti ra - sha-a; ha! 

• ? r ? 



- ri! H'U-ra-ru 

? r ? r 



ti ra - sha-a; ha! 
& ■• I I 



766 Ho-o-o! 

767 Iri! H'Uraru ti rasha-a; ha! 

768 Iri! H'Uraru ti rasha-a; ha! 

769 Awa! Ti rasha-a; ha! 

770 Iri! H'Uraru ti rasha-a; ha! 

II 

771 Ho-o-o! 

772 Iri! H'Uraru ko ti sha-a; ha! 

773 Iri! H'Uraru ko ti sha-a; ha! 

774 Awa! Ko ti sha-a; ha! 

775 Iri! H'Uraru ko ti sha-a; ha! 



Ill 

776 Ho-o-o! 

777 Ka-a kaharu ti rasha-a; haf 

778 Ka-a kaharu ti rasha-a; ha! 

779 Awa! Kaharu a; ha! 

780 Ka-a kaharu ti rasha-a; ha! 

IV 

781 Ho-o-o! 

782 Ka-a kaharu ko ti sha-a; ha! 

783 Ka-a kaharu ko ti sha-a; ha! 

784 Awa! Ko ti sha-a; ha! 

785 Ka-a kaharu ko ti sha-a; ha I 



164 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



y 

786 Ho-o-o! 79C 

787 Iri! Toharu ti rasha-a; ha! 797 

788 Iri! Toharu ti rasha-a; ha! 798 

789 Awa! Ti rasha-a; ha! 799 

790 IriL Toharu ti rasha-a: har 800 

VI 

791 Ho-o-o! 801 

792 Iri! Toharu ko ti sha-a; ha! 802 

793 Iri! Toharu ko ti sha-a; ha! 803 

794 Awa! Ko ti sha-a: ha! 804 

795 Iri! Toharu ko ti sha-a; ha! 805 



VII 

Ho-o-o! 

IrP Chaharu ti rasha-a; ha! 
Iri! Chaharu ti rasha-a; ha! 
Awa! Ti rasha-a; ha! 
Iri! Chaharu ti rasha-a; ha! 

VIII 
Ho-o-o! 

Iri! Chaharu ko ti sha-a: ha! 

Iri! Chaharu ko ti sha-a; ha! 

Awa! Ko ti sha-a; ha! 

Iri! Chaharu ko ti sha-a; ha! 



Translation of First Stanza 

766 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

767 Iri! ITUraru ti rasha-a; ha! 

iri, a part of nawairi, an expression of thankfulness. 

h'Uraru, the Earth, the fruitful Earth. 

ti, this here. 

rasha, lying. 

a, vowel prolongation. ' 

ha! behold. 

768 See line 767. 

769 Awa! Ti rasha-a; ha! 

awa, true, verity. 

ti rasha-a; ha! See line 767. 

770 See line 767. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In the first stanza we sing : "Behold ! Here lies Mother Earth, for a 
truth she lies here to bring forth, and we give thanks that it is so." 

Translation of Second Stanza 

771 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

772 Iri! H'Uraru ko ti sha-a. Ha! 

iri, a part of nawairi, an expression of thankfulness. 

h'Uraru, Mother Earth. 

ko, I am reminded to think of. 

ti, here. 

sha, a part of rasha, to lie, lying. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ha! behold! 

773 See line 772. 

774 Awa! Ko ti sha-a; ha! 

awa, true, verily. 

ko ti sha-a; ha! See line 772. 

775 See line 772. 



Fletcher] THIRTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 165 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In the second stanza the Children respond. They say that now 
they know of a truth that Tira'wa atius causes Mother Earth to lie 
here and bring forth, and the}^ give thanks that it is so. 

Translation of Third Stanza 

776 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation . 

777 Ka-a kaharu ti rasha-a; ha! 

ka, part of akaro, the stretch of land between the horizons. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

kaharu, a cultivated patch, as an aboriginal field of maize. 

ti, here. 

rasha, lying, lies. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ha! behold! 

778 See line 777. 

779 Awa! Kaharu a; ha! 

awa, true, verily, 
kaharu, cultivated patches, 
a, vowel prolongation, 
ha! behold! 

780 See line 777. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

There are patches here and there over the land which are cultivated 
by the different families, where seed is put in Mother Earth, and she 
brings forth corn. In the thirl stanza we sing of these fields that 
lie on Mother Earth, where she brings forth corn for food, and bid the 
Children behold these fields and remember the power of Tira'wa atius 
with Mother Earth. — 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

781 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

782 Ka-a kaharu ko ti sha-a; ha! 

ka, part of akaro, the stretch of land between the horizons, 
a, vowel prolongation. 

kaharu, cultivated jjatches, where the corn is planted. 
ko, I am reminded to think of. 
ti, here. 

slut, part of rasha, lies, lying, 
a, vowel prolongation. 
ha! behold! 
78.'3 See line 782. 

784 Awa! Ko ti sha-a; ha! 

awa, true, verily. 

ko ti sha-a; ha! See line 782. 

785 See line 782. 



166 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [kth.ann.22 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

In the fourth stanza the Children answer that the fruitful fields are 
brought to mind, and now they are taught about the gifts of the eorn 
from the powers above and Mother Earth. 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

786 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

787 Iri! Toharu ti rasha-a; ha! 

iri, from nawairi, thankfulness. 

toharu, trees, forests. 

ti, this here. 

rasha, lying. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ha! behold! 

788 See line 787. 

789 Awa! Ti rasha-a; ha! 

awa, true, verily. 

ti rasha-a; ha! See line 787. 

790 See line 787. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

In the fifth stanza the Fathers give thanks for the trees and forests 
which lie on Mother Eajth, which Tira'wa caused her to bring forth, 
and tell the Children that truly it is so, and that we give thanks 
because it is so. From the trees we gain shelter and fire and many 
other good things. 

Translation of Sixth Stanza 

791 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

792 * Iri! Toharu ko ti sha-a; ha! 

iri, from nawairi, thankfulness. 

toharu, trees, forests. 

ko, I am reminded to think of. 

ti, here. 

sha, from rasha, lying. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ha! behold! 

793 See line 792. 

794 Awa! Ko ti sha-a; ha! 

awa, true, verily. 

ko ti sha-a; ha! See line 792. 

795 See line 792. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The Children respond in the sixth stanza, and give thanks for the 
forests that lie on Mother Earth. They remember that Tira'wa atius 
caused Mother Earth to bring them forth, and they give thanks that 
it is so. 



Fletcher] THIRTEENTH RITUAL, PART II ltt7 

Translation of Seventh Stanza 

790 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

797 Iri! Chaharu ti rasha-a; ha! 

iri, from nawairi, thankfulness. 

chaharu, rivers, streams, water. 

ti, here. 

rasha, lying. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ha! behold! 

798 See line 797. 

799 Awa! Ti rasha-a; ha! 

awa, true, verily. 

ti rasha-a; ha! See line 797. 

800 See line 797. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In the seventh stanza the Fathers give thanks for the water, the 
springs, streams, and rivers which flow over Mother Earth. Of a 
truth she brings them forth by the power of Tira'wa atius. I have 
told you of the meaning of running water. We give thanks for it 
and all it promises to us. 

Translation of Eighth Stanza 

801 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

802 Iri! Chaharu ko ti sha-a; ha! 

iri, from nawairi, thankfulness. 

chaharu, rivers, streams, springs, water. 

ko, I am reminded to think of. 

ti, here. 

sha, from rasha, lying. ^ 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ha! behold! 

803 See line 802. 

804 Awa! Ko ti sha-a; ha! 

awa, true, verily. 

ko ti sha-a; ha! See line 802. 

805 See line 802. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In the eighth stanza the Children answer, giving thanks for the 
water, the springs, the streams, and the rivers that flow over Mother 
Earth. Of a truth the Children now know that Mother Earth brings 
them forth by the power of Tira'wa atius. (I did not sing these last 
t wo stanzas loud, for if I had done so they would have brought rain. 
As it is 1 think it will rain soon.) 



168 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Part III. Offering of Smoke 

At the close of the song to Mother Earth the chief spreads the wild- 
cat skin on the holy place and the assistant lays upon it the white 
feathered stem, resting one end on the crotched stick. 

Then the Ku'rahus says: "My Children, your fathers are listening 
to what I have to say. Yesterday we remembered our father the Sun, 
today we remember our mother the Earth, and today Tira'wa has 
appointed that we should learn of those things which have been 
handed down to us. Tira'wa is now to smoke from the brown -eagle 
stem, Kawas, the mother, and you are to smoke from it also." 

The bowl from the pipe belonging to the Rain shrine is put on 
the brown-eagle stem and the priest of the shrine fills it and calls 
on some one to light it. He also directs in what order the smoke 
shall be offered. I can not remember the order — if I said anything 
about it I might tell it wrong, for it is not my business to remember it, 
the priest alone knows it. 

After the offering of smoke as directed by the priest, the feathered 
stem is taken to the Son, who sits near the door, and after he has 
smoked the pipe is offered to, everyone; all the men, women, and 
children of the Son's party smoke. This is a holy act and gives long 
life to the people. 

When the west is reached, the feathered stem is lifted four times 
and the ashes are emptied on the edge of the fireplace. The Ku'ra- 
hus then hands the feathered stem to his assistant and returns to his 
seat, where he takes the feathered stem from his assistant, removes 
the bowl and replaces it upon its own stem. Then he puts the 
feathered stem beside its mate on the wildcat skin, resting it against 
the crotched stick. 

Part IV. Songs of the Birds 
Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The songs about the birds begin with the egg, so the song of the 
bird's nest where the eggs are lying is the first, to be sung. Then 
comes the song about the wren, the smallest of birds. After that we 
sing about the birds that are with the Hako, from the smallest to the 
largest. 

These songs are to teach the people to care for their children, even 
before they are born. They also teach the people to be happy and 
thankful. They also explain how the birds came to be upon the 
feathered stems and why they are able to help the people. 

There is no fixed time for these songs to be sung, but they belong 
to the third day of the ceremony — the day when we sing the song to 
Mother Earth. Sometimes the songs of the nest and the wren are 
sung early in the d&y, as these songs were made in the morning. 
The song of the owl must be sung toward night. 



FLETCHER] 



THIRTEENTH RITUAL, PART IV 



169 



The words of these songs are few, but the story of each has come 
down to us, so that we know what they mean. 



THE SONG OF THE BIRDS NEST 



Words and Music 



M. M. js = 



Graphophone sound one fourth lower in pitch. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy 

No drum. 

8 ■* JZLm^ Ly =£=E2==g==k£z 



:fca=±it2 



:*==P^ 



t:fc: 



II 



szsz 



Ho - o-o - o-o! 'Ha -re, 'ha - re, i - ha- re! 'Ha- re, 'ha - re, 



-M *=Ez* 



=M: 



^;*=Efcr=*=E=*=*— E^zz^zz=S=t^=Efel=5t 



ha - re! 



Re 



wha-ka, 'ha - re, re 'ha- re, Wha-ka 



— m m — F *— fr J — *-F»-t— Y- m z^w-Yfo - =i=:Ez*=*: 

'ha - re, re 'ha- re, Re wha-ka 'ha - re, re 



-fcJi-sq- 



'ha - re. 



ii 



806 Ho-o-o-o-o! 

807 'Hare, 'hare, iha re! 

808 'Hare, 'hare, iha re! 

809 Re whaka 'hare, re hare, 

810 Whaka 'hare, re "hare. 

811 Re whaka 'hare, re 'hare. 



812 Ho-o-o-o-o! 

813 'Hare, 'hare, iha're! 

814 'Hare, 'hare, ira're! 

815 Re whari 'hare, re 'hare, 

816 Whari 'hare, re 'hare, 

817 Re whari 'hare, re 'hare. 



Translation 
I 

806 Ho-o-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

807 'Hare, 'hare, iha're! 

'hare, a part of the word iha're, young, as the young of ani- 
mals. The term is also applied to children. 

iha're, young. The word in the song refers to the young 
birds as yet unhatched, still in the egg. 

808 See line 807. 

800 Re whaka 'hare, re 'hare! 
re, they. 

whaka, wha, part of whako, noise; ka, part of akaro, inclo- 
sure, dwelling place; ka refers to the shell of the egg and 
to the nest in which the eggs lay. 
Tiare, young. 

re 'hare. Translated above. 
81<) Whaka 'hare, re 'hare. See line 809. 
811 See line 809. 



170 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

II 

$12 Ho-o-o-o o! An introductory exclamation. 

813 'Hare, 'hare, iha're! See line 807. 

814 See line 813. 

815 Re whari 'hare, re 'hare. 

re, they. 

whari, moving, walking, 
'hare, part of iha're, young, 
re 'hare. Translated above. 

816 Whari 'hare, re 'hare. See line 815. 

817 See line 815. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

One day a man whose mind was open to the teaching of the powers 
wandered on the prairie. As he walked, his eyes upon the ground, 
he spied a bird's nest hidden in the grass, and arrested his feet just 
in time to prevent stepping on it. He paused to look at the little 
nest tucked away so snug and warm, and noted that it held six eggs 
and that a peeping sound -came from some of them. While he 
watched, one moved and soon a tiny bill pushed through the shell, 
uttering a shrill cry. At once the parent birds answered and he looked 
up to see where they were. They were not far off; they were flying 
about in search of food, chirping the while to each other and now and 
then calling to the little one in the nest. 

The homely scene stirred the heart and the thoughts of the man as 
he stood there under the clear sky, glancing upward toward the old 
birds and then down to the helpless young in the nest at his feet. As 
he looked he thought of his people, who were so often careless and 
thoughtless of their children's needs, and his mind brooded over 
the matter. After many days he desired to see the nest again. So 
he went to the place where he had found it, and there it was as safe 
as when he left it. But a change had taken place. It was now full 
to overflowing with little birds, who were stretching their wings, bal- 
ancing on their little legs and making ready to fly, while the parents 
with encouraging calls were coaxing the fledglings to venture forth. 

"Ah!" said the man, "if my people would only learn of the birds, 
and, like them, care for their young and provide for their future, 
homes would be full and happy, and our tribe be strong and pros- 
perous." 

When this man became a priest, he told the story of the bird's nest 
and sang its song; and so it has come down to us from the days of our 
fathers. 



FLETCHER] 



THIRTEENTH RITUAL, PART IV 



171 



THE SONG OF THE "WREN 

Words and Music' 



M. M. Melody, j = 54. 
M. M. Drum. ^ = 108. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tiacy. 






w 



Drum. ~o 
Rattles. 8;_ 



Ki - chi ru-ku wa-ku,Wheke re re we chi; Ki-clii ru-ku wa-ku, 

& • ft . . . 

i i t i r r 



§L J^ 



*±=}s=^s==£ ^ — pgszr; 



** '*' :J: -»- "*■ ~*r ■*" "*":J: 



"? 



Whe ke re re we chi; Ki-chi ru - ku wa-ku, Wheke re re we chi; 



• 



• 



A 





* 



P 



±- 



:ziv±=:qs=qv: 






m 



=K==KzrK±=qK=q: 



^==lv 



1 



Ki-chi ru-ku wa - ku, Whe ke re re we chi; 

ft m ft m 

\ i I I 



Ki-chi ru - ku wa-ku, 



} 



. 



w~ 



4*=O^L- M: -) v =z|-b 

■0- -0- -at 



^2e^^?=^^zE^e?Je^ 



& 



-•*-? 



Whe ke re re we chi; Ki-chi ru-ku wa-ku, Whe ke re re we 
ft • ft 



f 



t 



1 
chi. 

1 1 



818 Kichi ruku waku, Whe ke re re we chi 

819 Kichi ruku waku, Whe ke re re we chi 

820 Kichi ruku waku. Whe ke re re we chi 
821 . Kichi ruku waku, Whe ke re re we chi 

822 Kichi ruku waku, Whe ke re re we chi 

823 Kichi ruku waku, Whe ke re re we chi. 

Translation 

818 Kichi ruku waku, Whe ke re re we chi. 

kichi, so it; but this one. 

ruku, sang. 

waku, sound from the mouth, speech. 

whe ke re re we chi, syllables imitative of the sound of the 
bird. 
819-823 See line Sis. 

Explanation by the. Ku'rahus 

The wren is always spoken of as the laughing bird. It is a very 
happy little bird, and we have stories about it. Every one likes to 
hear the wren sing. This song is very old; I do not know how old, 
how many generations old. There are very few words in the song, 
but there is a story which has come down with it and which tells its 
meaning. 

A priest went forth in the early dawn. The sky was clear. The 
grass and wild flowers waved in the breeze that rose as the sun threw 



172 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

its first beams over the earth. Birds of all kinds vied with one 
another as they sang their joy on that beautiful morning. The priest 
stood listening. Suddenly, off at one side, he heard a trill that rose 
higher and clearer than all the rest. lie moved toward the place 
whence the song came that he might see what manner of bird it was 
that could send farther than all the others its happy, laughing notes. 
As he came near he beheld a tiny brown bird with open bill, the 
feathers on its throat rippling with the fervor of its song. It was the 
wren, the smallest, the least powerful of birds, that seemed to be 
most glad and to pour out in ringing melody to the rising sun its 
delight in life. 

As the priest looked he thought: "Here is a teaching for my people. 
Everyone can be happy; even the most insignificant can have his 
song of thanks." 

So he made the story of the wren and sang it; and it has been handed 
down from that day, a day so long ago that no man can remember the 
time. 

THE SONG OF THE "WOODPECKER AND THE TURKEY 

Words and Music 
M. M. /* = 108. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



3 



=l=3=*db= 



?5™^^ 1— — 1 T— 5"^H — U?=! 



*j 



-mt-m- 



• 



Ho-o-o! I - ra - ri lia-o ra; i - ra - ri ha-o ra; i - ra-ri ha-o ra 

Urum.b .*. . , B a , , # . , . . . . . . . 

Rattles.^ LJ I -' LJ LJ '■ > LJ — I ' — L 






-*- r. r. ^ r. - - -wt 

Kako-ra-she ha-o? Reku-ta-ti ha-o; I- ra-ri ha-o ra; i -ra-ri ha - o i. 

C 1 LJ LJ L— J U U C ! LJ LJ L ' ' n * * l * 



824 Ho-o-o! 

825 Irari hao ra; irari liao ra: irari hao ra; 

826 Ka korashe hao? Re kutati hao; 

827 Irari hao ra: irari hao i. 

Translation 

824 IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

825 Irari hao ra; irari hao ra; irari hao ra. 

irari, brother, 
hao, offspring, child, 
ra, coming. 
820 Ka korashe hao? Re kutati hao. 
ka? is? a question, 
korashe, your. 

hao, offspring. Is it or are they your offspring? 
re, they. 

kutati, my or mine, 
hao, offspring. They are my offspring. 



Fletcher] THIRTEENTH RITUAL, PART IV 173 

827 Irari hao ra; irari hao i. 

Irari hao ra; irari hao. See line 825. 
i, . 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

We are told that in old times, long, long ago, the feathers of the 
turkey were used where now the feathers of the brown eagle are 
placed on the blue feathered stem. In those days the turkey, not the 
brown eagle, was leader, but, through the mysterious power of the 
woodpecker, the turkey lost its position. This song refers to the dis- 
pute between the woodpecker and the turkey, which resulted in the 
supplanting of the turkey by the brown eagle. 

The words of the song are few, but the story of their meaning has 
come down to us from the fathers. 

Both the turkey and the woodpecker desired to be the protector of 
the children of the human race, and there was trouble between them 
on that account. One daj T the woodpecker was flying about looking 
for its nest when the turkey chanced that way and the woodpecker 
called out: "Brother, where are my eggs?" 

The woodpecker talked of his eggs, but he meant the children of 
the people on the earth and the turkey knew that was what he was 
talking about. 

"They are not your eggs (offspring) ; they are mine," said the wood- 
pecker. 

"They are mine to take care of," answered the turkey; "for in my 
division of life there is great power of productiveness. I have more 
tail feathers than any other bird and I have more eggs. Wherever I 
go my young cover the ground." 

" True," replied the woodpecker, " but you build your nest on the 
ground, so that your eggs are in constant danger of being devoured 
by serpents, and when the eggs hatch the young become a prey to the 
wolves, the foxes, the weasels; therefore, your number is continually 
being reduced. Security is the only thing that can insure the con- 
tinuation of life. I can, therefore, claim with good reason the right 
to care for the human race. I build my nest in the heart of the tall 
oak, where my eggs and my young are safe from the creatures that 
pre} r upon birds. While I have fewer eggs they hatch in security and 
the birds live until they die of old age. It is my place to be a pro- 
tector of the life of men." 

The woodpecker prevailed, and the turkey was deposed; for, 
although the turkey had more children, they did not live; they were 
killed. 

Then the brown eagle was put in the turkey's place, because it was 
not quarrelsome, but gentle, and cared for its young, and was strong 
to protect them from harm. 

The woodpecker was given an important place on the stem, where 
it presides over the path along which the help that comes from the 



174 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

llako travels— the red path. The woodpecker is wise and careful, 
and, thai it may not get angry and be warlike on the llako, its upper 
mandible is turned back over its red crest. 

The llako ceremony was given in a vision, and all these things, 
such as the dispute between the turkey and the woodpecker, were 
made known to our fathers in a vision. 

THE SONG OF THE DUCK 



Words and Music 



M. M. J =104. 



Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



bk 



A — ^1 1-** — > J m . — y — I— -Jp — | 1 1-2- = ) 1 "— 

a— ^ _ . r__ — m — « — ___^c__] ^ u_a 



-=*■ '* 






Ho-o-o-o! Huka wa-re, hu-ka ware ho - ra; Ha! Wi - ri hu-ka- lia - 

Drum. , , i . * » m m * . * » i , & » «»««». 

Matties. LJ L_ L-J — 



>£ 



w u-3— s— ^ — m * — _n_a s — ^-t- c -* — w> — * — 






--# =3- 



%y • • • • • « . • v m 00 & 

^- . . . . 

ru we; Ha - o e! Hu-ka wa-re, hu-ka ware ho - ra; 

L-Lf Lf U'U U 'LJ U U UU 




828 H-o-o-o! 

829 Huka ware, huka ware hora; 

830 Ha! Wiri hukaharu we; 

831 Hao e! 

1 832 Huka ware, huka ware hora: 

833 Ha! Wiri aha ha rawe we; 

834 Hao e! 

Translation 

828 Ho-o-o-o ! An introductory exclamation. 

829 Huka ware, huka ware hora. 

huka, a part of the word hukaharu, valley, a valley through 

which a stream is flowing, 
ware, a part of teware, flying, 
hora, a part of the word horaro, the earth, the land 

830 Ha! Wiri hukaharu we. 

ha! behold! 

wiri, it is. 

hukaharu, a valley through which a stream flows. 

we, they; refers to the young of the duck. 

831 Hao e! 

hao, offspring. 
e, vocable. 

832 See line 829. 



Fletcher] THIKTEENTH RITUAL, PART IV 175 

833 Ha! Wiri alia ha rawe we. 

ha! wiri; behold! it is. 

aha, a part of kiwaharu, a pond, a small body of water. 

ha, a part of iha're, young; refers to the young of the duck. 

rawe, living in. 

we, they. 

834 See line 831. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The words of this song about the duck are few, and if the story had 
not come down to us from the fathers, we should not know all that 
the song means. 

The duck has great power. The story tells us about this power. 

Long ago when the feathered stems were being made, the holy man 
who was preparing these sacred objects had a dream. In his vision 
the duck with the green neck appeared and said to him: 

"I desire to have a place upon the feathered stem, for I have power 
to help the Children. This is my power: I lay my eggs near the water 
and, when the young are hatched, straightway they can swim; the 
water can not kill them. When they are grown they can go, flying 
through the air, from one part of the earth to the other. No place is 
strange to them; they never lose their way; they can travel over the 
water without harm and reach safely their destination. They can 
walk upon the land and find the springs and streams. I am an uner- 
ring guide. I know all paths below on the earth, and on the water and 
above in the air. Put me on the feathered stem where it is grasped by 
the hand, that the Children may take hold of me and not go astray." 

When the holy man awoke, he did as the duck had told him, and 
so to this day we put the duck with the green neck on the feathered 
stem where it is held by the hand. 

This is the meaning of the song. 

THE SONG OF THE OWL 

Words and Music 

M. M. ^ = 168. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

uv 4' -3 — _ ^ ^ — m — » m ' >- ^ i- — • — m «» -> 

He! Hi - ri wa-ho- ru! Hi, hi - ri wa-ho - ru! 

Drum. d,* f ksd*>s 0,0000 

Rattles. I r r l |__f [_J L I I ' LJ 



ogz ^» -»— * g»->-f — c-— -,-,0 — 9 — g, — 9 - -tra-r T ^f - * — » D 



HelHi-ri wa-ho-ru! Hi, hi- ri wa-ho- rul He! Wa-ho-ru. 

LjLrt-jLsL-rULf'Lf J - * * 



17(5 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

835 * He! Hiri wahoru! Hi. hiri wahoru! 

836 He! Hiri wahoru! Hi, hiri wahoru! 

837 He! Wahoru. 

Translation 

835 He! Hiri wahoru! Hi, hiri wahoru ! 

he ! an exclamation signifying that something has been brought 
To one's mind that should be reflected on. 

hiri; iri, a part of nawairi, an expression of thankfulness, of 
appreciation of good promised, or of some benefit to be 
derived; the initial letter h is added for euphony and ease 
in singing. 

wahoru, owl. 

hi, the same as hiri, translated above. 

836 See line 835. 

837 He! Wahoru! See line 835. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In this song we give thanks to the owl, for it gives us help in the 
night. We sing it twice; tlie first time it is sung very slowly; the 
second time it is sung very fast, as we sing a dance song. 

The meaning of the song has come down to us from the fathers; 
the words tell very little about the song. 

To the same holy man to whom the duck came in a vision, the owl 
spoke in a dream and said: 

"Put me upon the feathered stem, for I have power to help the 
Children. The night season is mine. I wake when others sleep. I 
can see in the darkness and discern coming danger. The human race 
must be able to care for its young during the night. The warrior 
must be alert and ready to protect his home against prowlers in the 
dark. I have the power to help the people so that they may not 
forget their young in sleep. I have power to help the people to be 
watchful against enemies while darkness is on the earth. I have power 
to help the people to keep awake and perform these ceremonies in the 
night as well as in the day." 

When the holy man awoke, he remembered all that the owl had said 
to him, and he put the owl's feathers upon the stem, next to the duck. 
So the people are guided by the duck and kept awake by the owl. 



FLETCHER] 



THIRTEENTH RITUAL, PART IV 



177 



SONG OF THANKFULNESS 

Words and Music 



M. M. d S = 132. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




Ho-o-o-o! I-ri!Hako 

Drum.b 00000 » 

Battles.^ U — — 



ti re-hra re-ki; 

Li 



A A 

• # * 

I : r 



I-ri!Ha-ko ti re-hra re-ki; 



! I 



« » 







I - ri! Ha ko 

A A 



ti re - lira re-ki. 



t i i 



ii 



838 Ho-o-o-o! 

839 Iri! Hako ti rehra reki; 

840 Iri! Hako ti rehra reki; 

841 Iri! Hako ti rehra reki; 

842 Iri! Hako ti rehra reki. 



843 Ho-o-o-o! 

844 Iri! Hako ti resstah riki; 

845 Iri! Hako ti resstah riki; 

846 Iri! Hako ti resstah riki; 

847 Iri! Hako ti resstah riki. 



Translation of First Stanza 

838 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

839 Iri! Hako ti rehra reki. 

iri! a part of the word nawairi, an expression of thankful- 
ness; "It is well!" 

Hako, all the symbolic objects peculiar to this ceremony. 

ti, me (present time). 

rehra, a part of rehrara, I have. 

reki; re, pertaining or belonging to me; ki, a part of riki, 
standing. 
840-842 See line 839. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

This stanza means that it is well, a cause of thankfulness, that all 
the birds and all the symbols are here with the Hako and able to 
bring good. The Fathers now stand with the complete Hako extend- 
ing to the Children the promised blessings. So we sing: "I stand 
here before you with the Hako!" 

Translation of Second Stanza 

843 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

844 Iri! Hako ti resstah riki. 

iri! it is well! An exclamation of thankfulness. 
Hako, all the symbolic articles belong to this ceremony, 
ti, me (present time), 
resstah, you hold, 
riki, standing. 
845-847 See line 844. 

22 ETH— FT 2—04 12 



178 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

In this stanza the Children reply: "It is well for us that you are 
here with the complete Hako!" 

The Fathers sing these words, but they are really from the Children. 

FOURTEENTH RITUAL (THIRD NIGHT). INVOKING THE VISIONS OF THE 

ANCIENTS 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

This ceremony was given to our fathers in a vision, and to our 
fathers the promise was made that dreams bringing happiness would 
be brought to the Children by the birds that are with the Hako. 
This promise given to our fathers is always fulfilled; happiness always 
comes with the Hako, and the Children have visions. 

When the ceremony is near the end (the third night) we sing this 
song, for we remember the visions of our fathers, the holy men to 
whom was taught this ceremony. We ask that the visions which 
came to them may come again to us. 



SONG 



Words and Music 



M. M. JS 



126. 



• = Pulsation of the \*>ice. 




^fe 



— *- 



^^^sm^ 



r*^ 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracv. 

/\ 






Ha-a-al Ra - ra wha-ri; Hit - ka - sha-ru, ra - ra wha-ri; Hit-ka - sha- 

A A AAA 

W U Lf U CJ" C_f 



Drum. 
Rattles. L 



000 



p • 



0i 
— . U 




z^zzdbatz 



?zzM: 



A __ A 



ru! Hi-ri! H'A-ti-a si ha-vva ra - ra wha-ri, Hit-ka - sha-ru. 



U Li U Is Lf L; 



? f 



. 



i i 



848 


Ha-a-a! 


860 


849 


Rara whari; 


861 


850 


Hitkasharu, rara whari; 


862 


851 


Hitkasharu! 


863 


852 


Hiri! H' Atia si hawa rara whari, 


864 


853 


Hitkasharu. 

II 


865 


854 


Ha-a-a! 


866 


855 


Rara wha-a; 


867 


856 


Hitkasharu, rara wha-a; 


868 


857 


Hitkasharu! 


869 


858 


Hiri! H'Atia si hawa rara wha-a, 


870 


859 


Hitkasharu. 


871 



III 

Ha-a-a! 

Rara whicha; 

Hitkasharu, rara whicha: 

Hitkasharu! 

Hiri! H'Atia si hawa rara whicha. 

Hitkasharu. 

IV 
Ha-a-a! 
Rara ruka; 

Hitkasharu, rara ruka: 
Hitkasharu! 

Hiri! H'Atia si hawa rara ruka, 
Hitkasharu. 



FLETCHER] 



FOURTEENTH RITUAL 



179 



VII 



872 


Ha-a-a! 


884 


Ha-a-a! 


873 


Werih kawa; 


885 


Rarah whara; 


874 


Hitkasharu, werih kawa: 


886 


Hitkasharu, rarah whara; 


875 


Hitkasharu! 


887 


Hitkasharu! 


876 


Hiri! H' Atia si hawa werih kawa, 


888 


Hiri ! H ' Atia si hawa rarah whara 


877 


Hitkasharu. 


889 


Hitkasharu. 




VI 




VIII 


878 


Ha-a-a! 


890 


Ha-a-a! 


879 


Werih teri: 


891 


Rarah whishpa; 


880 


Hitkasharu, werih teri; 


892 


Hitkasharu. rarah whishpa; 


881 


Hitkasharu ! 


893 


Hitkasharu; 


883 


Hiri! H'Atia si hawa werih teri. 


894 


Hiri! H'Atia si hawa rarah whi 


883 


Hitkasharu. 




shpa, 






895 


Hitkasharu. 



Translation of First Stanza 

848 Ha-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

849 Kara whari. 

rara, coming this way, approaching, 
whari, walking. 

850 Hitkasharu, rara whari. 

hitkasharu, a composite word; hit, from hittu, feather; ka, 
from rotkaharu, night; sharu, dream, vision. The word 
feather refers to the birds that are with the Hako. 

rara whari. See line 849. 

851 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

852 Hiri! H'Atia si hawa rara whari. 

hiri! an exclamation telling one to give heed, to harken, and 

also to be thankful, 
h', the sign of breath, breathing, giving life, 
atia, a modification of atius, father. 
si, part of sidhihi, you are the one. 
hawa, again. 

rara, coming this way, approaching, 
whari, walking. 

853 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 



Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

As we sing this stanza we think of the visions which attend the 
Hako and we are thankful that these visions, which gave life, success, 
and plenty to our fathers, are again coming this way to us. 

After we have sung this stanza four times and have passed around 
the lodge and reached the west we pause. 



180 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Translation of Second Stanza 

854 Ila-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

855 Kara wha-a. 

rara, coming this way, approaching, 
wha-a, coming nearer. 

856 Hitkasharu, rara wha-a. 

hitkasharu. See the first stanza, line 850. 
rara wha-a. See line 855. 

857 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

858 Iliri! H'Atia si hawa rara wha-a. See lines 852 and 855. 

859 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

On the second circuit of the lodge, as we wave the feathered stems, 
we sing that the visions granted to our fathers are coming nearer and 
nearer to us and to the Children. We are thankful as we sing. 

Four times we repeat this stanza and when we reach the west we 
pause. 

Translation of Third Stanza 

860 Ha-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

861 Rara whicha. 

rara, coming tfcis way, approaching, 
whicha, arrived, reached the destination. 

862 Hitkasharu, rara whicha. See lines 850 and 861. 

863 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

864 Hiri! H'Atia si hawa rara whicha. See lines 852 and 861. 

865 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The third time we go around the lodge we sing the third stanza four 
times. It tells that the visions of our fathers have arrived at the lodge 
door. At the west we pause. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

866 Ha-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

867 Rara ruka. 

rara, coming this way. 
ruka, entered the lodge. 

868 Hitkasharu, rara ruka. See lines 850 and 867. 

869 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

870 Iliri! IFAtia si hawa rara ruka. See lines 852 and line 867. 

871 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 



fletcher] FOURTEENTH RITUAL 181 

Explanation by the Ku' r alius 

The visions of our fathers have entered the lodge as we sing the 
fourth stanza, and our hearts are thankful that they have come. 

At the west we pause and lay the Hako down with ceremonial songs 
and movements. Then we rest a while and are quiet in the presence 
of the visions. 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

872 Ha-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

873 Werih kawa. 

werih, the owner of the lodge. The Son is regarded as the 
owner of the lodge in which the ceremony takes place and 
the word refers to him. 

kawa, the open space within the lodge between the fireplace 
and the couches around the wall. In this space the cere- 
mony takes place. 

874 Ilitkasharu werih kawa. See lines 850 and 873. 

875 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

876 Iliri! H'Atia si hawa werih kawa. See lines 852 and 873. 

877 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

Explanation by the Ku'rdhus 

After a time we take up the feathered stems and move around the 
lodge, singing the fifth stanza. 

The Son, into whose lodge the visions of our fathers have now 
entered, gives thanks in his heart, for he knows that they have come 
in fulfilment of the promise given generations ago, and that he is rec- 
ognized by them as a Son. 

When we reach the west we pause. 

Translation of Sixth Stanza 

878 Ha-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 
870 Werih teri. 

werih, the owner of the lodge, the Son. 
teri, hovering over. 

880 Hitkasharu, werih teri. See lines 850 and 870. 

881 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

882 Iliri! H'Atia si hawa werih teri. See lines 852 and 879. 

883 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

Explanation by fix- Ku'rdhus 

Again we go around the lodge and sing the sixth stanza. The- 
visions of our fathers, received from the birds of the Hako, are now 
hovering over the Children in the lodge of the Son. Everyone is, 
thankful as we sing. At the west we pause. 



182 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Translation of Seventh Stanza 

884 Ha-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

885 Karah whara. 

rarah, walking from one. 

whara, going away, going from a person or place. 

886 Hitkasharu rarah whara. See lines 850 and 885. 

887 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

888 Hiri! H'Atia si hawa rarah whara. See lines 852 and 885. 

889 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

The visions are walking away from us as we sing the seventh stanza. 
We are thanking them in our hearts as we sing, and while they are 
leaving the lodge. At the west w T e pause. 

Translation of Eighth Stanza 

890 Ha-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

891 Rarah whishpa. 

rarah, walking from one. 

whishpa, •arrived at the place from which one started. 

892 Hitkasharu rarah whishpa. See lines 850 and 891. 

893 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

894 Hiri! H'Atia sf hawa rarah whishpa. See lines 852 and 891. 

895 Hitkasharu. See line 850. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In a little while we start and go again around the lodge and sing 
the eighth stanza. The visions of our fathers have left the lodge; 
they are walking away from us, passing over the sleeping earth, and 
at last they reach their dwelling place, the place from which they 
descended when they started to come to us. As we think of them we 
again thank them for coming to us. 

At the west we lay the Hako down to rest with the songs and move- 
ments belonging to that action. a 

After singing this song the Children usually rise and go to their 
homes and the Fathers take a rest during the remainder of the night. 

There are no ceremonies at the dawn of the fourth day. During 
the forenoon the Fathers are busy unpacking the various articles they 
have brought for their final gifts to the Children. The}^ place in a 
pile the robes, embroidered shirts, leggings, and ornaments. 

About noon the food is cooked for the last meal to be given by the 
Fathers to the Children. After the Fathers have served the food, 
they put the cooking utensils beside the pile of gifts and then present 
the heap to the Children and walk out of the lodge, leaving the Chil- 
dren to distribute the gifts among themselves. 

n See pages 111-116. 



fletcheb] FOURTEENTH AND FIFTEENTH RITUALS 183 

There is a very general scattering of the gifts, and songs of thanks 
are sung by those who receive them. When this ceremony of distri- 
bution and acknowledgment is over, the Children return to their 
several lodges. By this time the afternoon is well advanced. 

The Fathers now enter the empty lodge and begin preparations for 
the last night of the ceremony and for the following morning. At 
this time they partake of their last meal before the close of the cere- 
mony at about noon the next day. 

The best dancers in the party are chosen to perform the final dance, 
which occurs on the morning of the fifth day. The songs which 
accompany this dance are rehearsed and everything necessary for 
the closing acts of the ceremony is put in readiness. 

If a tent has been used for the ceremony, the Fathers on this after- 
noon must build around the tent at a little distance from it a wall 
of saplings and brush, to keep off outsiders and prevent anyone from 
looking in. If the ceremony takes place in an earth lodge, then both 
the outer and inner doors are closed, for on this last night no one is 
allowed to be present but the Fathers, the Son, and his near relatives. 

On this night a sixth man is added to the five who carry the sacred 
objects — the two feathered stems, the ear of Corn wrapped in the wild 
cat skin, and the two eagle wings. The sixth man has a whistle, 
made from the wing bone of the eagle, which he blows in rhythm of 
the songs. The whistle imitates the scream of the eagle over its 
young. 

Second Division. The Secret Ceremonies 

fifteenth ritual (fourth night) 

Part I. The Flocking of the Birds 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

At sunset the Fathers call the Children to the lodge. When all 
have been seated, the Children on the south side, the Fathers on the 
north, the Ku'rahus, who sits at the west, back of the holy place 
where the Hako are at rest, addresses the Children in the name of 
the Fathers. He explains the meaning of the ceremony about to take 
place, for on this last night and the following morning everything 
that is done refers to the nest and to the direct promise of Children 
to the Son, who is also to be bound by a symbolic tie to the Father. 



184 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



When the talk is over the feathered stems are taken up and we 
sing the following song, which prefigures the joy that is coming to 
the people. 



SONG 



M. M. *s = 108. 
• = Pulsation of the voice 
No drum. _ 



Words and Music 

Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



SS^^^^Qp 



■m — * 



:q:zz 



=1 



*---J— 3. 






-$-"— = — *^ 

Ho-o-o-o! We-re ko-sha ho-sha wi-ki ri - ra; We-re ko-sha ho-sha wi - ki ri-ra; 
Whistle. 



$ 



Jr-.?: 



=J^fe- 



Ko - sha ho - sha wi - ki ri - ra; 

I 

896 Ho-o-o-o! 

897 Were kosha hosha wiki rira; 

898 Were kosha hosha wiki rira; 

899 Kosha hosha wiki rira; 

900 Were kosha hosha wiki rira! 

II 

901 Ho-o-o-o! 

902 Wera kosha hoshta wiki rira: 

m 

903 Wera kosha hoshta wiki rira: 

904 Kosha hoshta wiki rira; 

905 Wera kosha hoshta wiki rira. 

Ill 

906 Ho-o-o-o! 

907 Wera kishpa hosha wiki rira; 

908 Wera kishpa hosha wiki rira; 

909 Kishpa hosha wiki rira: 

910 Wera kishpa hosha wiki rira. 



■m- ^ ^- -"J: 
We - re ko - sha ho - sha wi - ki ri - ra. 

IV 

911 Ho-o-o-o! 

912 Wetu kishpa hoshta wiki rira; 

913 Wetu kishpa hoshta wiki rira; 

914 Kishpa hoshta wiki rira; 

915 Wetu kishpa hoshta wiki rira. 

V 

916 Ho-o-o-o! 

917 Were kaksha hosha wiki rira: 

918 Were kaksha hosha wiki rira; 

919 Kaksha hosha wiki rira; 

920 Were kaksha hosha wiki rira. 

VI 

921 Ho-o-o-o! 

922 Wetu kaksha hosha wiki rira; 

923 Wetu kaksha hosha wiki rira; 

924 Kaksha hosha wiki rira: 

925 Wetu kaksha hosha wiki rira. 



1 



Translation of First Stanza 

896 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation 
81)7 Were kosha hosha wiki rira. 
were, they. 

kosha, a flock of birds, 
hosha, a composite word; ho, coming; sha, part of kosha, 

flock, 
wiki, a descriptive term indicating the manner of flight; the 
birds do not move in a straight line or course; they waver 
from one side to the other, now higher, now lower, 
rira, coming. 

898 See line 897. 

899 Kosha hosha wiki rira. See line 897. 

900 See line 897. 



fletcher] FIFTEENTH RITUAL, PART I 185 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In the early spring the birds lay their eggs in their nests, in the 
summer they rear their young, in the fall all the young ones are grown, 
the nests are deserted and the birds fly in flocks over the country. 
One can hear the fluttering of a startled flock, the birds suddenly rise 
and their wings make a noise like distant thunder. Everywhere the 
flocks are flying. In the fall it seems as though new life were put into 
the people as well as into the birds; there is much activity in coming 
and going. 

This song tells of the flocking of birds. We do not use the drum as 
we sing it, but we blow the whistle. The whistle is made from the 
wing bone of an eagle. In this song we are singing of the eagle and 
the other birds, so we use the whistle. 

When the eggs are hatched and the young are grown, the birds flock; 
the promise of young has been fulfilled. In this song, which we sing 
toward the close of the ceremony, we are thinking of the fulfilling of 
the promise given by the Hako, that children will be granted to the 
people, so that they may be many and strong, and we sing that the 
great flocks are coming. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

901 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

902 Wera kosha hoshta wiki rira. 

wera, they yonder; ra gives the idea that the flock is at a 

distance, 
kosha, flock. . 
hoshta, the noise made by the birds in flying and in alighting; 

hosh, the noise; ta, to alight, 
wiki, descriptive of the manner of flight. See translation of 

the word in the first stanza, line 897. 
rira, coming. 

903 See line 902. 

904 Kosha hoshta wiki rira. See line 902. 

905 See line 902. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing the second stanza we are thinking of the great flocks 
of birds. The noise of their wings is a mighty noise. As they fly 
from one tree to another they shake the branches as they alight, and 
the tree quivers as they rise. The flocks are many and powerful; so, 
through the promises of the Ilako, the people will become many and 
powerful. 



186 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 23 

Translation of Third Stanza 

906 IIo-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

907 Wera kislipa hosha wiki rira. 

wera, they yonder. 

kishpa, scream (singular number). 

hosha; on account of the singular number of the verb kishpa, 

the word as here used indicates that a bird out of the 

flock is flying toward the people, 
wiki, descriptive of the manner of flight. See line 897. 
rira, coming. 

908 See line 907. 

909 Kishpa hosha wiki rira. See line 907. 

910 See line 907. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In this stanza we sing that a single bird, an eagle, comes out of the 
flock and flies toward the people. It is Kawas that comes flying 
toward us, the messenger of the powers, the bringer of the promises 
of the Hako. Kawas comes to us as the eagle leaving the flock goes 

to her young. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

911 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

912 Wetu kishp% hoshta wiki rira. 

wetu, it has. 

kishpa, screaming noise made by the eagle. As the eagle has 

come near its cry is likened to a scream, 
hoshta, a composite word; hosh, the sound made by the wings 

of a bird when flying; ta, to alight, 
wiki, a word descriptive of the manner of flight. See line 897. 
rira, coming. 

913 See line 912. 

914 Kishpa hoshta wiki rira. See line 912. 

915 See line 912. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As the mother eagle comes near, flying to her nest, her cries are 
like screams, so we sing this stanza with the whistle, for now Kawas 
is coming to us as to her nest. The lodge of the Son is her nest; 
there she will alight; there she will bring the gift of children. Our 
hearts are glad and strong as we sing. 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

916 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

917 Were kaksha hosha wiki rira. 

were, they. 

kaksha, a tumultuous noise. 

kosha, flock. 

wiki, a word descriptive of the manner of approach. See line 897. 

rira, coming. 



Fletcher] FIFTEENTH RITUAL 187 

918 See line 917. 

919 Kaksha hosha wiki rira. See line 917. 

920 See line 917. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

This stanza tells ns that the noise made by the people as they gather 
together on the morning of the fifth day for the jjresentation of gifts 
to the Fathers is like the coming of a great flock of birds. The people 
move like the birds; they do not come in a straight line to the lodge- 
of the Son, but they come from this side and from that just as the 
birds gather together in a flock. 

Translation of Sixth Stanza 

921 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

922 Wetu kaksha hosha wiki rira. 

wetu, it has. 

kaksha, a tumultuous noise. 

hosha, flock. 

wiki, manner of approach. See line 897. 

rira, coming. 

923 See line 922. 

924 Kaksha hosha wiki rira. See line 922. 

925 See line 922. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As the people approach the lodge they make a great noise. All is 
bustle; the neighing ponies to be given to the Fathers are brought 
forward, and the people are calling to one another; there is the sing- 
ing of songs and the shouts of pleasure ; all these sounds mingling 
make a noise like distant thunder. This stanza„refers to this joyous 
tumult. 

Just before I came on to Washington I performed this ceremony, and 
now as I sit here and tell you about the meaning of this song, I can 
hear the happy shouts of the people as I heard them some weeks ago. 
Their voices seemed to come from everywhere! Their hearts were 
joyful. I am glad, as I remember that day. We are always happy 
when we are with the Hako. 

Part II. The Sixteen Circuits of the Lodge 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The last act of the last night is the making of four times four 
circuits of the lodge. 

I have told you that the four circuits of the lodge which we have 
been making are in recognition of the four paths down which the 
lesser powers descend to man. We have been asking for help from 
these powers and so we have remembered the paths down which they 



188 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



travel to reach us with the gifts we desire. In the four times four 
circuits we remember all the powers represented in the Ilako. 

We must begin with the Corn, which comes from our Mother Earth, 
for she has been the leader ever since the time when she sought the 
Son and opened the path for us to travel safely to him. She led on 
our journey to his village; she led as we entered his lodge and dur- 
ing its consecration, and she has led us through all the da} 7 s and 
nights of the ceremony. So when we take up the feathered stems 
and turn to the north to begin the first circuit of this series we sing 



the following song 



FIRST SONG 



Words and Music 



M. M. J =116. 

• — Pulsation of the voice. 



IH^: 



Drum. m 
HattlesA 



:^=:=l=zi=f5« r 



:k~ 



;=!: 



Ha - a - a - a! Ha! A - ti - ra! 

A _ A A 



r r 



A 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



-K-l- 



*=&. 



:qs: 



=f 



SE3 



£ 






Ha! 

A 



A - ti - ra! 



Ha! A - ti - ra! 



r 



, * 



^==\- 



i 



-=*- 



3ES 



:=2: 



-q*: 



=*=5 



22: 



Ha! A - ti - ra! Ha! A - ti - ra! Ha! A - ti - ra! 



P r f f 



f r I 



A 



A 



£=* 



la! A-li-ra! 




3 



-=*- 



^- 



=|*=|: 

:=!: 



:ta---Hz=l 






:=4: 
:sS: 



:p«q=qv 



*-=> — trt 



Ha! A-ti-ra! Ha! A-ti-ra! 
• . - . 



Ha ! A - ti-ra ! Ha ! A - ti-ra ! Ha ! A - ti ra. 



f 



I 



't 



A 



f r ,* i n 



926 Ha-a-a-a! 

927 Ha! Atira! Ha! Atira! Ha! Atira! Ha! Atira! 

928 Ha! Atira! Ha! Atira! Ha! Atira! Ha! Atira! 

929 Ha! Atira! Ha! Atira! Ha! Atira! Ha! Atira. 



930 Ha-a-a-a! 

931 Nawahiri! 

932 Nawahiri! 

933 Nawahiri! 



II 

Nawahiri ! 
Nawahiri! 
Nawahiri! 



Nawahiri! 
Nawahiri ! 
Nawahiri! 



Nawahiri! 
Nawahiri! 
Nawahiri! 



Translation of First Stanza 



926 Ila-a-a-a! An introduction exclamatory. 

927 Ha! Atira! Ha! Atira! Ha! Atira! Ha! Atira! 

ha! look on! behold! 

atira, mother. The term is applied to the ear of corn. 
928, 929 See line 927. 



fletcher] FIFTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 189 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

"Behold Mother Corn!" we sing; and we think and the Children 
think, as they sing with ns, of all that Mother Corn has done, how 
she sought the Son, led ns to him, and now is here with the power of 
life and plenty. 

Four times we sing this first stanza as we make the first circuit of 
the lodge, moving by the north, east, and south back to the west. 
After a pause we start upon the second circuit and sing the second 
stanza. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

930 Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

931 Nawahiri! Nawahiri! Nawahiri! Nawahiri! 

nawahiri, a ceremonial term signifying thanks; a recogni- 
tion that all is well. The usual form is nawairi, but an 
h is prefixed to the third syllable to give greater ease and 
euphony in singing. 
932, 933 See line 931. 

Explanation by the Ku' -rahus 

Mother Corn is leading toward the fulfilment of the promises made 
through the Hako, and as the Children behold her they sing with 
thankful hearts, "All is well!" 



SECOND SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. > = 116. 



Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



fLjQ-=:==P-=£r^ , ^3 



,53- 






Ho-o-o-o! E-ru!H'A-ti - ra! E-ru! H'A-ti-ra! He! £~ri! Eru! H'A-ti-ra! 

Drum s * i » * . » • • 000000 00 A 

Rattles. LI 



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^m ^mt^mrmm ^^^*^^ b^^^mm anM ' wmt^m ««j»«m 



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E-ru! H'A-ti-ra! He! Iri! E ru! IP A-ti - ra! E-ru! H'A-ti-ra! He! 

Lj U Lr — L-T Lj L-T b - i i 

i 

934 Ho-o-o-o! 

535 Eru! H'Atira! Eru! H'Atira! He! Iri! 

936 Eru! H'Atira! Eru! H'Atira! He! Iri! 

937 Eru! H'Atira! Eru! H'Atira! He! 

II 

938 Ho-o-o-o! 

939 Nawa! H'Atira! Nawa! H'Atira! He! Iri! 

940 Nawa! H'Atira! Nawa! H'Atira! He! Iri! 

941 Nawa! H'Atira! Nawa! H'Atira! He! 



190 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Tra u slat ion of Fi / st Stanza 

934 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

935 Era! H'Atira! Eru! H'Atira! He! Iri! 

eru! an exclamation of reverence. 

h', the symbol of breath, the life-giving power. 

atira, mother. The term refers to the ear of corn. 

he! a part of i'hare, an exclamation calling on one to reflect 

upon a subject now brought to mind. See line 1. 
iri! a part of nawairi! an exclamation of thanks and of 

trustfulness. 

936 See line 935. 

.937 Eru! H'Atira! Eru! H'Atira! He! See line 935. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

The life of man depends upon the earth (h' Atira). Tira'wa atius 
works through it. The kernel is planted within Mother Earth and 
she brings forth the ear of corn, even as children are begotten and 
born of women. 

We sing the first stanza as we make the third circuit of the lodge. 
We give the cry of reverence (Eru!) to Mother Corn, she who brings 
the promise of children, of strength, of life, of plenty, and of peace. 
As we reflect upon her gifts we sing our thanks and bid the Children 
join us. 

When the circuit is complete we pause at the west. Then we turn 
toward the north and begin the fourth circuit, singing the second 

stanza. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

938 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

939 Nawa! H'Atira! Nawa! H'Atira! He! Iri! 

nawa, a part of nawairi, a ceremonial word for expressing 
thanks, confidence, trust. 

h', the symbol of breath, life, bringing forth or into. 

atira, mother. The term is applied to the ear of corn, repre- 
sentative of Mother Earth. 

he! a part of i'hare, an exclamation calling upon one to 
reflect upon that which is now brought to mind. See 
line 1. 

iri! a part of nawairi! thanks! all is well! 

940 See line 939. 

941 Nawa! H'Atira! Nawa! H'Atira! He! See line 939. 

Explanation of the Ku'rahus 

"Nawa! H'Atira!'' It is Tira'wa atius who causes Mother Earth 
to bring forth the corn, who gives fruitfulness to man, who sends the 
gifts which Mother Corn breathes upon us. As we reflect upon this 



flktcher] FIFTEENTH KITUAL, PART II 191 

we give thanks to Tira'wa, and with the Children sing "Nawa! 
H'Atira! Nawa! H'Atira! He! Iri !" over and over until we com- 
plete the fourth circuit. 

In these first four circuits we have remembered the power of 
Tira'wa atius with Mother Earth; in the next four circuits we shall 
sing of the eagles. 

THIRD SONG 

Words and Music 
M. M. /s-138. 
= Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




•me-b* 



• 



Ho o-o-o! Ti - ra whe ru - wa ho - ka - we ta wi - ra, ho 

Drum. £ • 2 • * n I r • f • • • p • 



fe 



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ka - we ta wi-ra, ho - ka - we ta wi - ra. Ti - ra whe ru - wa ho - 

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ka - we ta wi - ra, ho - ka - we ta wi-ra, ho - ka - we ta wi - ra. 

L-f L-r Lj Ls L-r Lj Lj i i i 



I 

942 Ho-o-o-o! 

943 Tira whe rawa hokawe ta wira, hokawe ta wira, hokawe ta wira. 

944 Tira whe ruwa hokawe wira, hokawe ta wira, hokawe ta wira. 

II 

945 Ho-o-o-o! ~ 

946 Tias we ria kishpa ka wia. kishpa ka wia, kishpa ka wia. 

947 Tias we ria kishpa ka wia, kishpa ka wia, kishpa ka wia. 

Translation 



942 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

943 Tira whe ruwa hokawe ta wira, hokawe ta wira, hokawe ta wira. 

tira, a part of atira, mother. The term refers to Kawas. 

whe, it. 

ruwa, flying toward the speaker. 

hokawe, shadow. 

ta, a part of wita, coming. 

wira, it is coming. 

944 See line 943. 



192 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

II 

945 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

946 Tias we ria kishpa ka wia, kishpa ka wia, kishpa ka wia. 

tias, a part of atius, father. The term refers to the white 

eagle, the male feathered stem, 
we, it. 

ria, hovering. 

kishpa, the loud cry of the eagle, 
ka, a part of akaro, lodge, dwelling place, 
wia, coming, moving, 
kishpa, the scream of the eagle, 
ka, the word has here a double reference, to the lodge, and to 

the nest. The lodge represents the nest, 
wia, moving about, coming, 
kishpa, the scream of the eagle, 
ka, a part of akaro, lodge. Refers to the nest, 
wia, coining. 

947 See line 94G. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

This song has very few words, but a story goes with it to explain 
its meaning. 

One day a mai> was walking on the prairie; he was thinking, and his 
eyes were upon the ground. Suddenly he became aware of a shadow 
flitting over the grass, moving in circles that inclosed his feet. He 
stood still, wondering what this could mean ; then he looked up and 
beheld a brown eagle flying round and round over his head. As he 
gazed the bird paused, looked down upon him, then flapped its wings 
a,nd flew away (first stanza). 

Again the man was walking and thinking, when he caught sight of 
a tall tree about which a great white eagle was flying, around and 
around as if it were watching over something. As it flew it screamed, 
making a great noise. It was the father bird guarding its nest (sec- 
ond stanza). 

The brown eagle which the man saw was Kawas; where she went 
when she flew away is told in the next song. The blue-feathered 
stem, with the brown eagle feathers upon it, is carried next to the 
Children and waved over their heads, for she is the mother and cares 
for the young. 

The white eagle is the male; the green-feathered stem, with his 
feathers upon it, is carried upon the outside, for he guards the nest. 

The lodge where the Children are (the lodge where the ceremony is 
being performed) is the nest. 

The white eagle which the man saw protecting the nest teaches all 
men to be brave and vigilant, to guard their children and make safe 
their home. In token of this duty, the warrior father wears the white 
eagle feather. 



FLETCHERJ 



FIFTEENTH EITUAL, PART II 



193 



The whistle is used, when we sing" the second stanza, because the 
white eagle whistled when he flew around his nest. 

FOURTH SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. js = 144. 

. — Pulsation of the voice. 






Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



-?=}~ 







Ha-a-a-a! Ka-wasru-a, Ka-wasru-a, Ka-wasru-a, Ka-was ru - a whe-e ru - a 

. i . 



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Ka-wasru-a, Ka-wasru-a whe-e ru - a e; He! Ka-was whe-e ru 



a 



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e; He! Ka-was whe-e ru-a e; Ka-wasru-a, Ka-wasru-a whe-e ru- a e. 



f 



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A 

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948 Ha-a-a-a! 

949 Kawas rua, Kavvas rim, Kawas rua, Kawas rua whe-e rua e; 

950 Kawas rua. Kawas rua whe-e rua e; 

951 He! Kawas whe-e rua e; He! Kawas whe-e rua e: 

952 Kawas rua. Kawas rua whe-e rua e 

II 

953 Ha-a-a-a! 

954 Kawas tia, Kawas tia, Kawas tia, Kawas tia wheri ria e; 

955 Kawas tia, Kawas tia wheri ria e; 

956 He! Kawas wheri ria e; He! Kawas wheri ria e; 

957 Kawas tia, Kawas tia wheri ria e. 

Translation 



948 Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

949 Kawas rua, Kawas rua, Kawas rua, Kawas rua whe-e rua e. 

Kawas, the brown eagle, symbol of the feminine powers. 

rua, flying toward an object. 

whe, it. 

e, vowel prolongation. 

rua, flying toward. 

e, vocable. 

950 Kawas rua, Kawas rua whe-e rua e. See line 949. 



22 ETH— PT 2—04- 



-13 



194 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

951 He! Kawas whe-e rua e; He! Kawas whe-e rua e. 

lie! a part of i'hare, an exclamation calling one to reflect. 

See line 1. 
Kawas whe-e rua e. See line 949. 

952 See line 950. 

II 

953 Ha-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

954 Kawas tia, Kawas tia, Kawas tia, Kawas tia wheri ria e. 

Kawas, the brown eagle, the feminine power. 

tia, flying overhead. 

wheri, it here. 

ria, above and very near. 

e, vocable. 

955 Kawas tia, Kawas tia wheri ria e. See line 954. 

956 He! Kawas wheri ria e; Kawas wheri ria e. 

he! a part of i'hare, an exclamation calling one to reflect 

upon a subject. See line 1. 
Kawas wheri ria e. See line 954. 

957 See line 955. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The story of this song which has come down to us is that when 
the man saw the sjiadow on the grass and beheld the brown eagle 
flying over him, the eagle, recognizing the man, flapped its wings 
and flew away. The brown eagle was Kawas, the mother bird, and 
she flew straight to her nest, to her young, who cried out with joy as 
she came near. We use the whistle when we sing this song because 
the young eagles scream as the mother returns to them. 

When we sing the second stanza we remember that the lodge of 
the Son is the nest of Kawas, that she is here filing over the heads 
of the Children, bringing near to them the fulfilment of the promises 
of the Hako. 

The whistle which accompanies this stanza represents the cry of 
the Children in recognition of the fulfilment which Kawas is bring- 
ing. With this song we complete the fourth circuit of the eagles 
and the eighth circuit of the lodge. 

The songs of the next four circuits refer to the rites. 



FLETCHER] 



FIFTEENTH EITUAL, PAET II 



195 



FIFTH SONG 

Words and 3fiisic 



M. M. Melody. J. = 69. 
M. M. Drum. JN=- 138. 
• — Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



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Ho-o-o-o o! H'A-ti-ra, ru! H'A-ti-ra, ru! Ka hi - slia; H'A-ti - ra, ru! Ka 

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ti-ra, ru! H'A-ti-ra, rul Ka hi-sha; II' A-ti-ra, ru! Ka hi - sha. 



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958 Ho-o-o-o-o! 

959 H'Atira, ru! H'Atira, ru! Ka hisha; H'Atira. ru! Ka hisha-a; 

960 H'Atira. ru! H'Atira, ru! Ka hisha-a; 

961 H'Atira, ru! H'Atira. ru! Ka hisha; H'Atira. ru! Ka hisha. 

II 

962 Ho-o-o-o-o! 

963 Hra shira ko; lira shira ko, ka hisha: hra shira ko, ka hisha-a; 

964 Hra shira ko; hra shira ko, ka hisha-a; 

965 Hra shira ko; hra shira ko. ka hisha; hra shira ko, ka hisha. 

Translation 



958 
959 



960 
961 



TTo-o-o-o-o! An exclamation introductory to the song. 
H'Atira, ru! H'Atira, ru! Ka hisha; H'Atira, ru! Ka hisha-a. 

If, the symbol of breath; life-giving. 

atira, mother. The term refers to all the feminine powers 
represented with the Hako. 

ru! an exclamation of joy. 

ka, a part of akaro, lodge, dwelling place. 

hisha, reached, entered. 

h'Atira, ru! Translated above. 

ka hisha-a. Translated above. The final a is a vowel pro- 
longation. 
H'Atira, ru! H'Atira, ru! Ka hisha-a. See Line 959. 
See line 959. 



urn 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[eth. anx. 22 



II 

962 Ho-o-o-o-o! An exclamation introductory to the song. 

963 Hra shira ko; lira shira ko; ka hisha; lira shira ko, ka hisha-a. 

lira, an abbreviation of haras, you, plural. 

shira, came bringing. 

ko, a part of Ilako. 

ka, a part of akaro, lodge, dwelling. 

hisha, reached, entered. 

964 Hra shira ko; hra shira ko, ka hisha-a. See line 9(33. 

965 See line 963. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

In the first stanza of this song, the Fathers give the cry of joy that 
they have entered the lodge of the Son with the Mother breathing 
forth life. 

In the second stanza the Children respond: "Truly you have come, 
bringing the Hako with its gifts and its promises of joy." 



SIXTH SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. S = 144. 

4 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



fE^m? 



3^=H 



Ho-o-o ! Ka-ka-ti chi-ri wa-ka-ri pi-ra - u Ti-ra a; Ka - ka-ti chi -ri wa-ka-ri pi-ra- 



Drum. & a e) o 
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A 



m e o e a 

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ka - ti chi-ri wa-ka - ri pi - ra - u Ti- ra-a; 



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ka-ti chi-ri wa-ka-ri pi-ra - uTi-ra-a; Ka - ka-ti chi-ri wa-ka-ri pi-ra- 



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r r 1 r r 1 r \ r r .r r - r 



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u Ti- ra-a; Ka 



- ka-ti chi-ri wa-ka-ri pi-ra - u Ti-ra- a. 

AAAA . . 

f 1 1 11 



966 Ho-o-o! 

967 Kakati chiri wakari pirau Tira'a; 

968 Kakati chiri wakari pirau Tira'a; 

969 Kakati chiri wakari pirau Tira'a; 

970 Kakati cliiri wakari pirau Tira'a; 

971 Kakati chiri wakari pirau Tira'a; 

972 Kakati cliiri wakari pirau Tira'a. 



fletcheh] FIFTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 1^7 

II 

973 Wetati chiri wakari pirau ta liao; 

974 Wetati chiri wakari pirau ta hao; 

975 Wetati cliiri wakari pirau ta hao; 

976 Wetati cliiri wakari pirau ta hao; 

977 Wetati chiri wakari pirau ta hao; 

978 Wetati chiri wakari pirau ta hao. 

Translation 



906 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
1)07 Kakati chiri wakari pirau Tiraa. 

kakati, I do not. 

cliiri, a part of titichiri, to know. 

wakari, a modified form of wakow, voice, with the plural sign, 
ri* the word wakari refers to chanted prayers. 

pirau, children; a general term. 

Tira'a, a modification of Tira'wa, the mighty power. 
968-972 See line 967. 

II 

973 Wetati chiri wakari pirau ta hao. 

wetati, I now. 

chiri, know. See line 967. 

wakari, chanted prayers. See line 967. 

pirau, children. 

ta, my. 

hao, offspring; my own son or child. 
974-978 See line 973. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus. 

The old men who made these songs so long ago thought much upon 
Tira'wa atius and they prayed to him out on the hills nights and days 
at a time. They observed all the sacred ceremonies, for they knew 
that the riles were given to help the people. This Hako ceremony 
was given by the great power. The old men were careful in teaching 
its songs to those who were to come after them, and they explained 
their meaning. I am singing these songs and explaining them just 
as they were taught mo, and as they had been handed down to the 
Ku'rahus who gave them to me. I did not make them/' 

This song is very old and this is the story that came with it: 

"The recording of this ceremony occupied several weeks in each of four years, and the reiter- 
ations of the Ku'rahus as to the fidelity of his communications were not apparent to him. They 
were natural expressions of his earnestness and his desire to be faithful. I have deemed it best 
to follow my original notes, giving these reiterations just as they were made. 



198 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Long ago a Ku'rahus went with a Hako party to a distant tribe to 
make a Son. On the last night of the ceremony he said to the people : 
"Children, there is a power above which knows all things, all that is 
coming to pass. I do not know what will happen, but I hope good 
will come to you. I have prayed that long life and children and 
plenty may be given to you, but I know not if my prayers are heard 
or if they will be answered." 

He went with the Hako a second time to the same tribe, but he said 
nothing. He went a third time, but he said nothing. He went the 
fourth time, and he was then a very old man. On the last night of 
the ceremony he spoke and said: "Children, I look over you and see 
the little boys whom I held in my arms when they were painted 05 now 
grown to manhood. I see that many children have been given to 
them; I see that your people have prospered and now I know that my 
prayers for you when I first came with the Hako have been answered. 
I know and am sure that the great power to which I prayed hears and 
answers the prayers of a man." 

The first stanza refers to the prayer of the Ku'rahus when he first 
carried the Hako to the Children. 

The second stanza speaks of the offspring that had been given to the 
Children, that he saw when he went the fourth time with the Hako. 

We sing these stanzas on the last night of the ceremony, because 
it was on the last night that the Ku'rahus spoke to the Children. As 
we sing we remember what he said he had been taught, that Tira'wa 
atius hears us pray for the Children and will answer our prayers. 

We now begin the last four circuits of the lodge. The first song 
refers to Tira'wa atius, the father of all. The second speaks of the 
lesser powers, those which can be seen or heard or felt by man. 

We have sung these two songs before; the first time was on the 
first day, when we made the first circuit of the lodge, in the presence 
of all the Children, before they partook of the food prepared for 
them (eighth ritual). We sang them a second time on the third 
da} r , after the sacred feast of corn, and before we sang to Mother 
Earth and made the offering of smoke (thirteenth ritual). Now 
we sing them for the third time, at the close of the fourth and last 
night. They are our appeal before we begin the secret ceremonies 
pertaining to the little child. 

"This is a reference to the ceremonies with the little child which take place on the fifth 
morning. 



FLETCHER] 



FIFTEENTH EITUAL, PART II 



199 



SEVENTH SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. j= 126. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



n^ 



:r = U: 



K=z2= 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

A,. A 



=2=d 



Drum, i 
Rattles. I 



Ha-a - a - a! IP A-ars Ti - ra-wa ha - ki; II' A-ars Ti - ra - wa ha - ki; 
, * i . * , d , * . . . * 

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tm^m^^m 



H' A-ars Ti - ra-wa ha - ki; IP A-ars Ti - ra-wa ha - ki; IP A-ars Ti - ra-wa ha - ki. 



% 

979 Ha-a-a-a! 

980 H'Aars Tira'wa haki; 

981 H'Aars Tira'wa haki; 



o £ 



A A A 

: r r r r r . i 

982 H'Aars Tira'wa haki: 

983 H'Aars Tira'wa haki; 

984 H'Aars Tira'wa haki. 



For translation, see eighth ritual, lines 437-44.2. 



EIGHTH SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. '=126. 

• — Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



HE ft^— »— *— ^— ^ -tFS-^r^ ^ g— -v— I ^j-* *— - * g* 1H5— * mr— * W~ 



Ila-a- a - a! IP A - ars e he! Ti- ra-wa ha-ki; H' A-ars e he! 



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Ti-ra-wa ha-ki; Ili-dhi! Ti-ra-wa ha-ki; H'A - ars 



Pffrfr PrPr f 



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Ti-ra-wa ha-ki. 



A 



985 Ha-a-a-a! 

986 H'Aars e he! Tira'wa haki; 

987 H'Aars e he! Tira'wa haki; 



988 Hidhi! Tira'wa haki; 

989 H'Aars Tira'wa haki. 



For translation, see eighth ritual, lines 443-447. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The songs we sing during the last two circuits are the same that we 
sang when we prepared the llako (first ritual). The first was 
when we painted the stem blue, the color of the sky, representing the 
abode of the powers above. The other was when we painted the stem 
green, the color of the covering of the fruitful earth. When we sang 
these songs we called upon the powers to come and give life and 
potency to the stems, and now we call upon them again asking for 
the fulfilment of the promises of the llako. 



200 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



NINTH SONG 



Words and Music 

M. M. JS - 126. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



\& 



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Ho-o-o-o! H'a-re - ri, h'a-reri. He! H' a - re - ri, h'a-reri, h'a-re 

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ri, re - ri, h'a-re-ri. He! H'a-re- ri, h'a-reri. He! Re - ri, h'a- 



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& . 



? 



I 



A A 

r r r f r f 



f 



:*--=*— "2: 



H 



re-ri, 

A 
I 



h'a- re- ri, re- ri, h'a-reri. He! H' a-re - ri, h'a- re-ii. He! 

A A . 

I LJ t n * 



A A 

» * * * 



• » m m i 

'—j Lj i_ 



990 Ho-o-o-o! 

991 H'areri, h'areri. He! 

992 H'areri, h'areri, h'areri, reri, h'areri. He! 

993 H'areri, h'areri. He! 

994 fieri, h'areri, h'areri, reri, h'areri. He! 

995 H'areri, h'areri. He! 

For translation, see the first ritual, lines 66-71. 

TENTH SONG 



Words and, Music 

o - : Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



M. M. ^=126 




Drum, 'e 
Rattles 




rel H' are - ri, 'lia-re! I' -ha-re re! H' are - ri; Hu - re - e! 



A o • 



A A A A A 

Lr Lr Le Lr i 



000 



-m-~* j 



-0 



— u_tt *_ m ^ — 1 — »j- 



E 



:=l- 



:=|: 



:q*: 



IP are - ri, 'ha-re! V - ha-re re! IP a-re - ri; 



Hu - re 



; • 



LJ 



* . . * . . » 

-_ r_j LJ LJ 



A 

• 



i 2 



fletcher] FIFTEENTH AND SIXTEENTH EITUALS 201 

99C H'areri, h'areri; 

997 H'areri, 'hare! I 'hare re! 

998 H'areri, 'hare! I hare re! H'areri; 

999 Hure-e! 

1000 H'areri, 'hare, I hare re! H'areri; 

1001 Hure-e! 

For translation, see the first ritual, lines 72-77. 

Explanation ky the Ku'rahus 

We have now made four times four circuits of the lodge. In the 
first four we remembered Mother Earth through the corn. In the sec- 
ond four we sang of the eagles, which are the messengers of the pow- 
ers above. In the third four we spoke of the prayers we send to Tira'wa 
through this ceremony. In the last four we lifted our voices to the 
powers themselves, the mighty power above and all those which are 
with the Hako. 

Four times four means completeness. Now all the forces above 
and below, male and female, have been remembered and called upon 
to be with us in the sacred ceremonies which will take place at the 
dawn. 

The night is nearly over when the last circuit is completed; then 
the Children rise and go home. 

SIXTEENTH RITUAL (FIFTH DAY, DAWN) 

Part I. Seekino the Child 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

After the Children have gone, the Fathers lie down and wait for 
the first sign of dawn. They have eaten nothing since they last fed 
the Children shortly after noon, and they must fast/Tmtil the close of 
the ceremon}*. 

At the first sign of dawn the Fathers rise and, preceded by the 
Ku'rahus with the feathered stems, the chief with the corn and wild- 
cat skiu. the doctors with their eagle wings, and the singers with the 
drum, go forth to the lodge where the family of the Son is living. 
As they march they sing the following song; the words mean that the 
Father is now seeking his child. 

The child referred to is usually a little son or daughter of the Son, 
the man who has received the Ilako party. Upon this little child we 
are to put the signs of the promises which Mother Corn and Kawas 
bring, the promise of children, of increase, of long life, of plenty. 
The signs of these promises are put upon this little child, but they are 
not merely for that particular child but for its generation, that the 
children already born may live, grow in strength, and in their turn 
increase so that the family and the tribe may continue. 

In the absence of a littl » child of the Son an older person or a mol her 
and her baby may be substituted. 



202 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

FIRST SONG 

Words and Music 

M. M. js-126. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



A 



Drum. 00 ms 

Rattles. L- L-J L 



*— 0- 



&=!B^E3333 



W 



:^=q^W 






e— =1- 






ra-u, ti ha-o; Tali ra-shpe ti ha-o; Pi - ra-u, ti ha - o. 

0*0. f • o » e a _ i 

1002 Ho-o-o-o! 

1003 Tah rashpe, tah rashpe ti hao; 

1004 Pirau. ti hao; 

1005 Tah rashpe ti hao; 

1006 Pirau. ti hao. 

i 

Translation 

1002 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1003 Tah rashpe, 4ah rashpe ti hao. 

tah, I. 

rashpe, am seeking. 

tah rashpe, I am seeking. 

ti, my. 

hao, child, offspring. 

1004 Pirau, ti hao. 

pirau, children, a general term. 

ti, my. 

hao, child, offspring. 

1005 Tah rashpe ti hao. See line 1003. 

1006 See line 1004. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

As we approach the lodge of the Son we pause and sing the follow- 
ing song. It is the same that we sang when we halted on the border of 
the village at the end of onr journey (sixth ritual, part II). Then we 
were about to enter the village and go to the lodge which the Son had 
prepared f <Jr us. Now we have been four days and nights in that lodge, 
singing the songs and performing the rites of the ceremony and at 
the dawn of this the fifth day we once more seek the lodge where the 
Son and his family are dwelling, that we may carry these sacred 
objects to his own fireplace and there touch with them one of his 
children, that the promises we have brought may be fulfilled. So we 
sing the first stanza as we halt. 



FLETCHER] 



SIXTEENTH RITUAL, PART I 



203 



SECOND SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. ^ = 116. 

• — Pulsation of the voice. 




Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

m 



IIo-o-o-o! 

im 

Rattles 



Drum. r s o » 



Ki - ru 

A 



ra - ka 

A 



wi 9 



Ki - ru ra - ka wi. 



A 



A 



A A 

» m • 




ti ha - o? 



A 



mm® 



Ki 



ru 



ra - ka wi, ti ha - o? Ki 



ru 






1007 Ho-o-o-o! 

1008 Kiru raka wi? 

1009 Kiru raka wi, ti hao? 

1010 Kiru raka wi, ti hao? 






ra - ka, ki-ru ra-ka wi? 

A A -. -. 

J 1 1 I 



:_r 



II 



1012 Ho-o-o-o! 

1013 Tiwi reka wi! 

1014 Tiwi reka wi, ti hao! 

1015 Tiwi reka wi, ti hao! 



1011 Kiru raka, kiru raka wi? 1016 Tiwi reka, tiwi reka wi! 
For translation, see the sixth ritual, lines 365-374. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

After singing the first stanza we move on, and when we are near 
the lodge we pause and sing the second stanza, " Here is the lodge of 
my Son wherein he sits waiting for me ! " 

When we are close to the lodge of the Son we halt, and all the party 
of the Fathers who can not count war honors remain with the two 
Ku'rahus, the chief, and the singers who carry the drum, for the Ilako 
can not take part in anything that refers to strife of war; its mission 
is to unite the people in peace. 

The Ku'rahus chooses two men, a chief representing the brown 
eagle and a warrior representing the white eagle, to accompany the 
warriors as they step stealthily around the lodge, as if to surprise an 
enemy, and rush in through the entrance way. 

The two chosen men go at once to the child and stand beside it, the 
chief on the right, the warrior on the left, while the warriors gather 
around the child and count their honors over it, all talking at once. 
When they have finished, the warrior touches the child on the left 
shoulder, then turns and faces it and speaks of the good gifts he has 
received from Tira'wa. His touch means the imparting to the child 
of that which he has received from Tira'wa. Then the chief touches 
the child on the right shoulder, turns and faces it and tells of the 
honor and favor Tira'wa has granted him. His touch means impart- 
ing to the child of that granted him by Tira'wa. 

The touch of the warrior and the chief, representatives of the white 
and the brown eagle, signify the approach of the Ilako. 



204 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. Ann. 22 

Part II. Symbolic Inception 
Explanation hy the Ku'rdhus 

Now the Ku'rahus with the feathered stems, the chief with the 
corn and the wildcat skin, and the singers with the drum, advance to 
the door of the lodge, enter, and walk down the long passageway into 
the dwelling. They go around the fire to the west, where the Son and 
his little child await them. 

As we stand before the little child we sing this song (first stanza). 
We have sung it once before (sixth ritual, part i), at the time when 
the messenger representing the Son came to us outside the village. 
We sing it now as we look on the little child who represents the con- 
tinuation of the life of the Son. 

FIRST SONG 

Words and Music 

M. M. /s - 116. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

No drum. 

Ho-o-o-o! Ti-we ra-ku - she ti ha-o! Ti-we ra-ku she tiha-o! 

A A 

Rattles f tr.~ f *r.~-~~~ ~~~~^™~^ f tr. 






pi 

Ti-we ra-ku-she ha-wa ti ha-o! Ti-we ra-ku-she ti ha-o! Ti we ra-ku she! 

A A A 

1017 Ho-o-o-o! 

1018 Tiwe rakushe ti hao! 

1019 Tiwe rakushe ti hao! 

1020 Tiwe rakushe hawa ti hao! 

1021 Tiwe rakushe ti hao! 

1022 Tiwe rakushe! 

For translation, see the sixth ritual, lines 353-358. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The Ku'rahus takes from the hands of the chief the wildcat skin, 

in which the ear of corn and the crotched plum tree stick are wrapped, 

and while he holds the ear toward the little child, we sing the song. 
We have sung this song once before, at the time the ear of corn was 

painted (first ritual, part in). The ear of corn represents h'Uraru, 

Mother Earth who brings forth; the power which causes her to bring 

forth is from above, and the blue paint represents that power. 

We hold the painted ear of corn toward the little child that the 

powers from above and from below may come near it. 



FLETCHER] 



SIXTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 



205 



SECOND SONG 



Words and Music 



M. M. ^ = 138. 

• — Pulsation of the voice. 




^fe 



Ha-a-a - a a! H'A- ti 



ra, 



Drum. 2 I 
Matties. 4 L 



A 




A 





Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracv. 






S==T 



z^M-^Jzzmz 



:^=d 



we- ri lira ri - ki! H'A-ti-ra, we - ri 



i-j 




S=t=S: 



H'A-ti 



ra, 



:=t 



hra 



A 



$ 



=\*=\: 



ri - ki 

• 



g=il: 



::fs=::t<=:l=:rs=3=3: 









-=)-=!- - 



re! 



« 



i 



We 



ri bra ri - ki! H'A - ti 



ra, we- ri bra ri 



A 





A 





A 

a 

V 



I 



ki! 
I 



IV 

Ha-a-a-a-a! 
H'Atira, weri taiwa! 
H'Atira, weri taiwa! 
H'Atira, weri taiwa! 
H'Atira taiwa re! 
Weri taiwa! 
H'Atira, weri taiwa! 

V 

Ha-a-a-a-a! 

H'Atira, weri tawawe! 
H'Atira, weri tawawe! 
H'Atira, weri tawawe! 
H'Atira, tawawe re! 
Weri tawawe! 
H'Atira, weri tawawe! 

VI 

Ha-a-a-a-a! 

H'Atira, weri tawitshpa! 
H'Atira, weri tawitshpa! 
H'Atira, weri tawitshpa! 
H'Atira tawitshpa re! 
Weri tawitshpa! 
H'Atira, weri tawitshpa! 

For translation, see tin 1 first, ritual, lines 82-Il'.'). 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing the second stanza, the Ku'rahus moves the ear of corn, 
as if it were flying- toward the child. I explained this movemenl when 
I told you about the painting of the corn (sec Hie first ritual, part in, 
explanation of second stanza of the song by the Ku'rahus). 



1023 


Ha-a-a-a-a! 


1044 


1024 


H'Atira, weri lira riki! 


1045 


1025 


H'Atira, weri lira riki! 


1046 


1026 


H'Atira, w T eri lira riki! 


1047 


1027 


H'Atira, lira riki re! 


1048 


1028 


Weri hra riki! 


1049 


102!) 


H'Atira, weri hra riki! 
11 


1050 


1030 


Ha-a-a-a-a! 


1051 


1031 


H'Atira, weri ruata! 


1052 


1032 


H'Atira, weri ruata! 


1053 


1033 


H'Atira, weri ruata! 


1054 


1034 


H'Atira ruata re! 


1055 


103.") 


Weri ruata! 


1056 


1030 


H'Atira. weri ruata! 
Ill 


1057 


1037 


Ha-a-a-a-a! 


1058 


103s 


H'Atira. weri tukuka! 


1059 


103!) 


H'Atira. weri tukuka! 


1060 


1040 


H'Atira. weri tukuka! 


1061 


1041 


H'Atira tukuka re! 


1062 


1042 


Weri tukuka! 


1063 


1043 


H'Atira. weri tukuka! 


1064 



206 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETII . ANN. 2S 



While we sing the third stanza, the Ku'rahus touches the little child 
on the forehead with the ear of corn. The spirit of Mother Corn, with 
the power of Mother Earth, granted from above, has touched the child. 

The touch means the promise of fruit-fulness, to the child and its 
generation. 

As we sing the fourth stanza, the Ku'rahus strokes the child with 
the ear of corn, down the front, down the right side, down the back, 
and then down the left side. 

These motions, corresponding to the four lines on the ear of corn, 
represent the four paths down which the powers descend to man. 
The four lines stroked upon the little child make the paths and open 
the way for the descent of the powers upon it. Every side of the child 
is now open to receive the powers, and as he goes through life, where- 
ever he may be, on every side the powers can have access to him. 

As we sing the fifth stanza, the Ku'rahus touches the child here 
and there with the ear of corn. 

This movement signifies that Mother Corn with the powers are 
spreading over the child and descending upon it. 

The sixth stanza tells that it is accomplished; the child is now 
encompassed by the spirit oi Mother Corn and the powers and has 
received the promise of fruitfulness. 

The Ku'rahus hands back to the chief the wildcat skin, inclosing the 
crotched stick an,d the ear of corn, and takes the two feathered stems. 
He wraps the white-eagle feathered stem within the feathers of the 
brown-eagle stem and, holding with both hands the bundle, he stands 
before the little child, and, while the first stanza of the following song 
is sung, he points the stems toward it. 

This movement means that the breath of life is turned toward the 
child. The breath passes through the stem. 

THIRD SONG 



Words and Music 



M. M. Js= 126. 



Pulsation of the voice. 







Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

A 



m^ 1 



Ha-a-a-a-a! Ka - was we-ri hra ri - ki, re lira ri- Id! Ka - was we - ri 

A A A A 

U L_f U" W 



Drum. 2 m m m » 

Rattles. 4L.J LJ 



A A 

o • e * 




==fc=Z): 



-*—. ?: 



^ 



~-h — I qs: 



:•-—- 5-— *- 



c m— m — tt — »— c -»— » — m — *'— c -m — m — * L 



• • • • • • ^*»*^ •• •••• • # 

hra ri - ki, re hra ri - ki! Ka - was we - ri hrari-ki, re hra ri - ki! 



• 



r 



m • 



U Lr L, - 

I 

Ha-a-a-a-a! 

1065 Kawas weri hra riki, re hra riki! 

1066 Kawas weri hra riki, re hra riki! 

1067 Kawas weri hra riki, re hra riki! 



t i i 



fletciier] SIXTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 207 

II 

1068 Ha-a-a-a-a! 

1069 Kawas weri ruata. re ruata! 

1070 Kawas weri ruata, re ruata! 

1071 Kawas weri ruata. re ruata! 

Ill 

1072 Ha-a-a-a-a! 

1073 Kawas weri tukuka, re tukuka! 

1074 Kawas weri tukuka, re tukuka! 

1075 Kawas weri tukuka, re tukuka! 

IV 

1076 Ha-a-a-a-a! 

1077 Kawas weri taiwa, re taiwa! 

1078 Kawas weri taiwa, re taiwa! 

1079 Kawas weri taiwa. re taiwa! 

V 

1080 Ha-a-a-a-a! 

1081 Kawas weri tawawe, re tawawe! 

1082 Kawas weri tawawe, re tawawe! 

1083 Kawas weri tawawe. re tawawe! 

VI 

1084 Ha-a-a-a-a! 

1085 Kawas weri tawitshpa, re tawitshpa! 

1086 Kawas weri tawitshpa, re tawitshpa! 

1087 Kawas weri tawitshpa, re tawitshpa! 

Translation of First Stanza 

1064 Ila-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

1065 Kawas weri lira riki, re lira riki. s- 

Kawas, the brown eagle, representing the 'female forces, 
weri, I am. The singular pronoun refers to Hako party, not 

merely to the Ku'rahus. 
lira, a modification of rararit, to hold, 
riki, standing, present time, 
re, plural sign, indicating the two feathered stems which have 

been folded together, the united male and female, 
lira, holding. 

riki, standing, the present time. 
1066,1067 See line 1005. 



208 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Tran sit if ion of Second St( 1 1 1 z< i 

1068 Ha-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 
1009 Kawas weri ruata, re ruata. 

Kawas, the brown eagle, the female. 
- weri, I am. 

ruata, flying. See line 90. 

re, plural sign; the two feathered stems. 

ruata, flying. 
1070, .1071 See line 1069. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing the second stanza the Ku'rahus moves the feathered 
stems as if they were flying through space toward the child; the 
united male and female stems are drawing near. 

Translation of Third Stanza 

1072 Ha-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

1073 Kawas w r eri tukuka, re tukuka. 

Kawas, the brown eagle; the female, 
were, I am. 

tukuka, touching, now touches, 
re, plural sign; refers to the two feathered stems, 
tukuka, now touches, are now touching. 
1074, 1075 See line 1073. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

While Ave sing the third stanza the Ku'rahus touches the little child 
on the forehead with the united feathered stems. The breath of 
promised life lias now touched the child. That is the meaning of the 
touch of the feathered stems. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

107G Ha-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 
1077 Kawas weri taiwa, re taiwa. 

Kawas, the brown eagle ; the female. 

weri, I am. 

taiwa, to rub downward, making a mark. 

re, plural; the two feathered stems. 

taiwa, making a mark with a downward motion. 
1078, 1079 See line 1077. 



Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing the fourth stanza the Ku'rahus makes with the united 
feathered stems the four paths by downward strokes upon the child, 



fletcher] SIXTEENTH RITUAL 209 

as was (lone with the ear of corn. These movements mean that all 
the powers which bring life have access to the child, so that the promise 
of frnitfulness may be fulfilled. 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

1080 Ha-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

1081 Kawas weri tawawe, re tawawe. 

Kawas, the brown eagle, 
weri, I am. 
tawawe, to spread. 

re, plural; refers to the two feathered stems, 
tawawe, to spread. 
1082, 1083 See line 1081. 

ExplaMation by the Ku'rahus 

While we sing the fifth stanza the Ku'rahus touches the child here 
and there with the united feathered stems; this means the spreading 
over it of the powers represented by the male and female stems. 

Translation of Sixth Stanza 

1084 Ha-a-a-a-a! An introductory exclamation. 

1085 Kawas weri tawitshpa, re tawitshpa. 

Kawas, the brown eagle. 

weri, I am. 

tawitshpa, a word denoting the accomplishment of a purpose, 

the attainment of an end. 
re, plural; refers to the two united feathered stems, 
tawitshpa. Translated above. 
1086, 1087 See line 1085. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

This stanza means that it is accomplished, that the child has been 
encompassed by the powers represented by the united stems. It is a 
promise of procreation. 

Part III. Action Symbolizing Life 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

At the close of the song the Ku'rahus, separating the two stems, 
hands the white-eagle feathered stem to his assistant and retains the 
brown-eagle stem. The father of the child makes it sit upon the 
ground. The chief chooses a man to carry the child from the lodge 
of its father, the Son, back to the lodge where the ceremony of the 
preceding lour days has been performed. 
22 Era— pt 2—04 14 



210 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



The cnosen man takes his position a little distance in front of the 
child, the Ku'rahus and his assistant stand on each side of the man, 
facing the child, and the chief, carrying the cat skin and the corn, 
stands in front, facing the child (figure 177). 



EAST 



1 




Ftg, 177. Diagram of the Son's lodge during the sixteenth ritual, part in. 

1, the entrance to the lodge; 2, the fireplace; 3, inner posts supporting the dome-shaped roof; 
4, the Ku'rahus; 5, the Father (a chief); 6, the Ku'rahus's assistant; 7, the one chosen to carry 
the child; 8, the child; 9, the father of the child, the Son. 



The following song is then sung in a gentle tone, that the child may 
be willing to be taken up and carried by a stranger. The words are : 
"Come and fear not, my child; all is well." 



fletcher] SIXTEENTH RITUAL, PART III 211 

FIRST SONG 

Words and Music 
M. M. J.=58. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



i 



A A 



5 



m 



f 

Ho-o-o-o-o-o! I - hi - si - ra, i - hi - si - ra, i - hi - si - ra, 

Drum. 2l A - & , „„ m * * s * m * * 

Matties. 4 '. L-J I L_T I ' L_ I — - 



-*r-J~?-J—g: 



hft-^-i — M — j»— K-fr ^?^— ^^-MM-H-ft-^- 3 ! 



az_jk__i fc__| h,i*E : 3E3E==f5=z£=ZK: :j=^=J*=zh=zi=Dzic=]s^zi==:is=z|==:=si* 



-J— S: 



i-ra taha-o; I - hi-si - ra, i - hi - si - ra, i - ra ta ha - o. 



U Lf i_r £_• L_' L_r I - * * 



1088 Ho-o-o-o-o-o! 

1089 Ihisira, ihisira, ihisira, ira ta hao; 

1090 Ihisira, ihisira, ira ta hao. 

Translation 

1088 Ho-o-o-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1089 Ihisira, ihisira, ihisira, ira ta hao. 

ihisira; isira, come; an invitation to advance. The syllable 

hi, which follows i, is used to fill out the rhythm of the 

music and to give a coaxing effect, 
ira, a part of the word nawairi, a word implying confidence, 

among its other meanings; it means here, it is all right, 

fear not. 
ta, a part of the word kutati, my. 
hao, child, offspring. 

1090 Ihisira, ihisira, ira ta hao. See line 1089. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The man who is to cany the child turns his back toward it and 
drops upon one knee. The child, lifted to its feet by its father, takes 
four steps forward, while we, still facing the child, sing this song: 
"I am ready; come, my child; have no fear!" 

The four steps taken by the child represent the progress of life. 



212 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



SECOND SONG 



M. M. J = 58. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Words and Music 

Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 






~?-M 



r&J- "■* 



^— ^ 



Ho-o-o-o! E-he-si - ra, e-he-si - ra, e - he - si - ra, e - he - si - ra, 



Drum, p f 
Battles. [ u " 



f« 



A 
P 



tr.> 



tr. 



A 
P 



tr.. 



=F 



i - ra ta ha - o; 

A 

ft, 



-*--* — s^i5 



= 3 =?35 3H ^ 



:2: 



E-he-si - ra, e-he-si - ra, 



A 

P 



tr.~ 



A 
P 



tr. 



i - ra ta ha - o. 

h 1 1 



1091 Ho-o-o-o! 

1092 Ehesira, ehesira, ehesira, ehesira, ira ta hao; 

1093 Ehesira, ehesira. ira ta hao. 

Translation 

1091 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory explanation. 

1092 Ehesira, ehesira, ehesira, ehesira, ira ta hao. 

ehesira; esira, come, I am ready for you or to receive you. 
Tlpe syllable he, which follows e, is to fill out the rhythm 
and the movement of the song. 

1093 Ehesira, ehesira, ira ta hao. See line 1092. 

Explanation by the Kiirahus 

The man takes the child upon his back and rises to his feet. The 
chief steps aside and the man bearing the child moves forward 
toward the door of the lodge. The Ku'rahus and his assistant and 
the chief walk behind him, and the rest of the company follow. 

As we walk back to the lodge in the early daylight we sing this 



song 



a 



Behold your father walking with the child!" 



THIRD SONG 

Words and Music 



;1H 



M. M. j=56, 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 

C=tCZ 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



:=|: 



:=qv 



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§12 



Ilo-o-o-o-o! 

Drum. i Z^ » m t 
RaW.PR.A- '. I L_J 



1 - ha - ri. ha! H'ars si - re ra - ta; 



Pu 



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lia! H'ars si - re ra-ta; 



I - ha - ri 



ha! 



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U L_r L-r Is Lj* L; U 



H'ars si - re ra-ta. 



l i 



Fletcher] SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH EITUALS 213 

1094 Ho-o-o-o! 

1095 Ihari, ha! H'ars sire rata; 

1096 Ihari. ha! H*ars sire rata; 

1097 Ihari. ha! H'ars sire rata. 

Translation 

1094 Ho-o-o-o! An exclamation introductory to the song. 

1095 Ihari, ha! H'ars sire rata. 

ihari, a term for young; it here refers to the little child, 
ha ! an exclamation, calling attention, 
h', an abbreviation of ha, your, 
ars, a modification of atins, father, 
sire, carrying, refers to the child, 
rata, Avalking with. 
1096, 1097. See line 1095. 

SEVENTEENTH RITUAL 

Part I. Touching the Child 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When the Hako party, led by the man carrying the child, arrived 
at the lodge, the child was taken to the west, behind the holy place, 
and set upon the ground, facing the east, and clad in gala dress. 

The warriors ranged themselves in a curved line, both ends of which 
touched the walls of the lodge, thus inclosing a space within which 
was the holy place, the child, the singers and the drum, the Ku'rahus 
and his assistant, the chief, the doctors, and an old man selected by 
the Ku'rahus. The warriors stood close together, letting their robes 
drop until the lower edge touched the ground, making a screen over 
which no one could look to see what was taking place within the 
inclosure. ^ 

On the preceding evening, before the Children had gathered within 
the lodge, the Ku'rahus had sent a young man to fill a vessel from a 
running stream. The vessel was at once covered closely and put 
beside the holy place and no one was permitted to even touch it. (In 
old times pottery vessels made by our women were used. They were 
shaped small at the bottom, larger in the middle, and smaller again 
at the neck. The handles on the sides had holes through which sticks 
could be thrust to lift the vessel from the fire. They were ornamented 
by lines drawn by a stick in the soft clay.) 

The chief now approached the vessel, lifted the cover and poured 
some of the water into a wooden bowl set aside for this purpose, and 
put it down before the old man. This man had been chosen because 
of his long life, and his having received many favors from the powers 
above, in order that similar gifts might be imparted to the child. 

The preparation of the child, which took place within the line of 
warriors, was concealed from their view by an inner group closely 



214 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH, ANN. 22 



surrounding it. The old man sat before the child, a little to the 
south, the chief (the Father) directly behind it with the cat skin 
and ear of corn, the doctor with the left eagle wing toward the 
north, the doctor with the right eagle wing toward the south, and the 



EAST 
1 




Fig. 178. Diagram of the Son's lodge during the seventeenth ritual, part i 



1, the entrance to the lodge; 2, the fireplace; 3. inner posts supporting the dome-shaped roof; 
4, the Ku'rahus; 5, his assistant; 6, the bearers of the eagle wings; 7, the Father (a chief); 8, the 
old man who prepares the child; 9, the little child; 10, the line of warriors; 11, the Son, father 
of the little child; 12, members of the Hako party. 



Ku'rahus with his assistant in front, all facing the child (figure 178). 
During the singing of the following songs the cat skin with the 
crotched stick and the ear of corn, the feathered stems, and the 
eagle wings are waved to its rhythm. 



FLETCHER] 



SEVENTEENTH EITUAL, PART I 



215 



FIRST SONG 



Words and Music 



m. m. s-vm. 



Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




m -m- w w -m- ' -0>- -*- -m- 



Ho-o-ol Hi -ri! 'Ha-ri; Hi-ri! Kitzu were hreku-si. 



hi!. 



Hi- 



Drum. 
Rattles. L 



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ri! 'Ha - ri; 







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Hi - ri! Ki - tzu we re lire ku 

A A A A 

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1098 Ho-o-o! 

1099 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we re hre kusi hi! 

1100 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we re hre kusi hi! 

1101 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kitzu we re hre kusi hi! 

II 

1102 Ho-o-o! 

1103 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we re ru ata ha! 

1104 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we re ru ata ha! 

1105 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we re ru ata ha! 

Ill 

1106 Ho-o-o! 

1107 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we ri tukuka ha! 

1108 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we ri tukufca ha! 

1109 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we ri tukuka ha! 

IV 

1110 Ho-o-o! 

1111 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta iwa ha! 

1112 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta iwa ha! 

1113 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta iwa ha! 

V 

1114 Ho-o-o! 

111.") Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta wawe he! 

1116 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta wawe he! 

1117 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta wawe he! 

VI 

1118 Ho-o-o! 

1119 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1 120 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1121 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta witshpa ha! 



216 THE HAKO, A I'AWNEE CEREMONY [eth. axn. 22 

Translation of First Stanza 

L098 IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
1099 Jliri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we re lire kusi hi! 

hiri ! give heed! 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, young. 
-hiri! an exclamation calling to give heed. 

kitzu, a modified form of kiitzu, water. 

we, now. 

re, am. 

hre, holding. 

kusi, sitting. 

hi! part of hiri! give heed! harken! 
1100, 1101. See line 1099. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

As we sing the first stanza the old man takes up the bowl and holds 
it in both hands. 

Water is for sustenance and the maintenance of health ; it is one of 
the great gifts of Tira'wa atius. 

The white man speaks of a heavenly Father; we say Tira'wa atius, 
the Father above, but we do not think of Tira'wa as a person. We 
think of Tira'wa as in everything, as the power which has arranged 
and thrown down* from above everything that man needs. What the 
power above, Tira'wa atius, is like, no one knows; no one has been 
there. 

The water is in a bowl shaped like the dome of the sky, because 
water comes from Tira'wa atius. The little child is to be cleansed 
and prepared for its future life by the water — sustained and made 
strong by the water. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

1102 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1103 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we re ru ata ha! 

hiri ! give heed ! 
'hari, a part in iha'ri, child, 
hiri! give heed! 
kitzu, water, 
we, now. 
re, am, or is. 
ru, it. 
ata, flying, 
ha! behold! 
1104, 1105 See line 1103. 



fletchek] SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PART I 217 

* 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When we sing the second stanza the old man sets the bowl down 
and dips the finger of his right hand in the water and moves it toward 
the child. 

This means that the water is moving through the air, coming from 
above toward the child with its gifts. 

Translation of Third Stanza 

1106 IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1107 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we ri tukuka ha! 

hiri! give heed! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri! give heed! 
kitzn, water, 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

tnknka, touching, 
ha ! behold ! 
1108, 1109 See line 1107. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing the third stanza the old man touches the forehead of 
the child with the water. 

The power of the water has now reached the child. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

1110 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1111 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzn we ri ta iwa ha! 

hiri! give heed! 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, child. * 

hiri! give heed! 
kitzn, water. 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
iwa, running down, 
ha! behold! 
1112, 1113 See line 1111. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

While we sing the fourth stanza the old man makes certain wet 
lines on the face of the child. These signify that the sustaining of 
life through the power of water conies from Tira'wa atins. 



218 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

1 1 14 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1115 Iliri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta wawe he! 

hiri ! give heed ! 
'hari, a part of ihaVi, child. 
hiri ! give heed! 
kitzu, water, 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
wawe, spreading over, 
he! from hiri! give heed! 
111(3, 1117 See line 1115. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

During the singing of the fifth stanza the old man touches the face 
of the child with water here and there so as to make it wet. 

This is to signify that the cleansing power of water, which brings 
health, is from Tira'wa. 

Translation of Sixth Stanza 

1118 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1119 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitzu we ri ta witshpa ha! 

hiri! give heed! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri! give heed! 
kitzu, water, 
we, now. 
, ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
witshpa, accomplished, completed, 
ha! behold! 
1120, 1121 See line 1119. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In the sixth stanza we sing that it is accomplished, that water has 
come with all its power from Tira'wa atius to the child. 

The old man takes up a brush of stiff grass and holds it while we 
sing the first stanza of the following song. 



FLETCHER] 



SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PART I 



219 



SECOND SONG 



Words and Music 



(a) M. M. ,v = 126. 

• — Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Traiy. 




—j 1> , — i 

5- -m- -*- 



Ho-o-o! Hi - ri! 'Ha-ri; Hi-ri! Pi-chtits we re lire ku - si hi!... Hi 

A 

r 



Drum, s o » a 
Rattles. |_ L_ 



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AAA A A 

a » t> e o a dim m 

i i r i 



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ri! 'Ha - ri; 



Hi - ri! Pi-chtits we re lire ku 



A 

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A 



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nl 



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r 




ri 



Hi-ri! 

1 r i ' 






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Pi-chuts we re hre ku - si. 
* . * . 



A 



I 



hi!. 



2 



i 



1122 Ho-o-o! 

1123 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Pichuts we re hre kusi hi! 

1124 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Pichuts we re hre kusi hi! 

1125 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Pichuts we re hre kusi hi! 

II 

1126 Ho-o-o! 

1127 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Pichuts we re ru ata ha! 

1128 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Pichuts we re ru ata ha! 

1129 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Pichuts we re ru ata ha! 

Ill 

1130 Ho-o-o! ^ 

1131 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Pichuts we ri tukuka ha! 

1132 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Pichuts we ri tukuka ha! 

1133 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Pichuts we ri tukuka ha! 

IV 

1134 Ho-o-o! 

1135 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Pichuts we ri ta iwa ha! 

1136 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Pichuts we ri ta iwa ha! 

1137 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Pichuts we ri ta iwa ha! 

V 

1138 Ho-o-o! 

1139 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Pichuts we ri ta wawe he! 

1140 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Pichuts we ri ta wawe he! 

1141 Hiri! Hari; Hiri! Pichuts we ri ta wawe he! 

VI 

1142 Ho-o-o! 

1143 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Pichuts we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1144 Hiri! Hari: Hiri! Pichuts we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1145 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Pichuts we ri ta witshpa ha! 



220 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Translation of First Stanza 

1122 IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1123 Iliri! 'Hari; Hiri! Pichuts we re lire kusi hi! 

hiri! give heed! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri^ child. 
hiri! give heed. 

pichuts, a brush made of stiff grass, 
we, now. 
re, am. 
lire, holding, 
kusi, sitting. 

hi! part of hiri! give heed! harken! 
1124, 1125 See line 1123. 

Explanation by the Kii'raJius 

The grass of which the brush is made is gathered during a cere- 
mony belonging to the Rain shrine. It represents Toharu, the living 
covering of Mother Earth. The power which is in Toharu gives food, 
to man and the animals so that they can live and become strong and 
able to perform the duties of life. This power represented by the 
brush of grass is now standing before the little child. 

• 

Translation of Second Stanza 

1126 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1127 Hari! 'Hari; Hiri! Pichuts w r e re ru ata ha! 

hiri! give heed! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child. 
, hiri! give heed! 

pichuts, a brush of grass. 
we, now. 
re, am or is. 
ru, it. 
ata, flying, 
ha ! behold ! 
1128, 1129 See line 1127. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing the second stanza, the old man moves the brush toward 
the child. This means that the power of Toharu is flying through the 
air toward the child. 



fletcher] SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PART I 221 

Translation of Third Stanza 

1130 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1131 Iliri! 'Ilari; Hiri! Pichuts we ri tukuka ha! 

hiri! give heed! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child. 
hiri! give heed! 
pichuts, a brush of grass, 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

tukuka, touching, 
ha! behold! 
1132, 1133 See line 1131. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

While we sing the third stanza the old man touches the forehead 
of the child with the brush of grass. The power of Toharu has 
reached the child, lias come in contact with it to impart the strength 
that comes from food. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

1134 IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1135 Hiri! 'Ilari; Hiri! Pichuts we ri ta iwa ha! 

hiri! give heed! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri! give heed! 
pichuts, a brush of grass. 
Ave, now. 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch. 
iwa, a downward movement. s 

ha ! behold ! 
1136, 1137 See line 1135. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

During the singing of the fourth stanza the old man makes certain 
lines upon the face of the child with the brush of grass. These lines 
mean that the power by which Toharu gives strength through food 
comes from above, and that man should always remember that when 
he eats. 



222 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

1138 IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1139 Iliri! 'Hari; Hiri! Pichiits we ri ta ware he! 

hiri! give heed! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri! give heed! 

pichiits, a brush made of grass, 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
ware, spreading over, 
he! from hiri! give heed! 
1140, 1141 See line 1130. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing this stanza, the old man touches the head of the child 
and smooths its hair with the brush of grass. In this act the brush 
prepares the hair for "the sacred symbols which are to be put upon it. 

In this act we are thinking only of the brush and its usefulness, and 
not of Toharu, as represented by the grass. 

Translation of Sixth Stanza 

m 

1142 IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1143 Iliri! 'Hari, Hiri! Pichiits we ri ta witshpa ha! 

hiri! give heed! • 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri! give heed! 

pichiits, a brush made of grass. 
, we, now. 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
witshpa, accomplished; completed, 
ha! behold! 
1144, 1145 See line 1143. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In this stanza we sing that it is accomplished, the power of Toharu 
has nourished and prepared the child for the ceremonial acts which 
are now to take place. 

Part II. Anointing the Child 

Explanation by ttie Ku'rahus 

The ointment used in this act of anointing the child is red clay 
mixed with fat from a deer or buffalo which has been consecrated or 
set apart at the time it was killed as a sacrifice to Tira'wa. The first 
animal killed on a hunt belongs to Tira'wa. 



fletcher) SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 223 

The ointment is kept in a kind of bag made of the covering of the 
animal's heart, dried and prepared for this purpose. (It is said that 
insects do not attack this skin covering.) 

Before anyone can take part in a religious ceremony he must be 
anointed with this sacred ointment. 

SONG 

Words and Music 
(b) M. M. JS = 126. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



^=—=25 






-at. ' m '• mm 




Ho-o-o! Hi- ri! 'Ha-ri; Hi-ri! Ki-cha-wa re hre ku - si hi!. 

Drum. „ , „ • 00000000 00 00 

Rattles.^ L-J ' i lj L_r ^J' r_j r , ^^r 




. m . .^ - m . , m . . m . .j. . m . . 9 . .j. .0. -w^w 

ri! 'Ha - ri; Hi - ri! Ki-cha-wa re hre ku - si hi!... Hi 

t r } r t r t r } • t r 



ri! Ha-ri; li ri! Ki-cha-wa re hre ku - si hi! 

r r r f f i I I 



A A A A 



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I 

1146 Ho-o-o! 

1147 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa re hre kusi hi! 

1148 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa re hre kusi hi! 

1149 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kichawa re hre kusi hi! 

II 

1150 Ho-o-o! , 

1151 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa re ru ata ha! 

1152 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa re ru ata ha! 

1153 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Kichawa re ru ata ha! 

Ill 

1154 Ho-o-o! 

1155 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Kichawa ri tukuka ha! 

1156 Hiri!' Hari; Hiri! Kichawa ri tukuka ha! 

1157 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa ri tukuka ha! 

IV 

1158 Ho-o-o! 

1159 Hiri!' Hari; Hiri! Kichawa ri ta iwa ha! 

1160 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Kichawa ri ta iwa ha! 

1161 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa ri ta iwa ha! 

V 

1162 Ho-o-o! 

1163 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa ri ta wawe he! 

1164 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa ri ta wawe he! 

1165 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa ri ta wawe he! 



224 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann.22 

VI 
1166 Ho-o-o! 

HOT Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa ri ta witshpa ha! 

1168 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa ri ta witshpa ha! 

ll(i<) Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kichawa ri ta witshpa ha! 

Ti •( 1 1 1 sla t io n of First Sk 1 1 1 za 

1140 IIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
1147 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa re lire kusi hi! 

hiri! give heed! 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, child. 

hiri! give heed! 

kichawa; ki, from kitzn, water; chawa, bubbles of fat; the 
term is applied to the ointment made from the fat of an 
animal which has been consecrated to Tira'wa. This 
ointment is used for anointing preparatory to a sacred 
ceremony. 

re, am. 

lire, holding. 

kusi, sitting. 

hi! from hiri! give heed! 
1148, 1149 See line 1147. 

• Explanation by the Ku'rahus. 

While we sing the first stanza the old man takes and holds in his 
hand some of the sacred ointment. The consecrating power which is 
in the ointment now stands before the child. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

1150 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1151 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa re ru ata ha! 

hiri ! give heed ! 
'hare, a part of iha're, child, 
hiri! give heed! 
kichawa, ointment, 
re, is. 
ru, it. 
ata, flying, 
ha! behold! 
1152. 1153. See line 1151. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

While we sing the second stanza the old man moves the sacred 
ointment toward the child. This means that the power which is in 
the ointment is drawing near. 



fletcher] SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 225 

Translation of Third Stanza 

1154 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1155 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa ri tukuka ha! 

hiri ! give heed ! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri! give heed! 
kichawa, ointment, 
ri, it. 

tukuka, touching, 
ha! behold! 
1156, 1157. See line 1155. 

Explanation by the. Ku'rahus 

As we sing the third stanza the old man touches the forehead of the 
child with the ointment. This act signifies that the child is singled 
out from among his fellows and touched for consecration. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

1158 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1159 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa ri ta iwa ha! 

hiri! give heed! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri ! give heed ! 
kichawa, ointment, 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
iwa, downward movement, 
ha ! behold ! 
1160, 1161. See line 1159. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing this fourth stanza the old man makes the same lines 
upon the face of the child as he made with the water and the brush of 
grass. This is in recognition that the life which has been sustained 
and nourished is now consecrated to Tira'wa atius, the father above, 
who gives life to all things. 
22 eth— ft 2—04 15 



226 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEEEMONY [eth. Ann. 22 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

1162 TIo-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1163 Iliri! 'Hari; Iliri! Kichawa ri ta wawe lie! 

hiri! give lieed! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri ! give heed ! 
kichawa, ointment, 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch. 
wawa, spreading over, 
he ! from hiri ! give heed ! 
1164, 1165 See line 1162. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

While we sing the fifth stanza, the old man touches the child here 
and there with the sacred ointment. This means that the strength 
that is in every part of a man and all that belongs to him must be 
consecrated to Tira'wa. 

Translation of Sixth Stanza 

1166 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1167 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kichawa ri ta witshpa ha! 

hiri! gfve heed! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri ! give heed ! 
kichawa, ointment, 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
witshpa, accomplished, completed, 
ha! behold! 
1168, 1169 See line 1167. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In this stanza we sing that it is accomplished, that the child has 
been consecrated and made ready for the holy rites, and that we have 
recognized that all things come from Tira'wa atius, the father above. 



FLETCHER] 



SEVENTEENTH RITUAL 



227 



Part III. Painting the Child 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

While we sing the first stanza of the following song, the old man 
takes a shell containing red paint and holds it before the consecrated 
child. 

FIRST SONG 



Words and Music 



(c) M. M. ,N = 126. 

* = Pulsation of the voice 



2: 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




Ho-o-o! Hi - ri! 'Ha-ri; Hi-ri! Kits-pa-hat we re ku - si hi!.... Hi 

ti Li Li If r r P r t 



Drum. 4 a 
Rattles. L. 




ri! 'Ha - ri: 



Hi - ri! Kits -pa -hat we re ku 

6 _ A 



A 

• 



C_J" 



r 



SI 



3=3 — 3 



hi!.. 



? 



5= 

Hi- 

j 



^3=fesE§= 




ri! 'Ha - ri; Hi-ri! 



Kits-pa - hat we 



3=£ 



1 



1170 Ho-o-o! 

1171 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat we re kusi hi! 

1172 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat we re kusi hi! 

1173 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat we re kusi hi! 



1174 
1175 
1176 
1177 



II 

Ho-o-o! 

Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat re ru ata ha! 
Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat re ru ata ha! 
Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat re ru ata ha! 

Ill 

1178 Ho-o-o! 

1179 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat ri tukuka ha! 

1180 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat ri tukuka ha! 

1181 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat ri tukuka ha!: 

IV 

1182 Ho-o-o! 

1183 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat ri ta iwa ha!" 

1184 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat ri ta iwa ha! 

1185 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat ri ta iwa ha! 

V 

1180 Ho-o-o! 

1187 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat ri ta wa we he! 

1188 Hiri! 'Hari: Hiri! Kitspahat ri ta wawe he! 

1189 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat ri ta wawe he! 



228 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [trH.ANN.22 

VI 

1190 Ho-o-o! 

1191 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat ri ta witshpa ha! 

1192 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat ri ta witshpa ha! 

1193 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat ri ta witshpa ha. 

Translation of First Stanza 

1170 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1171 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat we re kusi hi! 

hiri! give heed! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri! give heed! 

kitspahat; kits, from kitzu, water; pahat, red. The term 
* means red paint, 

we, now. 
re, am. 
kusi, sitting, 
hi! from hiri! give heed! 
1179,1173 See line 1171. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The Ku'rahus had prepared the paint by mixing red clay with run- 
ning water. He mixes it rather dry so that what is left can remain in 
the shell. Only1}he right half of a shell can be used to hold the paint. 
You remember what I told you of the shell and why we use it (first 
ritual, part ii). The red clay we use for paint was made by Tira'wa 
for this purpose. 

The paint symbolizes the red clouds of the dawn, the coming of the 
new day, the rising sun, the vigor of life. The power of the new day, 
the new life, is now standing before the child. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

1174 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1175 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat re ru ata ha! 

hiri! give heed! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri ! give heed ! 
kitspahat, red paint. 





re, 


is. 




ru, 


it. 




ata 


, flying. 




ha! 


behold ! 


1176, 


1177 


See line 1175. 



fletcher] SEVENTEENTH "RITUAL, PART III 229 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

During the singing of the second stanza the old man moves the shell 
containing the paint toward the child. The vigor of life is coming 
to the child, flying toward it as through the air, like the coming of 

dawn. 

Translation of Third Stanza 

1178 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1179 Hiri, 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat ri tukuka ha! 

hiri! give heed! harken! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri ! harken ! give heed ! 
kitspahat, red paint, 
ri, it. 

tukuka, touching, 
ha! behold! 
1180, 1181 See line 1179. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing this third stanza the old man touches the forehead with 
the red paint. The vigor of life, the power of the touch of the sun, 
is now on the child . 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

1182 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1183 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat ri ta iwa ha! 

hiri ! give heed ! harken ! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri! harken! 
kitspahat, red paint, 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch. ' 

iwa, downward movement, 
ha! behold! 
1184, 1185 See line 1183. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

While we sing the fourth stanza the old man makes the same lines 
on the face of the child as those made with the water, the brush of 
grass, and the ointment. This means that the vigor of life, the power 
of the touch of the sun, the new life of the dawn, are all from Tira'wa 
atius. 



230 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 23 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

1180 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
1187 Iliri! 'Hari; lliri! Kitspahat ri ta wawe he! 

hiri ! harken ! give heed ! 

'hari, a part of of iha'ri, child. 

hiri! harken! 

kitspahat, red paint. 

ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch. 

wawe, spreading over. 

he! from hiri! give heed! 
1188,1189 See line 1187. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing the fifth stanza the old man touches the child's face here 
and there, aud then spreads the red paint entirely over it. This 
symbolizes the full radiance of the sun with all its power, giving to 
the child its vigor of life. 

Translation of Sixth Stanza 

1190 Ho-o-o ! An introductory exclamation. 

1191 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kitspahat ri ta witshpa ha! 

hiri! harken! 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri ! give heed ! 
kitspahat, red paint, 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
witshpa, accomplished; completed, 
ha! behold! 
1192,1193 See line 1191. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

We sing in this stanza that it is accomplished, that the child is 
encompassed by the power which Tira'wa atius has given to the sun 
and the vigor imparted to its day. 

The old man now takes a shell containing blue paint which had 
been prepared by the Ku'rahus from blue clay and running water, 
and while we sing the first stanza of the following song he holds it 
before the child. This is a very sacred act. 



FLETCHER] 



SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PART III 



231 



SECOND SONG 



Words and Music 



(d) M. M. ^=126. 

• == Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




S ^^F^ j 



^=* : 



Ho-o-o! Hi - ri! 'Hari; 

Drum » , p , 

Raffles. LJ L-T _ L 



Hi-ri!A-wi kots we re lire ku - si. 

» > » ' £j» j r 



"3S 
7 






hi!. 



? 



Hi 

m 




ri! 'Ha - ri; 



Hi - ri! A-wi kots we re lire ku 



si 



hi!... 




ri! >Ha 

A 



n; 

A 



Hi-ri! 



A-wi kots we re lire ku 



L-/ CJ* 



* 



9 



i 



^^E^Ei 



2 



^ 



1194 Ho-o-o! 

1195 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we re hre kusi hi! 

1196 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we re hre ktisi hi! 

1197 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we re hre kusi hi! 

II 

1198 Ho-o-o! 

1199 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we re ru ata ha! 

1200 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we re ru ata ha! 

1201 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we re ru ata ha! 

Ill 

1202 Ho-o-o! 

1203 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri tukuka ha! 

1204 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri tukuka ha/f 

1205 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri tukuka ha! 

IV 

1206 Ho-o-o! 

1207 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta iwa ha! 

1208 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta iwa ha! 

1209 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta iwa ha! 



1210 Ho-o-o! 

1211 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta wawe he! 

1212 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta wawe he! 

1213 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta wawe he! 

VI 

1214 Ho-o-o! 

1215 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1216 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1217 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta witshpa ha! 



232 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Translation of First Stanza 

1194 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1195 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we re hre kusi hi! 

hiri! give heed! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri! harken! 

awi, a part of awiu, a picture. 

kots, a part of rekots, whitish ; as a thin cloud through which 
one can see a tinge of the blue sky beyond. Light blue, 
we, now. 
re, am. 
hre, holding, 
kusi, sitting, 
hi ! from hiri ! give heed ! 
1196,1197 See line 1195. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

Blue represents the sky, the place where Tira'wa alius dwells, and 
with this blue paint we are to make upon the child a picture of the 
face of Tira'wa atius. It is a mark of Tira'wa atius' acceptance of 
the consecrated child and a sign of his presence. The symbol of 
the dwelling place of Tira'wa atius stands before the child. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

1198 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamatiou. 

1199 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we re ru ata ha! 

hiri! harken! 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri ! give heed ! 
awi, a part of awiu, a picture, 
kots, light blue (paint), 
we, now. 
re, is. 
ru, it. 
ata, flying, 
ha! behold! 
1200, 1201 See line 1199. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

While we sing the second stanza the old man moves the shell con- 
taining the blue paint toward the child. The blue of the sky where 
Tira'wa atius dwells is coining near, descending through the air. 



fletcher] SEVENTEENTH EITUAL, PART III 233 

Translation of Third Stanza 

1202 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1203 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri tukuka ha! 

hiri! liarken! 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri ! give heed ! 
awi, a part of awiu, a picture, 
kots, light blue (paint), 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

tukuka, touching, 
ha! behold! 
1204, 1205 See line 1203. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing the third stanza the old man touches the forehead with 
the blue paint. The blue sky has reached the child; its forehead has 
been touched by the abode of Tira'wa atius. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

1206 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1207 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta iwa ha! 

hiri ! give heed ! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri ! give heed ! 
awi, a part of awiu, a picture, 
kots, light blue (paint), 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
iwa, downward movement. / 

ha! behold! 
1208, 1209 See line 1207. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

While we sing the fourth stanza the old man traces with the blue 
paint the lines he has made with the water, the brush of grass, the 
sacred ointment, and the red paint. In these lines we see the face of 
Tira'wa atius, the giver of life and power to all things (see figure 179). 

The lines forming an arch across the forehead 
and down each cheek of the child represents 
the dome of the sky, the abode of Tira'wa atius. 
The line from the middle of the forehead, the 
center of the arch, down the ridge of the nose is 
the breath of Tira'wa atius. It descends from 
the zenith, passing down the nose to the heart, iM (; .ir<). The symbol of 
giving life to the child. Tira'wa. 




234 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

The picture of the face of Tira'wa atius is put upon the face of the 
consecrated child. 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

1210 Ho-o-o! Au introductory exclamation. 

1211 Hi-ri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots we ri ta wawe he ! 

hiri ! give heed ! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hari! harken! 

awi, a part of awiu, a picture, 
kots, light blue (paint), 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
wawe, to spread, 
he ! from hiri ! give heed ! 
1212, 1213 See line 1211. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing the fifth stanza tjie old man touches the lines here and 
there to make them clear; he can not spread the paint, for he is 
making a picture. 

Translation of Sixth Stanza 

m 

1214 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation 

1215 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Awi kots weri ta witshpa ha! 

hiri ! harken ! give heed ! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hari ! give heed ! 
awi, a part of awiu, a picture, 
kots, light blue (paint). 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
witshpa, accomplished; completed, 
ha! behold! 
1216, 1217 See line 1215. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In the sixth stanza we sing that it is done, that the face of Tira'wa 
atius is upon the face of the consecrated child. 

There is a group of stars overhead which forms a circle (Corona 
Borealis). This is a circle of chiefs. Tira'wa atius placed them there 
and directed them to paint their faces with the same lines we have 
put upon the child, and all who are to be leaders must be so painted. 

From this circle of stars came a society called Raristesharu. All 
dances (societies) given by Tira'wa atius are called raris; tesharu 



FLETCHER] 



SEVENTEENTH RITUAL 



235 



means chief (the te is a modification of le, in the word lesharu, 
chief). The members of the society Raristesharu are chiefs, and 
these men are permitted by the star chiefs to paint their faces with 
the blue lines and to wear the downy feather on the head. The 
members of this society do not dance and sing; they talk quietly and 
try to be like the stars. 

I was told that it was from this society that permission was given to 
paint the child with the blue lines and to put the downy feather 

upon it. 

Part IV. Putting on the Symbols 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The old man now takes a bunch of eagle down, and as we sing the 
first stanza of the following song he holds it before the child. 

FIRST SONG 

Words and Music 



(e) M. M. f = 126. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



ip 



3= 



3=31 



m^ 



-* .j. * 






E*^ 



Drum. 
Rattles 



Ho-o-o! Hi - ri ! ' Ha-ri ; Hi-ril Ka-o-ktowe re hreku-si hi!... Hi 

U Lf Lf Lf L* ? ' ? ' * * * ' 4 



w 




ril 'Ha - ri; 



? 



Hi - ri! Ka-o-kto we re lire ku 

U L-t L-r L_/ L_j* 



81 



hi!... 



Hi- 




ri!'Ha- ri; Hi-ri! Ka-o-kto we re hre ku - si 



r 



Lf 



U I 






I 



3E^3St 



t 



I 



1218 Ho-o-o! 

1219 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we re hre kusi hi! 

1220 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we re hre kusi hi! 

1221 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we re hre kusi hi! 

II 

1222 Ho-o-o! 

1223 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we re ru ata ha! 

1224 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we re ru ata ha! 

1225 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we re ru ata ha! 

Ill 

1226 Ho-o-o! 

1227 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri tukuka ha! 

1228 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri tukuka ha! 

1229 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri tukuka ha! 



236 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann 22 

IV 



Ho-o-o! 

'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri kittawe he! 
'Hari: Hiri! Kaokto we ri kittawe he! 
'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri kittawe he! 



1231 Hiri 

1232 Hiri 



1233 Hiri 

V 

1234 Ho-o-o! 

1235 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1236 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1237 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri ta witshpa ha! 

Translation of First Stanza 

1218 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1219 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we re hre kusi hi! 

hiri! harken. 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri ! give heed ! 
kaokto, down from the eagle, 
we, now. 
re, am. 
hre, holding, 
kusi, sitting, 
hi ! from hiri ! give heed ! 
1220, 1221 See line 1219. 

Explanation by the Kii'r alius. 

The down represents the high, light clouds (cirrus) in the blue of 
the sky; they are near the abode of Tira'wa atius. 

The down is taken from under the wings of the white eagle. The 
white eagle is the mate of the brown eagle, and the child is the child 
of Kawas, the brown eagle. The down grew close to the heart of the 
eagle and moved as the eagle breathed. It represents the breath and 
life of the white eagle, the father of the child. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

1222 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1223 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we re ru ata ha! 

hiri! harken! 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri ! give heed ! 
kaokto, eagle's down, 
we, now. 
re, is. 
ru, it. 
ata, flying, 
ha! behold! 
1224, 1225 See line 1223. 



Fletcher] SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PART II 237 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing the second stanza, the old man moves the down near the 
child. The soft, white clouds that are near the abode of Tira'wa atius 
are coming near the head of the child. 

Translation of Third Stanza 

1226 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1227 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri tukuka ha! 

hiri! harken! 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri! give heed! 
kaokto, the down of the eagle, 
we, now. 
ri, it 

tukuka, touching, 
ha! behold! 
1228, 1229 See line 1227. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As we sing this stanza, the old man touches the head of the child 
with the down. The light clouds have reached the child. 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

1230 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1231 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri kittawe he! 

hiri! give heed. 

'hari, a part of iha'ri, child. 

hiri! give heed. 

kaokto, eagle's down. 

we, now. I 

ri, it. 

kittawe; kit, top; ta, from taokut, to touch; we, a part of 

tawe, standing; the word means standing on the top of 

the child's head, 
he! from hiri! give heed! 
1232, 1233 See line 1231. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

While we sing the fourth stanza the old man opens his hand and 
lets the down fall upon the hair. The soft, white clouds near the 
abode of Tira'wa atius have dropped and covered the head of the child. 



238 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 23 



Translation of Fifth Stanza 

1234 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1235 Iliri! 'Hari; Hiri! Kaokto we ri ta witshpa ha! 

hiri ! give heed ! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri ! give heed ! 
kaokto, eagle's down, 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
witshpa, accomplished, 
ha! behold! 
1236, 1237 See line 1235. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

We sing in the fifth stanza that it is accomplished, the head of the 
consecrated child now rests in the soft, white clouds which float near 
the dwelling place of Tira'wa atius. 

The Ku'rahus takes from the brown-eagle feathered stem a downy 
feather and gives it to the old man, who, while we sing the first 
stanza, holds it before the child. 

SECOND SONG 



Words and Music 
(f)M. M. js=126. 

• — Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




3E^=* 



Hvip 



=1 



-& — i r — m 1 i — 



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_, — j_j ,. 



:2— 5* igF 3 



Ho-o-ol Hi - ri! 'Ha-ri; Hi-ri! Hi-tu we re hreku-si hi!... 

Drum. ;,4» »»»»£*•»»«* • # * • 

Rattles.^ LJ L— T LJ UJ L-J L-J ' ' * r £, 



Hi 



I 



f=§ 



ri! 'Ha - ri; 



? 



-=r 



-=r 



5 : 



ri! li - tu we re hre ku - si hi!... 

A A A 



P 



t 



. 



Hi 



• • • « 

ri! 'Ha - ri; Hiri! 

U 



:r2: 



IUE^.: 



-* — z£r 



^=x=*r- 



£--S 



Hi-tu we re hre ku - si. 



hi!. 



• 



5 



I 



II 



1238 Ho-o-o! 

1239 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we re hre kusi hi! 

1240 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we re hre kusi hi! 

1241 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we re lire kusi hi! 



i-letcher] SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PART IV 239 

II 

1242 Ho-o-o! 

1243 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we re ru ata ha! 

1244 Hiri! "Hari; Hiri! Hitu we re ru ata ha! 

1245 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we re ru ata ha! 

Ill 

1246 Ho-o-o! 

1247 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri tukuka ha! 

1248 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri tukuka ha! 

1249 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri tukuka ha! 

IV 

1250 Ho-o-o! 

1251 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri kittawe he! 

1252 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri kittawe he! 

1253 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri kittawe he! 

V 

1254 Ho-o-o! 

1255 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1256 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri ta witshpa ha! 

1257 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri ta witshpa ha! 

Translation of First Stanza . 

1238 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1239 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we re hre kusi hi! 

hiri ! give heed ! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri ! give heed ! 

hitu, feather; a downy, soft feather, 
we, now. 
re, am. 
hre, holding, 
kusi, sitting, 
hi! from hiri! give heed! 
1240, 1241 See line 1239. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The downy, white feather came from the white eagle, the father of 
the child. Soft, blue feathers were bound around its stem, to which 
a small buckskin thong was attached, so that the feather could be 
tied upon the hair of the child. The soft, blue feathers represent the 
blue sky above the clouds; the white, downy feather itself, which is 
ever moving, as if it were breathing, represents Tira'wa atius, who 
dwells beyond the blue sky, which is above the soft, white clouds. 

All during the ceremony this feather has been tied upon the brown- 
eagle feathered stem, close to the owl feathers. It is different from 
the downy feather worn by the Ku'rahus and his assistant, for at its 



240 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann.22 

stem there is a little one, like a small branch, that is to show that the 
little child is the child of Tira'wa atius. 

This double feather now stands before the child. 

Translation of Second Stanza 

1242 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1243 Iliri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we re ru ata ha! 

hiri! give heed! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri ! give heed ! 
hitu, a downy feather, 
we, now. 
re, is. 
ru, it. 
ata, flying, 
ha! behold! 
1244, 1245 See line 1243. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

As we sing the second stanza the old man moves the feather toward 
the child's head. The feather representing Tira'wa atius is now fly- 
ing through the air, coming near the head of the little child. 

Translation of Third Stanza 

1246 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1247 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri tukuka ha! 

hiri ! give heed ! 
'hari, a part of iha'ri, child, 
hiri! give heed! 
hitu, downy feather, 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

tukuka, touching, 
ha! behold! 
1248, 1249 See line 1247. 

Explanation by the Ku'r alius 

During the singing of this stanza the old man touches the head of 
the child with the downy white feather. The symbol of Tira'wa atius 
has reached the child and rests above the white, downy clouds. 



fletcheb] SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PART IV 241 

Translation of Fourth Stanza 

1250 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1251 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri kittawe he! 

hiri! give heed! 
'hari, child, 
hiri! give heed! 
hitu, downy feather. 



we, now 



ri, it. 

kittawe, standing on top (of the child's head), 
he ! from hiri ! give heed ! 
1252, 1253 See line 1251. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

While we sing this fourth stanza, the old man ties the downy 
feather on the child's hair. Tira'wa atius is now with the little child 
as the double feather waves over its head. 

Translation of Fifth Stanza 

1254 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1255 Hiri! 'Hari; Hiri! Hitu we ri ta witshpa ha ! 

hiri! harken! 
'hari, child. 

hiri! harken! give heed! 
hitu, downy feather, 
we, now. 
ri, it. 

ta, a part of taokut, to touch, 
witshpa, accomplished, completed, 
ha! behold! I 

1256, 1257 See line 1255. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

Now we sing that all is accomplished. The child has been fully 
prepared, the sacred symbols put upon it, the powers from above have 
come, and Tira'wa atius breathes over it. 

The child is now told to look into the bowl of water and behold its 
face. The running water symbolizes the passing on of generations, 
one following another. The little child looks on the water and sees 
its own likeness, as it will see that likeness in its children and chil- 
dren's children. The face of Tira'wa atius is there also, giving prom- 
ise that the life of the child shall go on, as the waters flow over the land. 

A black covering is now put over the child's head by the Ku'rahus, 
that no one may look on the holy symbols. Only Tira'wa looks 

22 eth— pt 2—04 16 



242 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

on them and knows all that they mean. We do not look on them, 
for they are holy. a 

The Ku'rahus, handing the bowl of water to the young man who 
brought it into the lodge, tells him what to do before he throws it 
away. 

The young man with the bowl passes through the circle of warriors 
and goes by the south to the east, then to the northeast, where he lifts 
a few drops to that direction and lets them fall on the rim of the fire- 
place. Then he passes to the northwest and repeats his action. At 
the west he lifts a few drops to the zenith and lets them fall on the rim 
of the fireplace. Then he passes on to the southwest, offering the water 
as before, and then to the southeast, where he repeats his offering. 
Thence he goes to the inner door of the lodge, where he pauses, then 
passes through the entrance way, and when he is out under the early 
morning sky he throws the water toward the east. 

This is done because all the rivers flow toward the east. 

EIGHTEENTH RITUAL. FULFILMENT PREFIGURED 

Part I. Making the Nest 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus . 

The old man who has been preparing the child now rises from his 
position and, stepping to one side, leaves the Ku'rahus and his assist- 
ant standing directly in front of the little child. 

These two lift the feathered stems and the rattles and wave their 
arms like the wings of a bird as the following song is sung three times. 
No drum is used, but the rattles and the whistle accompany the song. 

SONG 

Words and Music 

M. M. ,N = 192. 

\ * 

• — Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

No drum. 



!— ft-*— i=H— feEFb=b-E:E^-ir:t* *:=:a=*=E=z^»E*:===£^*-*zE*-.=^i*rl 



Ho- o-o-o-o ! Ha wa-re. Hi-ri-i - i! Ha wa-re. Hi-ri-i - i! Hi-ri! I-ra - hi 

WMsae. fa r '~~ r *■— fa— fa'— f *— ?»"~ fa-— f *- fa r "~ f tr - 







si wi-te. Hi - ri! H'Ak u-ka - i re-i-si. Ha wa-re. Hi-ri - i! 

A A >V A A *\ A AA 

f tr. f tr. f tr.~~ f tr.~~ ? tr.~~ f tr. f tr.~~ f tr £ J * » I 

1258 Ho-o-o-o-o! 

1259 Ha ware. Hiri-i-i! 

1260 Ha ware. Hiri-i-i! 

1261 Hiri! Irahisi wite. 

1262 Hiri! H'Ak ukai reisi. 

1263 Ha ware. Hiri-i! 

« The Ku'rahus did not remember what was formerly used as a covering for the head of the 
child; latterly it has been a black silk handkerchief. 



pletcher] EIGHTEENTH EITUAL, PART I 243 

Translation 

1258 Ho-o-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1259 Ha ware. Hiri-i-i! 

ha, yonder. 

ware, a part of teware, flying, circling about. 

hiri! give heed! harken! 

i-i, vowel prolongations. 

1260 See line 1259. 

1261 Hiri! Irahisi wite. 

hiri! give heed! harken! 

irahisi, irasi, it is you. The syllable hi is introduced to 

modify the word so as to conform to the music, 
wite, conjecture, surmise. 

1262 Hiri! H'Ak ukai reisi. 

hiri ! give heed ! harken ! 

h'Ak; h', the sign of breath, life; ak, a part of akaro, a 

dwelling: h'Ak, the stretch of the earth under the dome 

of the heavens, 
ukai, to put in. 
reisi, a modification of irasi, it is you. 

1263 See line 1259. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

After the third repeat, the Ku'rahus calls out, " Open a way! " and 
the warriors who form the line separate at the north and at the south, 
and the brown-eagle feathered stem is carried through the north open- 
ing and the white-eagle feathered stem through the south opening. 
The white eagle then flies back and forth before the line of warriors 
guarding the brown eagle as she circles the fireplace. 

When the Ku'rahus, carrying the brown-eagle feathered stem, 
reaches the west he pauses, and then goes to the northwest, near the 
rim of the fireplace, where he makes a circle with the big toe of his 
left foot and covers the outline with down. Then he passes to the 
northeast and makes another circle, marking it also with down; then 
to the southeast, where he makes a third circle, then to the southwest, 
where he makes the fourth circle. Meanwhile the song is being sung 
for the fourth time, and the white eagle is still flying back and forth 
in front of the line of warriors. 

The circle represents a nest, and is drawn by the toe because the 
eagle builds its nest with its claws. Although we are imitating the 
bird making its nest, there is another meaning to the action; we are 
thinking of Tira'wa making the world for the people to live in. If you 
go on a high hill and look around, you will see the sky touching 
the earth on every side, and within this circular inclosure the people 
live. So the circles we have made are not only nests, but they also 



244 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth.ann.22 

represent the circle Tira'wa atius lias made for the dwelling place of 
all the people. The circles also stand for the kinship group, the 
clan, and the tribe. 

The down represents the light clouds near the dwelling place of 
Tira'wa — the dome of the sky over the dwelling place of the people — 
and it stands for the protection of Tira'wa. When there is no down 
to be had, white ashes can be used. I do not know what the ashes 
mean, but I think they are to make the outline distinct and to repre- 
sent the white down. 

The nests are four, because at the four directions are the paths 
down which the powers from above descend. The four winds guard 
these paths and protect the life of man. 

After the four nests are made, the feathered stems are laid at rest. 

The Ku'rahus then takes bits of fat which have been preserved 
from an animal consecrated to Tira'wa and puts them with some native 
tobacco into an oriole's nest and hands the nest to the chief, who con- 
ceals it in his hands. 

The bits of fat represent the droppings that mark the trail made 
b}^ the hunters as they carry the meat home from the field. This trail 
is called the path dropping fatness, and means plenty. Fat, there- 
fore, stands for the promise of abundant food. 

The oriole's nest is used because Tira'wa made this bird build its 
nest so that no Jiarm could come to it. It hangs high, is skillfully 
made, and is secure. An eagle's nest may be torn away by a storm, 
but the oriole's nest swa} r s in the wind and is not hurt. 

Part II. Symbolic Fulfilment 
Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

Nbw a robe is spread on the ground and the child is placed on it 
with his feet and legs projecting beyond the edge. Four men are 
appointed to carry the child. One goes on each side and takes hold 
of the robe and lifts it; a man at the back of the child steadies it as 
it is raised and carried, while the fourth man holds another robe over 
its feet and legs. 

The chief and the Ku'rahus precede the child to the circle at the 
northwest, where it is held over the nest so that its feet rest within 
the circle. The chief puts his hands under the robe held over the 
child's legs and drops the oriole's nest within the circle so that the 
child's feet rest on it. No one but the chief and the Ku'rahus 
know what is being done beneath the robe. The chief takes up the 
nest, concealing it from view, and goes to the circle at the northeast, 
to which the child has also been carried, and in the same way places 
its feet on it. The same act is repeated at the circles in the south- 
east and the southwest. 

The child represents the young generation, the continuation of life, 



FLETCHER 



EIGHTEENTH EITUAL, PART II 



245 



and when it is put in the circle it typifies the bird laying its eggs. 
The child is covered up, for no one knows when a bird lays its eggs 
or when a new birth takes place; only Tira'wa can know when life is 
given. The putting of the child's feet in the circle means the giving 
of new life, the resting of its feet upon the oriole's nest means prom- 
ised security to the new life, the fat is a promise of plenty of food, 
and the tobacco is an offering in recognition that all things come from 
Tira'wa. The entire act means that the clan or tribe of the Son 
shall increase, that there shall be peace and security, and that the 
land shall be covered with fatness. This is the promise of Tira'wa 
through the Hako. 

Four times the child is taken around the fire and its feet are placed 
within the four circles during the singing of the following song, but 
the nest is used onlv on the first round. 



SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. S = 126. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 
No drum. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



W — MZZZ& 






s=^s=s=" 



*=*: 



:=J 



Ho-o-o! We 

Rattles, p fv p /l . 

Whistle l) -~~ l li 



ra ti ka ri - ki 








ka ri - ki ra ri • ki 



1264 Ho-o-o! 

1265 We ra ti ka riki ra riki hi! 

1266 Pirao ka riki ra riki hi! 

1267 Pirao ka riki ra riki hi! 




Translation 

126-4 Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
1265 We ra ti ka riki ra riki hi! 

we, now. 

ra. is. 

ti, he. 

ka, from akaro, an inclosure; the space or room within. 

riki, standing. 

ra, is. 

riki, standing. 

hi, vowel prolongation. 



246 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

1266 Pirao ka riki ra riki hi! 

pirao, child. 

ka, within. 

riki, standing. 

ra, is. 

riki, standing. 

hi, vowel prolongation. 

1267 See line 1266. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

At the close of this song and ceremony the child is carried back 
and seated behind the holy place. The chief stands behind the child, 
and a feathered stem is laid on each side of it, the brown eagle to the 
north. 

Part III. Thank Offering 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

Live coals are brought and put on the holy place before the child, 
and the Ku'rahus cuts bits of consecrated fat and sweet grass and 
lays them on the coals. All the people silently watch the sweet- 
smelling smoke as it curls upWard. When the smoke is well on its 
way to Tira'wa, the Ku'rahus, standing at the west, lifts the feathered 
stems, the wildcat skin, and all the other sacred objects of the Hako 
and waves them four times through the smoke toward the east, and 
then lays them down as they were before. When the chief and his 
assistant have raised the child to its feet, the chief puts his hands in 
the sweet smoke and passes them over its head, then puts his hands 
back into the smoke and rubs the child from its shoulders down its 
arms. Again he puts his hands in the smoke and passes them down 
the body of the child. For the fourth time he puts his hands in the 
smoke and strokes the legs of the child to its feet and presses them 
upon the earth. Then the child is again seated. 

Now the Ku'rahus says, " My Children, the offering of sweet smoke 
is for you. " After that the chief and the assistant will put smoke 
on any of the Children who so desire. This takes some time, for 
every one of the Children present wishes to have the blessing of the 
smoke. At length the chief puts the smoke upon himself, and the 
Ku'rahus and his assistant on themselves, and last of all the two 
young men who are to perform the final dance bless themselves with 
the smoke. 

The Ku'rahus returns the coals to the fireplace and spreads the 
ashes over the ground so that nothing will show where they have 
been. Next he goes to the first circle in the northwest and with his 
right foot rubs away the outline. He then proceeds to the nest-circle 
at the northeast and rubs that away, and so on with the other two. 
The doctors follow, the one with the left wing sweeping away all signs 
of the nests on the north side of the fireplace, while the doctor with 
the right wing does the same to those on the south side. 



Fletcher] EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH EITUALS 247 

The chief, the Father of the Ilako party, now takes the little child 
in his arms and, going outside of the lodge, sits down near the door, 
where he remains during the final dance and the presentation of gifts 
by the children. 

Third Division. The Dance of Thanks 

nineteenth ritual 

Part I. The Call to the Children 

Explanation by the Ku'rdhus 

Before the entrance to the lodge mats are spread, on which sit those 
who are to take part in the coming ceremony. 

The Ku'rahus and his assistant are directly before the door. At 
the left of them are two doctors who have not heretofore taken part. 
They carry their large rattles, and have lent two similar ones to the 
Ku'rahus and his assistant. They have also lent for this occasion 
their peculiar drums to the singers. These drums are made of the 
section of a tree hollowed out by fire, over the open end of which a 
skin has been stretched and securely tied. The singers are seated in 
a semicircle about each of the two drums (see figure 180). In front of 
the Ku'rahus and the singers sits the chief, and before him is the little 
child. The doctors with the eagle wings are on either side, the one 
with the left wing toward the north, the one with the right wing toward 
the south. In front of them are the two dancers. The space within 
which they are to dance is inclosed on the south by a line of promi- 
nent men from the Son's party, and on the north by a line from the 
Father's. These lines beginning at the lodge end each with a warrior 
selected by the Ku'rahus for his valorous record. These warriors 
wear buffalo robes with the hair side out and are girded about the 

waist with a hair lariat, which is to be used in leading the horses 

v 
brought as gifts to the Fathers. Beyond these lines of prominent 

men, who are seated, are gathered the people, those belonging to the 

tribe of the Son on the south and those of the Hako party on the 

north. 

The Ku'rahus gives a small tuft of white down to a man whose 
hands have not been painted with sacred ointment, and directs him 
where to place it on the head of the chief. The place is on the spot 
where a baby's skull is open, and you can see it breathe. The white 
down represents the white clouds which lie near the abode of Tira'wa 
atius, whence he sends down the breath of life to man. Chiefs were 
appointed by Tira'wa 1 hrough the North Star. The tuft of down also 
signifies that the chief's office is from above. 

The two feathered stems, the rattles, the wildcat skin, and the ear 
of corn are given to the chief to hold. 

The two young men who have been selected to dance are stripped 
to the breechcloth, and red circles are made with the sacred paint on 
their backs and breasts. The circles are outlined faintly, so as not to 



248 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



WEST 




20 




21 



22 



* 



EAST 
Fig. 180. Diagram showing the positions of the participants in the dance of thank?. 

1, the entrance to the lodge; 2, the fireplace; 3, inner posts supporting the roof; 4, the holy 
place; 5, the drum; 6, the Ku'rahus; 7, his assistant; 8, the drums of the doctors; 9, singers; 11), 
the Father (a chief); 11, the little child; 12, the bearers of the eagle wings; 13, the dancer with 
the brown-eagle feathered stem; 14, the dancer with the white-eagle feathered stem; 15, the line 
of the brown-eagle dancer; 10, the line of the white-eagle dancer; 17, warriors who take the 
ponies off; 18, prominent men of the Hako party; 19, prominent men of the Son's party; 20, 
members of the Son's tribe, the Children; 21, members of the Hako party; 22, effigy on which 
war honors are enacted. 



fletcher] NINETEENTH KITUAL, PART I 249 

attract attention, for they represent the nest and are a part of the 
secret ceremony. The downy eagle feather which until now has been 
worn by the Ku'rahus is fastened to the scalp lock of the dancer who 
is to bear the brown-eagle feathered stem, and the downy feather 
worn by the assistant is tied to the hair of the dancer who will hold 
the white-eagle feathered stem. 

A man, previously chosen by the Ku'rahus, steps up to the chief 
and receives from him the two feathered stems and the rattles. He 
makes the sign of thanks for the honor by passing his hands down 
the arms of the chief. Then, holding the brown-eagle feathered stem 
in his right hand, he recounts a successful capture of booty, then 
tells of a war adventure in which he struck an enemy without receiv- 
ing any harm. After this he hands the brown-eagle feathered stem 
and a rattle to the dancer sitting at the north. Holding up the white- 
eagle feathered stem, he tells of a successful foray, in which he cap- 
tured ponies, and then of a victory in w T ar, after which he hands the 
white-eagle feathered stem and a rattle to the dancer sitting at the 
south and takes his own place in the line of prominent men belonging 
to the Father's party. 

The first song is now sung, to the accompaniment of the large 
rattles, the doctors' drums, and the whistle. 

FIRST SONG 

Words and Music 
M. M. /* = 152. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

-H — | ja**=— t-*-?-*-*-F=« tf— m— * — m-* li — 5^= 5 *~^~ g ~T 





Hi - ri! Hu - ra - a i, hu - ra i; Hi - ri! Hu - ra i,. 

Drum. % ^ a 

Whistle ' ' 

V 



>""- 



l*3=±t= 



;=^^ii=3ii§E^tE3^^i 



Hi - ri! Hu - ra; Hi - ri! Hu - ra; Hi - ri! Hu - ra i-ha! 

A A A A 

1268 Hiri! Hura-ai, hurai; 1271 Hiri! Hura; 

1269 Hiri! Hura i, hura i, hura i; 1272 Hiri! Hura; Hiri! Huraiha! 

1270 Hiri! Hurai, hurai; 



250 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



Translation 

1268 Iliri! Hura-a i, liura i. 

hiri! an exclamation calling attention and demanding that 

heed be given ; harken ! 
lmra, let come, 
a, vowel prolongation. 

i, a part of the word iha're, young, or children, 
hura i, let the children come. 

1269 Hiri! Hura i, hura i, hura i. See line 1268. 

1270 Hiri! Hura i, hura i. See line 1268. 

1271 Hiri! Hura. See line 1268. 

1272 Hiri! Hura; Hiri! Hura iha! 

Hiri! Hura; Hiri! Hura. See line 1268. 
iha, a part of the word iha're, children, young. 



Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

This song is addressed to the Children that they may know that all 
is now ready for the reception of their gifts. 

The words of the song mean: "Harken! Give attention! Let the 
Children come ! " 

The song is sung twice and then we pause ; this is to give the Chil- 
dren time to come together. 

After a little wliile we sing the second song. 

SECOND SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. /s = 152. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



f 



^.Q-m-^m— g=g£V - < -4 -1 * = =1: 

ft-' f— ' 1— r— ! — F-* *- 



Wz 



BrS— *=«: 



S 



I 



I ra, i ra, 



Drum * 
Rattles, r tr. 
Whistle. ' 



hi • 

A 

~ f tr. 



ra - a 



hi 



ra 



ha - a ; . 



tr. 



S- 



I ra, i ra, hi - ra - a hi - ra ha - a; 



-=!—=»- 



i • • • - • 



I - ri ra! 



A 
P 



tr.~ 



A 
P 



tr. 



ftr.. 



A 

?tr 



qtqc 



ra, i ra, 



.-^-H- 



A 



:qv=qs:=s: 



hi - ra - a; 

A 
P 



3v^vi: 



:S=J: 



J = g"=l— =«*=* 
0:&:rf=:*:=*=*: 



*=3==j: 



ra, 



hi 



tr.~ 



A 
P 



tr 



ra ha - a! 



A 
P 



tr. 



1273 I ra. i ra, hira-a hira ha-a; 

1274 I ra, i ra, hira-a hira ha-a; 

1275 Iri ra! 

1276 I ra, i ra, hira-a; 

1277 I ra, hira ha-a! 



Fletcher] NINETEENTH KITUAL, PART I 251 

Translation 

1273 I ra, i ra, hira-a hira lia-a. 

i, a part of the word iha're, children, young. 

ra, come. 

hira, when come, when they do come. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

hira, translated above. 

ha, yonder. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

1274 See line 1273. 

1275 Irira! 

iri, there, 
ra, coming. 

1276 I ra, i ra, hira-a. See line 1273. 

1277 I ra, hira ha-a! See line 1273. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The Children are now gathering; they are moving about on their 
side (see figure 180), men, women, and children. 

The words mean: "When the Children come, they will come from 
yonder." 

Although there is much noise and bustle where the Children are 
busily preparing, yet this song can be heard by them and they hasten 
with their preparations. 

We sing the song twice. 

As the people are seen moving toward the place where we are sit- 
ting, we sing the next song. 

THIRD SONG 

Words and Music v 

M. M. J =56. 
• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

nzJEbg.-^-* 1 -* 1 — EEiES:=Fbi=ti=^g=Eg.-z^rtf=*=d 



5==fcfc=t= 



'Hare ra, 'hare ra - a, ra i 'ha-re; 'Ha-re ra, 'hare ra-a, ra i 'ha- re; 

Drum. AAA AAA 

Rattles, f tr.~~~~? tr ~~ P </•.— -~ - ftr.^^—^ftr.***** ftr ~__ 

Whistle. ' ' 



3- 



lTT"l I" I J l^ -H^ 11 ^!— d^+d*- j=3^^~K T~> "TN Si==: i : 



'Ha-re ra, ra i 'ha-re; 'Ha re ra! 'Ha-re ra-a, ra - a i 'ha-re, ra 

A A A A A A 

Ptr.~~ Ptr.~ f tr ? tr -~ & *r.™™ ? tr.— 

M. M. = 80. 
miim^ Quicker. 



• -•: ■# -at -m- • • >— ' 



i 'ha-re; 'Ha-re ra, 'ha-re ra-a, ra i 'ha-re; 'Ha-re ra I 'Ha-re ra! 

ft A A A A A A A A 

& tr.~~~~ ° tr.~~ & «r.~~.~ * f f * t p f ? r p p * 



252 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

1278 'Hare ra, 'hare ra-a, ra i 'hare; 

1279 'Hare ra, "hare ra-a, ra i 'hare; 

1280 'Hare ra, ra i 'hare; 

1281 'Hare ra! 

1282 'Hare ra-a, ra-a i hare, ra i 'hare; 

1283 'Hare ra, hare ra-a, ra i 'hare; 

1284 'Harera! Hare ra! 

Translation 

1278 'Hare ra, 'hare ra-a, ra i 'hare. 

'hare, a part of the word iha're, children, young. 

ra, coming. 

'hare ra. Translated above. 

a, vowel prolongation. 

ra, come, or coming. 

i, a part of the word titako, here, where I am. 

'hare, children. 

1279 See line 1278. 

1280 'Hare ra, ra i hare. See line 1278. 

1281 'Harera! See line 1278. 

1282 'Hare ra-a, ra-a i 'hare^ ra i 'hare. See line 1278. 

1283 See line 1278. 

1284 'Harera! 'Harera! See line 1278. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The w r ords of this song mean: "The Children are coming, coming 
here where I am sitting." 

At the close of this song a man selected by the Ku'rahus utters 
a long, loud cry: "Ho-o-o-o-o-o-o! ' It is answered by all the Hako 
party; their shout is broken by the hands beating on the mouth: 
" Ha-a-a-a-a-a-a! " The drums and rattles sound at the same time. 

It is a cry of thanks and of welcome by the Fathers to the Children 
as they approach bearing gifts. 

As soon as the cries cease the Ku'rahus begins one of the dance 

songs. 

Part II. The Dance and Reception of Gifts 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

On the fourth night (of the Hako ceremony), while the lodge was 
being circled sixteen times, some young men, at the direction of the 
Ku'rahus, went out and made the figure of a man from grass and old 
garments and fastened it to a small sapling so that it could be made 
to stand upright. This figure, which has been concealed, is now 
brought out and set up in front of all the people (see figure 180). 

The men of the tribe of the Children, dressed in their regalia and 
war bonnets, and painted with the symbols of the society to which they 
belong, come up with their horses, which are led by one of the owner's 



Fletcher] NINETEENTH RITUAL, PART II 253 

little children. Each man stops at the effigy and there, treating the 
figure as he did his enemy, he acts out a deed of valor and then 
recounts its stoiy. He does this to honor his child, who is taking the 
gift of a horse to the Fathers. 

As the child approaches, the chief goes toward him with the wild- 
cat skin and the ear of corn ; he strokes the child's head with the ear 
of corn. This movement means thanks for the gift and the invoking 
of a blessing upon the child. 

Meanwhile one of the warriors at the end of the line (see figure 180) 
comes forward, and with his hair rope leads the horse away and gives 
it in charge of some one, and the man appointed to keep count makes 
a record of it. 

These things are all going on at once while the young men are dan- 
cing. When the dance song begins the two young men rise, each hold- 
ing in his left hand, high up over his head, a feathered stem and in 
his right a rattle. Both start at the same time and as they leap and 
dance they wave the feathered stems to simulate the flight of the 
eagle. The dancer with the brown-eagle feathered stem goes from 
the north around by the south and pauses when he reaches the place 
where the dancer with the white- eagle feathered stem started, while 
the latter goes outside the path of the former by the south and 
pauses when he reaches the place at the north where the dancer bear- 
ing the brown-eagle feathered stem had stood. There the two dancers 
si and until the song is finished, when they cross over and take their 
own proper places, the brown eagle at the north and the white eagle 
at the south. Whenever the song is repeated, they rise and dance 
again in the same manner. 

The circle of the white eagle is always outside that of the brown 
eagle, for the white eagle is the male and its place is outside to defend 
the female. The brown eagle always moves from the north around to 
the south and the white eagle goes from the south to the north; the 
two move in opposite directions so that they may come together; the 
male and female must conjoin. 

There are two dance songs; they both mean the same and there is 
no order in which they must be sung. 

The words mean "Now fly, you eagles, as we give thanks to the 
Children." 



254 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



DANCE SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. jN-200. 



Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 




nr 



Dram. 
Rattles 



FTo-o-o-o! 



Ra-wa sa wa-ri! 



I - ri i - ha- re! 



*-y 



I - ri i - ha -re - e! 



A 

» 



A 



• • 



A 
* 



A 



• k . 




Ra - wa sa wa - ri, 

; . ; - & . 



ra - wa sa wa - ri! 



I - ri i - ha - re! 



« 4 



Lj* 




f Lj* CJ" C_* 



Ra- wa 6a wa - ri, 

Lj' 



ra - wa sa wa - ri ! 



A A A 




I - ri i - ha -re! 



=K-5=fc4 



^3=^=? 



EEBE1 



4-*: 



|^=S 



I - ri i - ha - re 

A A 



Ra - wa sa wa - ri 1 



f L-f U U LJ C 







A 

Lj* 

1285 Ho-o-o-o! 

1286 Rawa sa wari! Iri ihare! Iri ihare-e! 

1287 Rawa sa wari, rawa sa wari! Iri ihare! Iri ihare-e! 

1288 Rawa sa wari, rawa sa wari! Iri ihare! Iri ihare-e! 

1289 Rawa sa wari! 

Translation of Fourth Song 

1285 1 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1286 Rawa sa wari! Iri ihare! Iri ihare-e! 

rawa, now; a signal to start. 

sa, you; refers to the eagles personated by the dancers. 

wari, fly. 

iri, a part of nawairi, an expression of thankfulness. 

ihare, children, young; refers to the Children. 

iri, translated above. 

ihare, translated above. 

e, vowel prolongation. 

1287 Rawa sa wari, rawa sa wari! Iri ihare! Iri ihare-e! See line 

1286. 

1288 See line 1287. 

1289 Rawa sa wari! See line 1286. 



FLETCHER] 



NINETEENTH RITUAL, PART II 



255 



DANCE SONG 



Words and Music 



M. M. S S = 200. 



— Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



A 



bii. 



'& 



f\-B 






»=^ 



1-n— i- 



- a J g j t 33 3f : 



Ho-o-o-o! Ha! I-ra 



hi-ru-ral Ha! I-ra 



-»- -p»- ■»*■ 
hi-ru-ra! Ha! I-ra 



hi-ru-ra! 



Drum. * £ s 
Rattles.^ |J 



A A A A A AAA A A A A 

tr : r c* lt Lr cr crcr ij* c_r c_r l'd* cj £/ 



q: 



::Jvir^==*-- 



--S--^T-^--T— J^'-J.-S-^: 



^c 



-=»- 



^•V-S?: 



Ha! I-ra hi-ru-ra! Ha! I-ra hi-ru-ra! Ha! I-ra hi-ru-ra! 

A A A AA A. A A AA A_A A A 




Ha! I-ra 



A _ A 



u crcr lt cj 



hi-ru-ra! A! Hi ra-a! Ha! I-ra 

. - * 



LJ U U 



hi-ru-ra! Ha! I-ra hi-ru-ra! 



1290 

1201 



1290 Ho-o-o-o! 

1291 Ha! Ira hirura! 

1292 Ha! Ira hirura! Ha! Ira hirura! 

1293 Ha! Ira hirura! Ha! Ira hirura! 

1294 Ha! Ira hirura! Ha! Ira hirura! 

1295 A! Hi ra-a! 

1296 Ha! Ira hirura! Ha! Ira hirura! 

Translation of Fifth Song 

Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
Ha ! Ira hirura ! 
ha! behold! 
ira, coming. 

hirura, yonder he is coming (refers to the child bringing a 
gift). 
1292-1294 See line 1291. 

1295 A! Hi ra-a! 

a! the same as ha! behold! 

hi, a part of hirura, yonder he is coming. 

ra-a; ra, coming; a, vowel prolongation. 

1296 See line 1291. 



256 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Explanation by the Kit' r alius 

If a man of the Father's party desires to count his war honors he 
steps out in front of the dancers. The men stop and go to their 
proper places ; the song stops and the man tells his deed of valor. At 
its close the responsive cry, is given by the people; then the song 
begins again and the dance is resumed. 

Sometimes one of the Children has not been able to catch the horse 
he intends to give away. He comes forward with his little child, who 
carries a small stick and hands it to the chief, who turns it over to 
the assistant chief, who passes it on to the record keeper. The child 
is blessed with the corn. 

At any time during this dance of thanks a poor person can come 
up to the consecrated child who is sitting in front of the chief and take 
away the robe that is on it, for the robe has been put on the child as 
a gift to the poor. When one robe is taken, the assistant chief places 
another robe on the child, and it often happens that several robes or 
blankets are given away to the poor in this manner. 

After a time one of the chiefs of the tribe of the Son rises and asks 
if all have made their gifts. This is a signal that the end is near. 
Finally, some one of the party of the Son rises and says, "Father, 
you must be tired; end this!" and he makes the sign with his hands 
which signifies cutting off, and the dance stops. Sometimes only the 
sign is made, bift generally the words are spoken. 

Then the prominent men of the Fathers and of the Children enter 
the lodge for the final ceremony. 

Fourth Division. Presentation of the Hako 

twentieth ritual 

Part I. Blessing the Child 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

At the close of the dance of thanks the Children scatter in every 
direction, but the leading men enter the lodge and sit down at the 
south side. The Son sits either in the middle of the line on the south, 
or in his proper place just south of the entrance, near the door. 

The consecrated child is taken by the chief behind the holy place. 
The two dancers advance to lay down the feathered steins, one at each 
side of the little child, the brown-eagle feathered stem toward the 
north, the white feathered stem toward the south. Then they remove 
the downy feathers from their hair and give them to the Ku'rahus, 
who ties them on the feathered stems. 

The Ku'rahus then girds the robe about his waist with the hair 
rope and lifts tne brown-eagle feathered stem. His assistant takes up 
the white-eagle feathered stem, the chief, with the cat skin and the 
ear of corn, steps between the Ku'rahus and his assistant, and the 



fletcher! 



TWENTIETH RITUAL, PART I 



257 



doctors with the eagle wings take their places at either side. The 
five men stand before the child and sing the following song (see 
figure 181). 



EAST 
1 




Fk;. 181 . Diagram of the Son's lodge during the presentation of the Hako. 

1. the entrance to the lodge; 2, the fireplace; 3, inner posts supporting the dome-shaped roof; 
4, the little child; 5, the Ku'rahus; (>. his assistant; 7, the Father (a chief); 8, the bearers of the 
eagle wings; 9, t he Son, father of the little child; 10, leading men of the Son's party; 11, leading 
men of the Father's party. 

SONG 



Words and Music 



M. M. 



i — 



56. 



: Pulsation of the voice. 
No drum. 



flgr 



* § 






Transcribed by Edwin P. Tracy. 

lipi^ HpiPl i|pi§jijpi 



ETo-o-o-o! H'Irera! I PI re ra! 



Rattles. 9 tr, f tr.* 



A 



Pi-ra u-ta ha ■ o! Pi-ra u-ta, u - ta ha - o! 

tr, 



tr.^^-^~- f* tr. 

1 297 Ho-o-o-o! 

L298 H'Irera! 

L299 H'liv ra! 

1300 Pirautahao! 

1301 Pira uta, uta haol 






22 ktii— pt 2—dl- 



258 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [kth. ann. 22 

Translation 

12 ( . ( 7 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation to the song. 

1298 H'lrera! 

h', the symbol of breath; breathing forth life. 
I, a part of the word Tira'wa, the mighty power above, 
re, is. 

ra, coming. The word as here used conveys the idea of coming 
from a great distance. 

1299 See line 1298. 

1300 Pira uta hao! 

pira, a part of the word pirao, child, a general term. 

uta, a part of the word kuta, possessed by or belonging to 

some one other than the speaker, 
hao, offspring. 

1301 Pira uta, uta hao! See line 1300. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When I sing this song I pray to Tira'wa to come down and touch 
with his breath the symbol of his face and all the other symbols on 
the little child. I pray with all my spirit that Tira'wa atius will let 
the child grow up and become strong and find favor in its life. 

This is a very solemn act, because we believe that Tira'wa atius, 
although not se'en by us, sends down his breath as we pray, calling 
on him to come. 

As I sing this song here with you I can not help shedding tears. I 
have never sung it before except as I stood looking upon the little 
child and praying for it in my heart. There is no little child here, 
but you are here writing all these things down that they may not be 
lost and that our children may know what their fathers believed and 
practiced in this ceremony. So, as I sing, I am calling to Tira'wa 
atius to send down his breath upon you, to give you strength and 
long life. I am praying for you with all my spirit. 

This song is sung eight times. 

As we sing it first we bow above the little child, and make a move- 
ment as if to touch it with the feathered stems and the ear of corn. 
The second time we sing it we again bow low over the child and the 
chief touches it on the forehead with the ear of corn, while the Ku'ra- 
hus and his assistant stroke it on each side with the feathered 
stems. We then pass to the south, to the right side of the child, and 
sing for the third and the fourth time. The first time we make the 
motion of touching the child, the second time the chief touches its 
head with the ear of corn, and the feathered stems are passed down 
its sides. Then we go west to the back of the child and there sing for 
the fifth and sixth times, making the same motions and again touch- 
ing it. Then we go north, to the left of the child, and sing for the 



fletcher] TWENTIETH RITUAL 259 

seventh and eighth times, making the same movements and touches; 
and then we return to the front of the child. These movements are 
all descending movements; they are following the breath line drawn 
on the face of the child. 

The rattles which belong to the feathered stems are used alone 
with this song. 

The purport of this song is hidden from the people, but this is 
what it means : All that I have been doing to you, little child, has been 
a prayer to call down the breath of Tira'wa atius to give you long life 
and strength and to teach you that you belong to him — that you are 
his child and not mine. 

When we have finished singing the chief steps back, and the Ku'ra- 
hus, taking the two feathered stems, folds the white-eagle within the 
feathers of the brown-eagle feathered stem and, without singing, goes 
through the same two movements, the feint and the touch, first on 
the front of the child, then on its right side, then on the back and then 
on the left side, after which he spreads the feathered stems, laying the 
brown-eagle stem to the left and the white-eagle feathered stem to 
the right of the child. 

The chief goes in front of the child and kneels before it. He takes 
the right leg of the wildcat skin and with the soft hair near its thigh 
he lightly wipes the blue lines from the child's face, and then the red 
paint. 

He spreads the wildcat skin between the two stems, lays the ear of 
corn upon it, places the two feathered stems beside the ear of corn, 
with the crotched stick, the two rattles, the two eagle wings, and the 
pipe which has been used by the Children. He removes the black 
covering from the head of the child, takes off the white down and the 
downy feather, wraps them in the covering, and lays them also on the 
wildcat skin. He rolls the skin into a bundle, holding it in his arms 
while he stands before the child and talks to it of the good which will 
come through this ceremony. 

Part II. Presenting the Hako to the Son and Thanks to the Children 

Explanation by the Kinahus 

When the chief has finished speaking he puts the bundle in the 
arms of the little child and leads it to its father, the Son, who receives 
it, and the child runs off to play. 

Another bundle, containing the bowl which held the water into 
which the child looked and other things that have been used, and all 
the mats on which the people have been sitting, are brought to the 
Son and presented to him. 

The chief, the leader of the Father's party, stands at the doorway 
with the Son, making the movements of thanks. He si rokes the Son's 
head and arms, and, holding his hands, talks to him. The Ku'rahus 



260 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEKEMONY [eth. ann. 22 

follows and does the same, then the assistant conies, then the two 
doctors and the prominent men of the Father's party. After thank- 
ing the Son they all pass round the south side of the lodge to thank 
the prominent men of the Son's party; then they return to the north 
side of the Iodide and sit down. 

After they are seated, the Children express the wish that the distri- 
bution of tin' ponies, Avaiting without, may be happily accomplished, 
to which the Fathers reply, "Nawairi!" " Thanks!' The Children 
now rise and go out of the lodge and leave the Fathers alone during 
the distribution of the gifts. 

The Ku'rahus appoints two influential men to go out and divide the 
gift of ponies, setting ajmrt a number for the chiefs and the leading 
men who do not wish to do this for themselves, lest the people think 
them selfish. Two ponies are for the Ku'rahus; that is his portion 
ordinarily. If there are a great number of horses he is given more. 
The chiefs and leading men select from the ponies set apart for them, 
each man taking one until all the ponies are apportioned. The rest 
of the party choose from the other ponies, one at a time, the men first 
and then the women.' After this the sticks representing ponies are 
divided. 

All the saddles, bridles, feathers, that may have been on the 
horses given away are piled on the north side of the lodge. These 
belong to the Ku'rahus. He keeps what he wants and divides the 
rest between his assistant, the server, and other members of the party. 

When the distribution has been made the Fathers leave the lodge 
and go to their camp, where the}^ break their long fast and seek some 
rest. The next day all the party start for home except the chief. lie 
r< mains to collect the ponies which have not been brought in. 

The Son, to whom the Ilako has been presented, can give the eagle 
wings to a doctor or the pipe to a friend, but he must keep for himself 
the sacred objects of the ceremony. They have brought to him the 
promise of long life and children, and have established peace and 
security through a tie as strong as that of kinship. 

Incidental Rituals 

The following four rituals can be sung during the public ceremony 
whenever the}^ are called for by the Children. 

COMFORTING THE CHILD 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

I have told you before that in order to be instructed in this cere- 
mony, 1<> be taught its songs and their meaning, one must make 4 many 
gifts, pay a great deal to the Ku'rahus who teaches him. This is our 
custom, for a man must make sacrifices, must give large presents in 
payment for what he receives, in order to show that) he places a value 
upon i he knowledge he wishes to acquire. I have paid a .great deal 



Fletcher] INCIDENTAL KITUALS 261 

to the Ku'rahus who taught me. Besides I had to promise him that I 
would not give the teachings away, but would hold them as they had 
been held, teaching them onty to those who would pay me. I give 
these (incidental rituals) to you, so that they may be preserved and 
kept with all the other songs that belong to the Hako. 

Long ago there lived a holy man who knew all the songs and the 
rites of this ceremony, and to him came a vision wherein he was taught 
how to bring comfort to a little child when, during the ceremony, it 
cried and could not be pacified. In this vision he was shown what he 
must do to bring comfort to the little child, and he heard the songs 
that he must sing. The songs which he heard have been handed down 
through many generations. 

When during the ceremony a child cries and can not be comforted, 
the mother, or some one sent by her, can approach the Ku'rahus who 
carries the brown-eagle stem and ask him to come and quiet the child. 
The Ku'rahus must comply with this request, so he rises and stands 
before the holy place, takes up the feathered stem and sings this song, 
which tells the brown eagle, Kawas, that its baby is crying. 

All the people hear the song and know that help for the child is 
being asked. 

FIRST SONG 

Words and Music 
M. M. j=60. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

No drum. 






Ho-o-o-o-o! Ka -was to wha-ka ra-tsa we, Ka - was to wha-ka ra-tsa we, 



A A A 

Rattles. ftr.~~ * tr.~~ ~~~~~~~~~ P tr 




a-^zjztizB-M-m-^izm-r^^': 






he-ru, wha-ka ra-tsa we, Ka - was to wha-ka ra-tsa wc 



A 






1802 Ho-o-o-o-o! 

1303 Kawas to whaka ratsa we, 

1304 Kawas to whaka ratsa we, 

1305 Ah hern, whaka ratsa we, 

1306 Kawas to whaka ratsa we. 

Translation 

1302 Ilo-o-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1303 Kawas to whaka ratsa we. 

Kawas, the brown eagle, representing the feminine principle. 

to, its, denoting ownership of the child that is crjung. 

whaka, voice, noise from the mouth. 

ratsa, a high pitch, screaming. 

we, personal pronoun; refers to the child. 



262 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



1304 See line 1303. 

1305 All hem, whaka ratsa we. 

ah, yes. 

hern, truly, verily. 
whaka, voice, 
ratsa, screaming, 
we, refers to child. 

1306 See line 1303. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

The assistant takes up the white-eagle feathered stem, and then he 
and the Ku'rahus move toward the child, singing this song and waving 
the feathered stems. They are speaking to the child ; they are bid- 
ding it cry no more, for its father is coming. 

The father is Tira'wa atius, the father of all, the father of all the 
powers represented with the Hako, of all living things, of all the peo- 
ple. And now this mighty power, the Father, is coming to the little 
child to bring it comfort. That is why the child is told not to cry, 
since its father is coming. 

These songs are very wonderful. 

SECOND SONG 

Words and Music 
M. M. J*= 60. ■ 

• — Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

No drum. , — ^ _ . 







Ho-o-o! H'A-ars si - ra ti we - ra, H'A-ars si - ra ti 



at 

we - ra, 



Battles, f tr.<. 



A 



tr 



tr. 



fc_ 



£=a: 



i 






Re-ko - ji 
tr,-* 



he 



ti 



A 

o 



-Z&-. a: 



^il=^^^=3^HSE^ 



we 



ra, H'A-ars si - ra 
tr. 



ti 



we 



ra. 



A 



1307 
1308 



1307 Ho-o-o! 

1308 H'A-ars sira ti wera, 

1309 H'A-ars sira ti wera, 

1310 Rekoji he ti wera, 

1311 H'A-ars sira ti wera. 

Translation 

Ho-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
H'Aars sira ti wera. 

h'A-ars; h', an aspiration, the sign of breath; aars, from atius, 
father: h'Aars, Father breathing forth (life). 

sira, is coming. 

ti, here. 



wera, now coming. 



FLETCHER] 



INCIDENTAL RITUALS 



263 



1300 See line 1308. 

1310 Rekoji he ti wera. 

rekoji, stop crying. 

lie, part of the word h'Aars, Father breathing forth (life). 

ti, here. 

wera, now coming. 

1311 See line 1308. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When the Ku'rahus and his assistant have reached the child they 
stand before it and sing the first stanza. The white-eagle feathered 
stem is on the outside; there it is waved to guard the child from all 
harm. The brown-eagle stem is waved over the little one, and the 
mother, or whoever is holding it, must place it so that it can see the 
feathered stem, for the song bids the child look up and see that the 
mighty power Tira'wa has come, has acknowledged it as the child of 
the permanent heavens, that place far above even the light fleecy 
clouds, which is always the same. 



THIRD SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. J- 88. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 

No drum. . — . 



SES: 



!±3 



eS— £=£ 



ifegj: 



Rattles.? tr.~ 



A 

Ftr 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



:»rrp: 



£g==!ES_=^ 



Ho-o-o! Ha!... Is - te wa - ta si wi-ta., 



ha: 




wa 



ta 



si. 



-0 — *> — .-g. — wt- 
wi " - ta. 



ha: 



=T 



:Hv 







H'A 

A 

?tr.~ 



ars. 



hi 



^^~ 



re. 






■*=* 



3=S«- 



wa 



ha 



ki; Ha!. 
tr.* 



A 



— ^— — I 1 ^=—\ — — i 1 H 

— m rf*~-*— --ST - *— ^jnff, 



Is -te. 



wa - ta si wi - ta ha. 



1312 
1313 
1314 
1315 
1316 



Ho-o-o! 

Ha! Iste wata si wita ha; 
Ha! Iste wata si wita ha; 
H'A-ars hire wahaki; 
Ha! Iste wata si wita ha. 



II 

1317 Ho-o-o! 

1318 We tire w T ata si wite ha; 

1319 We tire wata si wite ha; 

1320 He arste he ti waha'; 

1321 We tire wata si w T ite ha. 



264 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann.22 

Translation 



1312 Ho-o-o! An exclamation introductory to the song. 

1313 Ha! Iste wata si witajia. 

ha! an exclamation; behold! 

iste, } 7 ou (referring to the child). 

wata, look upward. 

si, they, refers to the powers above. 

wita, owner, refers to the child belonging to the power above. 

ha, part of the word meaning young, or child. 

1314 See line 1313, 

1315 H'A-ars, hire wahaki. 

h'A-ars, Father breathing forth life, 
hire, there, above, meaning Tira'wa. 

wahaki, heavens; " the heavens that are always there above 
the reach of the clouds." 

1316 See line 1313. 

II 

1317 Ho-o-o! An exclamation introductory to the song. 

1318 We tire wata si wite ha. 

we, he of she, meaning the child. 

tire, has, an action performed. 

wata, looked. 

si, they, refers to the powers above. 

wite, the true owner; refers to Tira'wa as the true owner of 
the child. 

ha, part of the word meaning young, child. 
1319' See line 1318. 
1320 He arste he ti waha. 

he, his or her, refers to the child. 

arste, a modified form of atius, father. 

he, his; refers to Tira'wa. 

ti, here, at the present time. 

waha, part of the word wahaki, the permanent heavens. 
1221 See line 1318. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

When the second stanza is sung the little child always stops crying 
and looks up. It responds to the presence of the mighty power. The 
song tells the child that it belongs to Tira'wa atius, the father of all, 
the giver of life, whose dwelling place is far above the clouds in the 
permanent heavens that never change. 

The child smiles and is comforted, 



fletcher] INCIDENTAL RITUALS 265 

PRAYER TO AVERT STORMS 

Explanation by the Ku' r alius 

We like to have the sky clear during the time this ceremony is 
taking- place. We do not like to have clouds come between us and 
the abode of Tira'wa atius, particularly storm clouds. We feel this 
way because we do not want anything to intercept the prayers of the 
Fathers or to hinder the descent of the help that we ask for the Chil- 
dren. If, however, clouds arise and a storm threatens, the Children 
may request this song to be sung, but the Fathers may not volunteer 
to sing it. 

After the request for the song has been made, the following cere- 
mony takes place: The Ku'rahus, with the Kawas feathered stem, his 
assistant with the white-eagle feathered stem, and the chief with the 
wildcat skin, in which are the crotched stick, the ear of corn, and the 
sacred pipe, rise from their seats at the west and pass oat of the lodge. 
When they are outside under the open sky, they face the gathering 
clouds and sing the first stanza four times. While the} T sing the song 
and wave the eagle stems to the rhythm of the music, the chief holds 
the cat skin up toward the storm clouds. He holds it the same way 
while we sing the second stanza four times. 

The words of these stanzas are few, but their meaning has come 
down to us with the story of the song. 

Long, long ago the woodpecker was told by Tira'wa that the light- 
ning would never strike the tree upon which it had built its nest. 
The four beings at the west who have control of the thunder and 
lightning would protect the bird, so that it need never fear the storm. 

The woodpecker which came to the man to whom this ceremony 
was revealed taught him this song and told him when to sihg it. He 
was to sing it only when the storm threatened; if he sang it at any 
other time he would bring rain and storm upon the people. 



266 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M.J =63. 

• — Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 



Bin 



4==2z=zd 



fcta= 



tzfc 



1=3=33=^ 



zstzrt: 



-3-" 



a?^i«; 



Ho-o-o-o! Ka-wa wok-ta-i, ka-wa wok-ta-i, ka-wa wok-ta-i, ka - wa wok-ta-i; 

A 



Drum, i m b » • fr _ • fr __ ' fr ^^^^ • • ' tr 

Battles. \J IS | * r " ' I *'"~~~ P | tr '~ f 



A 

5 



li^=3^ii^=^i^^^i3=3^B: 



-V-2- 



t*z.-«=*=*: 



H'A-ars si-i; Ka-wa wok-ta-i, ka-wa wok-ta-i; H'A-arssi-i. H'A ti-us si - i. 



A 



A 

• 



«r.« 



A A 

5 f'«r- 



A 



1322 Ho-o-o-o! 

1323 Kawa woktai, kawa woktai, kawa woktai. kawa woktai; 

1324 H'A-ars si-i; 

1325 Kawa woktai, kawa woktai; 

1326 H'A-ars si-i. 

II 

1327 Ho-o-o-o! 

1328 Ti wawaki-i, ti wawaki-i, ti wawaki-i, ti wawaki-i; 

1329 H'A-ars si-i; 

1330 Ti wawaki-i, ti wawaki-i; 

1331 H'Atius si-i. 

* Translation 



1322 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1323 Kawa woktai, kawa woktai, kawa woktai, kawa woktai. 

kawa; ka, part of katuharu, trees; wa, plural sign; kawa 

means thick or heavy timber, 
woktai; wok, sound or noise; tai, on trees. AVoktai, a sound 

made on the trees. The word refers to the tapping of 

the woodpecker upon the trees. 

1324 H'Aarssi-i. 

h', contraction of ha, behold. 

aars, a modified form of atius, father. 

si-i; si, your; i, vowel prolongation. 

1325 Kawa woktai, kawa woktai. See line 1323. 

1326 See line 1324. 

II 

1327 Ho-o-o-o ! An introductory exclamation. 

1328 Ti wawaki-i, ti wawaki-i, ti wawaki-i, ti wawaki-i. 

ti, they; refers to the powers. 

wawaki-i; waki, speak; wa, plural sign; final i, vowel pro- 
longation. Wawaki-i, many are speaking. 

1329 See line 1324. 

1330 Ti wawkai-i, ti wawaki-i. See line 1328. 

1331 H'Atius si-i. See line 1324. 



fletcher] INCIDENTAL RITUALS 267 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

In the first stanza we call upon the woodpecker, who is busy mak- 
ing a noise, tapping upon the trees in the thick woods, and we ask him 
to remind his father of the promise that the storm should not come 
near his nest. 

The woodpecker is with us on the stem, and the storm is uoav 
threatening our nest, the lodge where we are holding the ceremony, 
so we call on him, the woodpecker, and ask him to remind his father 
of the promise given. 

The second stanza tells us that the four beings at the west speak, 
for when the thunders sound they all speak. These now answer the 
woodpecker, who has reminded them of their promise when Tira'wa 
atius, the father of all things, placed the bird and its nest under their 
protection. 

If, after we have sung these stanzas, the clouds part, we know that 
our prayers have been heard. We all return to the lodge, and the 
wildcat skin is spread upon the holy place at the west, the crotched 
stick is put in position, the eagle stems and all the other articles are 
laid at ceremonial rest. AVhen this has been done the chief takes the 
sacred pipe and, accompanied by the priest of the shrine containing the 
objects sacred to the powers of the rain, goes out and makes an offer- 
ing of smoke. The priest directs the chief where to point the pipe- 
stem. By this act of offering smoke we give thanks to the powers, 
who have heard our prayers and averted the storm. 

PRAYER FOR THE GIFT OF CHILDREIs 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

This ceremony is very old and has now become obsolete. It is a 
prayer for the power of procreation. It was never performed except 
at the request of the Son, and was only in the interest of a man to 
whom children had not been born. It took place either in the early 
morning or at night, never during the day. 

AVhen the request for the ceremon} 7 had been made, the Ku'rahus 
selected a man from among the Fathers whose duty it became to carry 
the Son and to care for him as a father would care for a little child. 

A white buffalo robe was kept for this particular ceremony. After 
the Son had been lifted on the back of the Father, this white robe 
was thrown over the two and was held together in front by the Father, 
as a person would hold his robe if he were carrying a child on his 
back. As the Father, carrying the Son, moved toward the entrance of 
the lodge, he was followed by the Ku'rahus and his assistant bearing 
the feathered stems and the chief with the cat skin and the ear of 
corn, while the following song was sung. 

The words are: "Behold! Your father is walking with his child!" 



268 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEEEMONY 



[ktii. Ann. 22 



FIRST SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. j = 56. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 






:S=J- 



3=ra= 



IIo-o-o-o! 



Drum. £ 

Matties, l, 



A 

; c_r 



I - ha- ri ha! 

A A A 



H' ars si re - ra - ta 



9 -0 ^■— ' • • • 



ha-ri 



A 



» m 






*=i: 



-=i- 



ha! IT' ars si re - ra - ta; 

? r I r t t 



:S=g: 



Life- 



:qzzz]?c 



1t=x=±z5: 



I - hi 



i- ri 



ha! 



r r * 



? r'r 



' — *— S- 

IP ars si re - ra - ta. 

Si 11 i 



1332 Ho-o-o-o! 

1333 Iha'ri ha! IP ars si rerata; 

1334 Iha'ri ha! H'ars si rerata; 

1335 Iha'ri ha! H'ars si rerata. 

Translation 

1332 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 

1333 Iha'ri ha! H'ars si rerata. 

iha'ri, a term for offspring or young; refers here to the Son. 
ha! benold! 

h', an abbreviation of ha, your, 
ars, an abbreviation of atius, father. 
si, refers to iha'ri, in this instance the Son. 
rerata, walking with. 
1334, 1335 See line 1333. 

* Explanation by the Ka 'r alius 

When the Father, with the Son on his back, and the Ku'rahus and 
his associates had reached the open air and had gone a little distance 
from the lodge, the Son was taken from the back of the Father. All 
were now standing under the sky where they could be seen by the 
powers. The Son represented a little helpless child — the child that 
he desired the powers to give to him. 

As the following song was sung the Father undressed the Son as he 
would a little child, and while he did so the Son prayed for the gift 
of children. 



FLETCHER] 



INCIDENTAL EITUALS 



269 



SECOND SONG 

Words and Music 



M. M. j - 66. 

• — Pulsation of the voice. 
No drum. 



q 



Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy 

^3~ 



Ho-o-o-o-o! 



Rattles. F tr.~ 



O - ha- i - \va i - ri o - ha - i - wa; 

A 



*E*Eifc^=afc 



O - ha-i - wa 



A 

f tr. 




* -3- 



o 



ha 



wa. 



1336 Ho-o-o-o-o! 

1337 Ohaiwa iri ohaiwa; 

1338 Ohaiwa iri ohaiwa; 

1339 Ohaiwa iri ohaiwa. 



II 

1340 Ho-o-o-o-o! 

1341 Okariwa iri okariwa: 

1342 Okariwa iri okariwa; 

1343 Okariwa iri okariwa. 



Translation 



1336 Ho-o-o-o-o! An exclamation introductory to the song. 

1337 Ohaiwa iri ohaiwa. 

ohaiwa, a composite word; the o is taken from okiwausu, 
foam; hai is from haiwa, floating; wa is a part of nawa, 
now. 

iri, an expression of thankfulness. 

ohaiwa, translated above. 
1338, 1339 See line 1337. 

Ii 

1 34() ] lo-oo-o-o ! An exclamation introductory to the song. 
1341 Okariwa iri okariwa. 

okariwa, a composite word; oka, breechcloth; kari, male 
organ (the syllable ka is common to the first and second 
word); wa, from rakura, to take oft". 
iri, an expression of thankfulness. 
okariwa, translated above. 
1342, L343 See line 1341. 



270 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



THIRD SONG 



M. M. J=126. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. 
No drum. 



Words and Music 

Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 






Ho-o-o-o! 



Battles. ? tr. 



1 1 -H -J 1 ^ 



^E^=f=^g^^=3F 



O - ha - i - wa, c - ha - i - wa, na - wa ho 



ha 



A 

P tr.. 



\t—^? 



=C 



=C 



-*- 



3t±b=*: 



:=pc 



1 



- wa; O - ha - i 

A 

" tr. 



wa 



na 



wa 



ho - ' ha - i 



wa. 



A 




1344 Ho-o-o-o! 

1 345 Ohai wa , ohai wa , na wa hohai wa : 

1346 Ohaiwa nawa hohai wa. 



II 

1347 Ho-o-o-o! 

1348 Okariwa iri okariwa okariwa; 

1349 Okariwa iri okariwa. 



Translation 

I 

1344 Ho-o-o-o! An exclamation introductory to the song. 

1345 Ohaiwa, ohaiwa, nawa hohaiwa. 

ohaiwa, floating foam. See line 1337. 
nawa, now. 
hohaiwa, to urinate. 

1346 Ohaiwa nawa hohaiwa. See line 1345. 

II 

1347 Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation 

1348 Okariwa iri okariwa okariwa. 

okariwa, a composite word, translated in line 1341. 
iri, an expression of thankfulness, 
okariwa. See line 1341. 

1349 Okariwa iri okariwa. See line 1341. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

During the singing of the first stanza (third song) the Son obeyed, 
as a child would do, the directions given him by the Father. 

As the second stanza was sung the Father reclothed the Son as he 
would a little child. The Son was then taken again on the back of 
the Father to be carried to the lodge. 



FLETCHER] 



INCIDENTAL RITUALS 



271 



FOURTH SONG 

Words and Music 

M. M. ^ = 132. 

• = Pulsation of the voice. Transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy. 

No drum. 



l§*i=i=l^=E 



^r 






*=^ 



=r 



S= 



Ho-o-o-o! Ha -a! Ra - i ha! ha! ra - i ha! ra - a; Hi - ra ra - i 



Rattles, ft 



/*.« 



A 



tr. 



A 

Ptr* 



:S—t=X 



1*=^ 



ha! ra - a: 



Ha - a! Ra - i ha! ha! ra - i 



ha! ra - a. 



A 



I II 

1350 Ho-o-o-o! 1354 Ho-o-o-o! 

1351 Ha-a! Rai ha! ha! rai ha! ra-a; 1355 Ho-okai ha! hokai ha: ka-a; 

1352 Hira rai ha! ra-a; 1356 Werawane ha! ka-a: 

1353 Ha-a! Rai ha! ha! rai ha! ra-a. 1357 Ho-okai ha! hokai ha! ka-a. 

Translation 



1350 
1351 



1352 



1353 



1354 
1355 



Ho-o-o-o! An exclamation introductory to the song. 
Ha-a ! Rai ha ! ha ! rai ha ! ra-a. 

ha-a! ha! behold! a, a vowel prolongation to carry the voice. 

rai, coming. 

ha! ha! behold! 

rai, coming. 

ha! behold! 

ra-a; ra, a part of the word rai, coming; a, vowel prolonga- 
tion. 
Hira rai ha ! ra-a ; 

hira, he coming. 

rai, coming. 

ha! behold! 

ra-a, a part of the word meaning coming. 
See line 1351. 

II 

Ho-o-o-o! An introductory exclamation. 
Ho-okai ha! hokai ha! ka-a. 

ho-okai; hokai, to enter; the vowel o is prolonged to carry 
the voice while singing. 

ha! behold! 

hokai, to enter, or entering. 

ha! behold! 

ka-a, a part of the word hokai, entering. 



272 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

L356 Werawane ha! ka-a. 

werawane, spreading out the arms. 

ha ! behold ! 

ka-a, part of the word hokai, entering. 
L357 See line 1355. 

Explanation by the Ku'rahus 

As i lie Father and the Son, wrapped in the white robe, turned toward 
the lodge, the Ku'rahus* and his associates followed, and as they 
walked they sang the first stanza. 

The words are, "Behold! He is coming! The Son is coming! ' 
At the door of the lodge they sang (second stanza), "Behold ! He is 
entering!' With the word "werawane," the Father spread out his 
arms, loosening the white robe, but still holding it by the edges, while 
the Son slipped to the ground and returned to his place in the lodge, 
the place he had left at the beginning of the ceremony. 

CHANGING A MAN'S NAME 

Explanation by the JZu'rahus 

If any man of the Son's party had achieved success in war, and nis 
achievements had been acknowledged by the people, he could request 
the Son to have*the ceremony of changing his name performed. 

This act could take place in the afternoon of the fourth day. The 
Son would make the request known to the Father, the chief, who 
passed it on to the Ku'rahus. 

If the Hako ceremony was held in an earth lodge, the Ku'rahus, 
accompanied by the Father and the Son, went outside and ascended 
the roof ; there, standing before the people gathered below, the Ku'rahus 
recited in a loud voice the ritual used when changing a man's name. 

If the Hako ceremony had been held in a tent, a semicircular inclo- 
sure was made with saplings and there, under the open sky, in the 
presence of all the people, the ritual was given and the name was 
changed. 

Pair nee Text 

1358 Hiri! Waku'raruta sliaru witi rarawa-a kiru sharn reru ki ^awi rahwi'- 
rahriso tira kahho ri'wiri. 

L359 Hiri! Raru ki'tawi rahwi'rahriso rao ti shira rutu'rahwitz pari usa'ru 
i re. 

1360 Hiri! Raru ki'tawi rahwi'rahriso rao ti shire ra ki'tawa usa'ru. 

1361 Hiri! Riru'tziraru: rasa ruxsa pakara'ra witz pari; hiri! ti'ruta; hiri! 

ti'rakuse tararawa hut, tiri. 
18(52 Hiri! Riru'tziraru; rasa ruxsa pakara'ra witz pari; hiri! ti'ruta; hiri! 

Tira wa, ha! tiri. 
1363 Hiri! Riru'tziraru; sira waku ri'kata iwa'hut; hiri! ti'ruta; hiri! tira use 

tirarawa'hut, tiri. 



ft.etcher] INCIDENTAL RITUALS 273 

1364 Hiri! Riru tziraru; sirawaku rari'sut: hiri! ti'ruta; hiri! Tira'wa, ha! tiri. 

1365 Hiri! Riru tziraru; Rarari tu, kata wi'tixsutta. 

Raki'ris taka'ta wi'tixsutta. 

Raki'ris tarukux pa, raru'tura tuka wiut tari. 

1366 Hiri! Riru' tziraru; ruri Papapi'chus taka wi'tixsutta. 

Ruri Papapi'chus tarukux'pa raru'tura tuka' wiut tari. 
136T Hiri! Riru'tziraru; ruchix kuso'ho riraka'ta kivx'sata. Kaha'riwisiri, ku 
katit tiki; kaha'riwisiri, ku paha'ti tiki; kaha'riwisiri, ku raka'ta tiki; 
kaha'riwisiri, ku taka tiki. 

1368 Hiri! Riru tziraru: sira sura waurux para, raru'tura tuka' wiut tari. 

1369 Rawa! Hawa urasharu we tatki wati. 

1370 Hiri! Tatux tapakiaho, hawa, Rarutska'tit! Hiri! Raro rikcha ro re. 

1371 Hiri! Wakoru ratora pake'usto. 

1372 Hiri! Akitaro hiwa werataweko. 

1373 Hiri! Shaku'ru Wa'rukste, Hiriwa witi rakawa'karu ko re. 

Translation 

135b hiri! an exclamation, harken! give heed! 

waku'raruta, it came to pass a long time ago. 

sham, part of u'rasha'ru, name. 

witi, the} 7 . 

rarawa-a, discarded, had done with, threw away. 

kirn, ancient. 

sham, from kussharu, a certain place known only by tradition. 

rem, it came about, or it was. 

ki'tawi, from ki, through, and ta'wi, them. 

rahwi'rahriso, a title. This title was bestowed through certain 
ceremonies connected with one of the shrines. The man 
who had received this title was qualified to act as a leader, 
to have charge of a war expedition. ^ 

tira, they. 

kahho, a wide expanse ; kali conveys the picture that this expanse 
is spanned, as by a roof; ho suggests an inclosed space, as a 
dwelling; kahho calls up the idea that the earth is a vast 
abode, roofed by the heavens, where dwell the powers. 

ri'wiri, walking; the persons spoken of as walking are not pres- 
ent. Rara'wari is to travel, walking, like warriors, and the 
word in the text refers to such walking, to the rahwi'rah- 
riso and the men under his leadership walking the wide 
earth beneath the arching sky. 
1350 hiri! harken! give heed! 

ram, a company, or a number of persons. 

ki'tawi, through them. See same word in line 1358. 

rahwi'rahriso, the leader. See translation in line 1358. 

ra'o, a victory song. This class of songs could be composed 
and sung for the first time by a leader. They might 
afterward be sung by his followers and by other persons. 

ti, part of tira, they. 
22 eth— pt 2—04 18 



274 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

shim, from shire'ra, brought. r rhe re is eliminated for euphony. 

rutu'rahwitz, overtake. 

pari, walking; singular number, present tense. 

usa'ru, a place wherein an event took place or something 
occurred. Both the locality and the occurrence are known 
only by tradition and the tradition is preserved in song. 

i re, singing vocables. 

1360 hiri! harken. 

ra'ru, a number of persons. The word as here used refers both 
to the leader and his men and to the people of their village. 

ki'tawi, through them. The word has here a double reference 
similar to the preceding one. 

rahwi'rahriso, the leader. 

rao, victory song. 

ti, they. An abbreviated form of tira, they. 

shire'ra, brought. 

ki'tawa, from kit, the top; ta, coming; wa, part of waku, hill. 
Ki'tawa conveys the picture of the returning men singing 
their victory song as they reach the top of the hill near 
their village. 

usa'ru; the word here means that the victory song commemo- 
rated the event at the time when the leader instituted the 
custom of changing the name. 

1361 hiri! harken! 

riru'tziraru, by reason of, by means of, because of. The word 
has a wide significance and force throughout the ritual. 

rasa, the man stood. 

nixsa, he said or did. 

pakara'ra, a loud call or chant, sending the voice to a great 
i distance. 

witz, from tawitz'sa, to reach or arrive. 

pari, traveling. These five words tell of a religious rite per- 
formed by the leader. The first two refer to his going to 
a solitary place to fast and pray, seeking help and favor 
from the powers above; the last three describe his voice, 
bearing his petition, traveling on and on, striving to reach 
the abode of Tira'wa. 

hiri! harken! a call for reverent attention. 

ti'ruta, special or assigned places, referring to the places where 
the lesser powers dwell, these having been assigned b} 7 
Tira'wa atius, the father of all. 

hiri! harken! a call for reverent attention. 

ti'rakiise, sitting; present tense, plural number. 

tararawa'hut, the sky or heavens. It implies a circle, a great 
distance, and the dwelling place of the lesser powers, 
those which can come near to man and be seen or heard 
or felt by him. 



Fletcher] INCIDENTAL EITUALS 275 

tiri, above, up there, as if the locality were designated by 
pointing upward. 
13(32 hiri! harken! 

riru'tziraru, by reason of, because of. 

rasa, the man stood. 

riixsa, did. 

pakara'ra, send voice to a distance. 

witz. reached. 

pari, traveling. 

hiri! harken! a call for reverent attention. 

ti'ruta, the abodes of the lesser powers. 

hiri! harken! a call for reverent attention. 

Tira'wa, Tira'wa atius, the father of all. 

ha! an exclamation of awe. 

tiri, above all ; refers to Tira'wa atius being above all the powers. 
1363 hiri! harken! 

riru'tziraru, by reason of. 

sira, thev took. 

waku, they said. 

ri'kata, received. 

iwa'hut, from iwa, to hand over or pass on to the one next, 
^and tira'wahut, the circle above where the lesser powers 
are. Iwa'hut means handed or passed around the circle. 

hiri ! harken ! a call for reverent attention. 

ti'ruta, abodes of the lesser powers. 

hiri ! harken ! a call for reverent attention. 

ti'rakuse, sitting. 

tirarawa'hut, the circle above of the lesser powers. 

tiri, ud above. — 

1304 hiri! harken! 

riru'tziraru, because of, by reason of. 

sira, they took. 

waku, they said. 

rari'sut, gave consent, granted. 

hiri! harken! a call for reverent attention. 

ti'ruta, abodes of the lesser powers. 

hiri! harken! a call for reverent attention. 

Tira'wa, Tira'wa atius, the father of all. 

ha! an exclamation of awe. 

tiri, above all. 
1365 hiri! harken! 

riru'tziraru, by reason of, in consequence of. 

Rarari'tu, an old term for Winds. It also means heavy storm 
clouds. Rari'tu, a cyclone. The word in the text has a 
double significance. It stands for the Winds, the lesser 
power, and for the summoning by this lesser power, the 
Winds, of the storm clouds, their messengers in the west. 



276 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 23 

kata, rising up, climbing up. 

wi'tixsutta, reached there (whence the summons came). 

Raki'ris, Thunders, plural form. 

taka'ta, ascending, advancing. 

wi'tixsutta, reached a given place. 

Raki'ris, Thunders. . 

tarukux'pa, an action concluded. 

raru'tura, from raru, at that, and tura, ground. The word 
means that at the conclusion of the action (here under- 
stood) they, the Thunders, descended to the earth. 

tuka'wiut, slantwise. 

tari, the end of a mission or an action. 

1366 hiri! harken! 

riru'tziraru, by means of, or by the agency of. 

ruri, at that time. 

Papapi'chus, Lightning; papa, zigzag; pichus, darting, flashing. 

taka, within, inclosed. 

wi'tixsutta, reached there. 

ruri, at that time. 

Papapi'chus, Lightning. 

tarukux'pa, an action concluded. 

raru'tura, and then they descended to earth. See translation 

of this word in line 1365. 
tuka'wiut, slantwise, 
tari, the end of their mission. 

1367 hiri! harken! 

riru'tziraru, by means of, by reason of. 

ruchix, they did. 

kuso'ho, flock. 

riraka'ta, in front of. 

kux'sata, from side to side, as when ranging a path. 

kaha'riwisiri, swallows. 

ku, breast. 

katit, black. 

tiki, they were. 

kaha'riwisiri, swallows. 

ku, breast. 

paha'ti, red. - 

tiki, they were. 

kaha'riwisiri, swallows. 

ku, breast. 

raka'ta, vellow. 

tiki, they were. 

kaha'riwisiri, swallows. 

ku, breast. 

taka, white. 

tiki, they were. 



Fletcher] INCIDENTAL RITUALS 277 

1368 hiri! harken. 

riru'tziraru, by reason of, because of. 

sira, they took; refers to the leader and to the men who 

followed and depended on him. 
sura, possess; to become one's own. 
waurux', grasped, as a staff, 
para, walked. 

raru'tura, refers to that which descended to earth, 
tuka'wiut, slantwise, 
tari, end, or accomplished mission. 

1369 rawa! attend! a call for attention at the moment, 
hawa, once more. 

urasharu, name. 

we, I. 

tatki'wati, change. 

1370 hiri! harken! 
tatux, we used to.. 
tapakiaho, speak of him. 
hawa, once more. 

Rarutska'tit, the former name, meaning black-feathered arrow, 
hiri Miarken! 



raro, owner. 



rikcha, lying. These words refer to the achievement com- 
memorated by the name about to be thrown away, 
ro re, vocables used for euphony and measure. 

1371 hiri! harken! 
wakoru, now we are. 

ratora, all people. — 

pake 'listo, speak out and say. 

1372 hiri! harken! 
akitaro, tribe, 
hiwa, in the. 
werataweko, prom inent. 

1373 hiri! harken! 

Shaku'ru Wa'rukste, the new name now announced (''Sacred 

Sun"), 
hiriwa, in the process of making. 
witi, himself, 
rakawa'karu, what he is. 
ko re, vocables used for euphony and measure. 

Closing Remarks of the Ku'r alius 

During the days I have been talking with you (the writer) I have 
been carried back in thought to the time when Estamaza (the father 
of Francis LaFlesche) came to the Chaui. I met him in this cere- 
mony; he whs the Father, and as I have worked here day and night, 



278 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

my heart has gone out to you. I have done what has never been 
done before, I have given you all the songs of this ceremony and 
explained them to you. I never thought that I, of all my people, 
should be the one to give this ancient ceremony to be preserved, and 
I wonder over it as I sit here, 

I think over my long life with its many experiences; of the great 
number of Pawnees who have been with me in war, nearly all of 
whom have been killed in battle. I have been severely wounded 
many times — see this scar over my eye. I was with those who went 
to the Rock}' Mountains to the Cheyennes, when so many soldiers 
were slain that their dead bodies lying there looked like a great blue 
blanket spread over the ground. When I think of all the people of 
my own tribe who have died during my lifetime and then of those in 
other tribes that have fallen by our hands, they are so many they make 
a vast cover over Mother Earth. I once walked with these prostrate 
forms. I did not fall but I passed on, wounded sometimes but not to 
death, until I am here to-day doing this thing, singing these sacred 
songs into that great pipe (the graphophone) and telling you of these 
ancient rites of my people. It must be that I have been preserved 
for this purpose, otherwise 1 'should be lying back there among the 
dead. 



ANALYTICAL RECAPITULATION 

ORIGIN AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF THE 

CEREMONY 

Where the Hako ceremony originated and through how many gen- 
erations it has come down to the present time it may be impossible 
ever to determine. Even a partial knowledge of its geographic dis- 
tribution upon our continent would demand an archeologic and 
historical research too extended to be attempted at this time. How- 
ever, a few facts may be stated. 

From the Journal of Marquette, giving an account of his voyage of 
discovery in 1672, it is learned that the sacred symbols, the feathered 
stems, were held in honor by tribes belonging to the Algonquian, 
Siouan, and Caddoan linguistic stocks dwelling in the Mississippi 
valley from the Wisconsin to the Arkansas. 

Marquette calls the feathered stem a "calumet" and his descrip- 
tion of its ceremony, which he saw among the Illinois, due allowance 
being made for his lack of intimate acquaintance with native religious 
customs, indicates that the ceremony as he saw it over two hundred 
years ago in a tribe that no longer exists differs little from the same 
ceremony as observed within the last twenty years in the Omaha tribe. 
He sa} T s of this "calumet" that it is "the most mysterious thing in the 
world. The scepters of our kings are not so much respected, for the 
Indians have such a reverence for it that one may call it the god of 
peace and war, and the arbiter of life and death. . . . One with 
this calumet may venture among his enemies, and in the hottest battles 
they lay down their arms before the sacred pipe. The Illinois presented 
me with one of them which was very useful to us in our voyage." 

That the feathered stem was recognized over so large a part of the 
great Mississippi valley and among so many tribes differing in lan- 
guage and customs indicates considerable antiquit} T for its rites, as 
much time would have been required for so wide an acceptance and 
practice of the ceremony. 

As observed among the Pawnees, there is evidence not only that 
the ceremony is old, but that it has been built upon still older founda- 
tions, and has been modified in the process of time to adapt it to 
changed conditions of environment. For example, the substitution 
of the buffalo for the deer and the transference of songs, as that 
formally sung to the mesa while on the journey, which is now sumj - 



within the lodge. 



279 



2 SO THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

The leadership accorded to the corn indicates that an earlier form 
of the ceremony is to be sought among a people dependent upon agri- 
culture, and the peculiar treatment of water would seem to have arisen 
in a semi-arid region. Again, the development in the purpose of the 
ceremony from the simple longing for offspring to the larger desire of 
establishing intertribal relationships was most likely to have taken 
place among peoples whose settled mode of life had fostered an appre- 
ciation of the benefits to be derived from peace and security. 

Efforts to spread this ceremony among tribes less sedentary than 
those of the Mexican plateau and the Southwest may, on the one 
hand, have been prompted by prudential reasons, while on the other 
hand its adoption and promulgation over the wide territory occupied 
by the so-called hunting tribes marks the growth of political ideas 
and gives a higher place to these tribes in the line of social develop- 
ment than has usually been accorded them. 

PURPOSE OF THE CEREMONY 

The purpose of this ceremony was twofold: first, to benefit cer- 
tain individuals by bringing to them the promise of children, long 
life, and plenty; second, to affect the social relations of those who 
took part in it, by establishing a bond between two distinct groups of 
persons, belonging to different clans, gentes, or tribes, which was to 
insure between them friendship and peace. 

In every tribe where the ceremony was known this twofold pur- 
pose was recognized, and by no tribal variation in the details of the 
rite was it lost sight of or obscured. 

From a study of this ceremony it seems probable that its original 
instigation was a desire for offspring, that the clan or kinship group 
might increase in number and strength and be perpetuated through 
the continuous birth of children. 

The ceremonial forms here used to express this desire were undoubt- 
edly borrowed from earlier ceremonies through which the people had 
been familiarized with certain symbols and rites representing the 
creative powers. Thus, the male and female cosmic forces, symbol- 
ized in greater or less detail by day and night, sun and moon, the 
heavens and the earth, are found in the Hako ceremony. 

The eagle and the ear of corn also represent in general the male 
and female forces, but each is specialized in a manner peculiar to 
these rites. There are two eagles; the white, representing the male, 
the father, the defender; and the brown, representing the female, the 
mother, the nestmaker (see pages 288, 280). In the treatment of these 
eagles the dual forces are still further represented. The feathers of the 
white or male eagle are hung upon a stem painted green to symbolize 
the earth, the female principle ; while those of the brown or female eagle 
are hung upon the stem painted blue to symbolize the heavens, the 



pletcher] PURPOSE OF THE CEREMONY 281 

male principle. The same treatment of the corn is observed. The 
ear of corn, which is born of Mother Earth, is symbolically painted to 
represent a living contact with the heavens. 

These symbolic articles thus treated are peculiar to this ceremony 
and essential to its rites. They express with unmistakable clearness 
the original instigating desire for children. 

The second purpose of this ceremony, that of establishing a bond 
between two distinct groups of persons belonging to different clans, 
gentes, or tribes, which should insure between them friendship and 
peace, was probably an outgrowth of the first purpose and may have 
been based upon tribal experience in the practice of exogamy. 

In a tribe composed of clans or gentes, where exogamy prevailed, 
two factors tended to promote peace and security among the people, 
nameh r , children born to parents representing two distinct political 
groups, and rites which recognized a common dependence upon the 
supernatural and were obligatory upon all. 

With the growth of social ideas the thought seems to have arisen 
that ties might be made between two tribes differing from and even 
competing with each other, through a device which should simulate 
those influences which had proved so effective within the tribe. The 
Father, representing one tribe, was the incentive force; he inaugu- 
rated the TIako party. The tie was made by a ceremony in which 
the feminine principle, represented by the corn and Kawas, was the 
dominant factor. Through this mother element life was given and 
a bond was established between the Father and a Son of another tribe. 
It is remarkable how close to the model this device of an artificial tie 
has been made to correspond. 

Apart from the social and religious significance of the cer§monj r , it 
became a means of exchange of commodities between tribes. The 
garments, regalia, and other presents brought by the Fathers to the 
Children were taken by the latter to some other tribe, when they in 
turn became the Fathers. Thus manufactures peculiar to one tribe 
were often spread over a wide territory, and the handicraft of one 
region became known to different sections of the country. 

STRUCTURE OF THE CEREMOXY 

The perpetuation and distribution of a ceremony is dependent upon 
its structure, its symbolism, and its purpose. Its parts must be so 
coordinated as to make it possible to keep the rite intact during oral 
transmission, while its symbolism must appeal to common beliefs and 
its purpose to common desires. 

Examining the ceremony of the Ilako, we find it to possess these 
requisites. Its purpose awoke a response in every human heart, its 
symbolism appealed to the people wherever corn ripened and eagles 
flew; and though its structure was elaborate, it was built upon a sim- 



282 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 23 

pie plan. It is made up of many rituals, each complete in itself, but 
all so related to each other as to form an unbroken sequence from the 
beginning of the rites to their end. Each ritual contains one general 
thought, which is elaborated by songs and attendant acts. These 
songs and acts are so closely related to the central thought that one 
helps to keep the other in mind; moreover, the thought embodied in one 
ritual leads so directly to the thought contained in the next that they 
form a sequence that, in the mind of the Pawnee, can not logically be 
broken, and thus the preservation of the entirety of the ceremony is 
insured. 

The compact structure of the Hako ceremony bears testimony to the 
mental grasp of the people who formulated it. As we note the balanc- 
ing of the various parts, and the steady progression from the open- 
ing song of the first ritual to the closing prayer in the twentieth, and 
recall the fact that the ceremony was constructed without the steady- 
ing force of the written record, we are impressed, on the one hand, by 
the intellectual power displayed in the construction, and, on the other, 
by the sharply defined beliefs fundamental to the ceremony. 

RHYTHMIC EXPRESSION IN THE CEREMONY 

When we examine the songs which accompany every ceremonial act 
we find that the, thought to be expressed has determined the rhythm, 
which, in its turn, has controlled both words and music and fixed as 
well the time or duration of the notes. The unit of time is marked 
by pulsations of the voice or by drum beats, and the words are found 
bent by elisions or stretched by added vocables to make them con- 
form to the musical measure. 

Rhythm dominates the rendition, which is always exact, no 
liberties being taken for the purpose of musical expression, in our 
sense of the term. Any such treatment would so blur the song to the 
native ear as to destroy its character. A further use of rhy T thm is 
manifest in the number of the musical phrases and stanzas. These 
are found to correspond to the number of ceremonial motions used to 
indicate the powers which are being addressed. By close examina- 
tion this peculiarity will be apparent, but in order to facilitate an 
understanding the words of each musical phrase have been printed 
as a separate line, so that the eye can easily catch the rhythmic form. 
As a further help, a diagram has been prepared to show the relative 
time values of notes, the exceptional accents, and the voice pulsations 
of each musical phrase. To illustrate, take the first song: 



I 



fletcher] RHYTHM IN THE CEREMONY 283 

The unit of time is au eighth note, represented by a short dash, -; 
a quarter note is represented by a longer dash, two beats, — ; a three- 
eighths note by a still longer dash, three beats, , and so on. The 

dots indicate the number of voice pulsations given to a tone while it 
is held. Where there is emphasis it is marked on the diagram by 
the accent sign '. 

A rhythmic rendition, which aims not only to convey the literal 
meaning but to embody the elucidations of the Ku'rahus as well, has 
been made. Its words have been so chosen that the lines shall con- 
form to the rhythm of the corresponding phrases of the song. This 
rendition is for the purpose of presenting to the eye and the ear of 
the English reader the song as it appeals to the Pawnee who has been 
instructed in the rite. 

The variety of rhythmic forms in the songs of the rituals offers 
interesting material for the study of the relation of the musical 
phrase to the development of metrical language. The movements 
which accompany each song and act of the ceremony give further 
testimony to the fundamental character of rhythm. 

In the following analysis the scheme of the ceremony will be closely 
observed. 

THE PREPARATION 

First Division. Initial Rites 
first ritual. making the hako 

Part I. Invoking the Powers 

The ceremony of the Hako, we are told by the Ku'rahus, is a prayer 
for offspring. It opens with a song which recalls the creation of man, 
the gifts bestowed on him by Tira'wa atius through the powers, and 
the establishment of rites by which he can appeal to the powers. 
The content of the song prefigures the fulfilment of man's desire for 
the reproduction of his life, and the orderly approach by which lie 
should make his desire known. Such a prefiguring seems to be essen- 
tial at the opening of a ceremony to give it a supernatural warrant. 

The preparation of the Hako constitutes the opening ritual, the 
first song of which is an appeal to the lesser powers in the order of 
their coming near to man from the holy place, Awahokshu (first song, 
line 4). They are said to descend by the four paths at the four car- 
dinal points (line 9), and the ceremonial motions indicating these 
quarters are an indirect way of mentioning the powers. Each stanza 
of the appeal, falling into four musical phrases, suggests this four- 
fold symbol. 

The appeal is in the form of a Litany, each stanza beginning with a 
call to "give heed," and closing with the response that heed has been 
given. The climax in both words and music is reached in the third 
phrase, which is a direct invocation of one of the powers. 



284 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [kth. ann. 22 

Iii this song we meet exclamations characteristic of many others of 
the ceremony. These exclamations express the emotions evoked in 
the progress of the appeal. Few words are used, their iteration mak- 
ing the memorizing of the song easier than if the emotion had been 
fully elaborated in many different words. This apparent poverty of 
expression, which ma} 7 in part be accounted for by the necessity of 
oral transmission, has not prevented metrical forms throughout the 
ceremony; with one exception, the songs are rhythmic. In the pres- 
ent instance the repetition of the exclamation I'hare! extended 
through the musical phrase by the echoing of its syllables, conveys 
even to the eye of a stranger the meaning as given by the Ku'rahus 
in his explanation of line 2. "The repetition of the word as we sing 
I'hare, 'hare, 'aheo indicates that our minds are dwelling upon the 
subject brought to our attention." 

This opening song is in two parts. One refers to the powers, the 
other to the inauguration of rites through which man can turn toward 
these powers. 

Six stanzas belong to the first part, suggesting the six symbolic 
motions, indicating the four directions, the above, and the below. 
The first stanza is an appeal to'Tira'wa; its form is noteworthy when 
viewed in connection with the opening stanza of the second part. 
Tira'wa is not addressed directly, but the mind is turned to his place 
of abode, Awahokshu, as to a definite locality where prayer should 
be sent, whence help may come. The fixing of the mind upon a holy 
place serves as a precedent for the establishment of a holy place, 
Kusharu (stanza vn), where man is to think of Tira'wa, and where 
rites in accordance with his thought are to be performed. The 
order in which the powers are addressed in these first six stanzas 
reveals something of the Pawnee's idea of man's relation to the super- 
natural. First, the holy place, the abode of Tira'wa, the father of all, 
is addressed; second, Hoturu, the invisible AVind, the bearer or giver 
of breath; third, Chakaru, the Sun, the father of strength; fourth, 
li'Uraru, the Earth, the mother, the conserver of life ; fifth, Toharu, 
Vegetation, the giver of food; sixth, Chaharu, Water, the giver of 
drink. 

Starting from the abode of the central power, Tira'wa, designated 
in the first stanza, the lesser powers bring to man first breath, next 
vitality or strength, then the ability to conserve and use that strength, 
and, finally, they give him food and drink to sustain his life. The 
physical man stands forth in these first six stanzas as the result of 
the gifts of the powers. 

The second part of the song is in seven stanzas. The number sug- 
gests the seven symbolic motions, indicating the four directions, the 
above, the below, and the center, the ego. 

The first stanza of the second part (vii) calls the people to "give 
heed " to Kusharu, the place set apart for sacred purposes. Concern- 



Fletcher] FIRST RITUAL, PART I 285 

ing this the Ku'rahus says: "The first act of a man must be to set 
apart a place that can be made holy and consecrated to Tira'wa, a 
place where a man can be quiet and think about the mighty power." 
As the first part opens with the mention of Awahokshu, the hoi} 7 
place, the abode of Tira'wa, whence life is given to men by the inter- 
mediary powers, so the second part begins by indicating that man 
should set apart a holy place whence his thoughts can ascend to the 
powers which gave him life. The fixing of the sacred place made 
a center from which man's daily life could be set in order, and made 
the inauguration of rites possible — rites which served as a common 
bond to hold the community together. In the next stanza (vm) the 
term h'Akaru is used. II' is the sign of breath, of the giving of life; 
akaru is a modification of akaro, a dwelling place. The change 
from ro to ru indicates that the word is typical rather than special. 
h'Akaru conveys the idea of an abode of life, a place where life (h', 
breath) can be received. The progression noted in the first part 
is here recalled; the power first mentioned after the holy place, 
Awahokshu, was Hotoru, the Wind, the giver of breath. The next 
stanza (ix) speaks of Keharu, an inclosure, the actual dwelling to be 
erected for the protection of life. Keharu seems to correspond to the 
male element which, in the first part, is represented by the Sun, the 
father, the giver of strength, and we find that throughout this cere- 
mony the position of the feathered stem, representing the male, is 
upon the outside, where it acts as guard and protector, a wall of 
defense to the interior of the lodge, with its fireplace, which represents 
the nest (see line 44). The fireplace, Kataharu, is next mentioned 
(x). This is the center, where the life within the lodge is conserved; 
it represents the female principle. This stanza corresponds to the 
fourth of the first part, where h'Uraru, Mother Earth, is invoked. " In 
the two following stanzas, Keharu, the glowing coals (xi), and Koritu, 
the flames, the word of the fire (xn), refer directly to the act of 
making fire by friction, a ceremony which seems to underlie most, if 
not all, aboriginal rites through which man appeals to the powers for 
the means of sustaining life, food, and drink (stanzas V and vi). 

The first six stanzas of the second part seem to be a reflex of the 
six composing the first part. In the first part physical life is created, 
in the second part psychical life is recognized. By the institution of 
rites a way is opened through which man turns toward the powers 
which created him. In the seventh stanza of the second part (xin), 
the passageway is spoken of. This passageway represents the ego, 
the path wherein man passes to and fro as he lives his individual and 
communal life. 

The structure of this song is notable when taken by itself, but it 
becomes more remarkable when the scope of the ceremony is consid- 
ered. It will then be seen that this opening song foreshadows the 
movement and purpose of the entire ceremony. 



28<> THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth.ann.SK 



SONG" 

Did (/ram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 
I 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to ns thy potent aid! 
Help ns, Oh, holy place above! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 

II 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to us thy potent aid! 
Help us, Hotoru, giver of breath! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 

III 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to us thy potent aid! 
Help us, Shakuru, father of strength! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 

IV 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to us thy potent aid! 
Help us. h'Uraru, mother of all! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 

y 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to us thy potent aid! 
Help us, Toharu, giver of food! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 

VI 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to us thy potent aid! 
Help us, Chaharu, giver of drink! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 

VII 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to us thy potent aid! 
Help us, Kusharu, sacred to rites! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 



« See the music on page 27, 



FLETCHER] FIRST RITUAL 287 

VIII 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to us thy potent aid! 
Help ns, h'Akaru, abode of life! 
We heed as nnto thee we call. 

IX 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to us thy potent aid! 
Help us, Keharu, wall of defense! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 

X 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to us thy potent aid! 
Help us, Kataharu, center within! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 

XI 

We heed as unto thee we call, 
Oh, send to us thy potent aid! 
Help us, Kekaru, promise of fire! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 

XII 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to us thy potent aid! 
Help us, Koritu, word of the fire! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 

XIII 

We heed as unto thee we call; 
Oh, send to us thy potent aid! 
Help us, Hiwaturu. emblem of days! 
We heed as unto thee we call. 

Part II. Preparing the Feathered Stems 

The first thing to be made is the feathered stem carried by the 
Ku'rahus. It represents the female element ; it leads in the ceremony. 
Other sacred rites among the Pawnees explain this leadership as based 
upon the belief that life first took form through the female; "She 
was the first and the leader." 

The stem is painted blue with blue clay mixed with running water. 
The running water, we are told, represents the continuation of life by 
generation following generation. The color is the symbol of the sky, 
the dwelling place of the powers. 

The song which accompanies the act of painting is in five musical 
phrases, suggesting the five motions symbolic of the four directions 
and the above. The exclamation he! (a part of i'hare! give heed!), 
at the close of each phrase, bears out this interpretation. 

The iterated words h'areri (h', breath; areri, a particular place) 
tell that the thoughts of the singers are fixed on 1 lie giving of life by 



288 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

the powers above, whose presence is symbolized by the blue paint 
now put upon the stem. 

Bach stanza of all the songs throughout this ceremony is sung four 
times. The Ku'rahus tells us that this is in recognition of the four 
paths at the four cardinal points, down which the powers descend, and 
that it is also an indirect recognition of the powers themselves. 

FIRST SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

Take we now the blue paint, 

Touch with it the stem, putting on the sacred symbol, 

Emblem of the clear sky, 

Where dwell the gods, who, descending, bring us good gifts, 

Gifts of life and plenty, 

The feathered stem carried by the Ku'rahus's assistant represents the 
male element. It is painted green, the color symbolizing Toharu, the 
living covering»of Mother Earth. The key to the symbolism lies in 
the abbreviated word hure-e, "coming from above." It conveys 
the idea that the power by which Mother Earth brings forth her 
green covering, Toharu, comes from the power above, Tira'wa atius. 

The fan-shaped pendant hung upon the green stem is made of seven 
feathers from the young brown eagle, spoken of by the Ku'rahus as 
the white eagle. These are the feathers worn by warriors, and the 
bird is the war eagle, the fighter, the defender, the protector. 

The combining of the male and female forces on each of the leading 
requisites of the ceremony, the feathered stems and the ear of corn, 
has already been noticed. 

The song which is sung as the stem is painted green is in six musical 
phrases, corresponding to the six ceremonial motions : the four direc- 
tions, the above, and the below. 

SECOND SONG & 

Diagram of Time 



■ • • • 



• • • < 



a M\xsic, on page 37. b Music on page 39; 



FLETCHER] FIRST RITUAL 289 

Rhythmic Rendition 

Take we now the green paint, 

Touch with it the stem, the mated stem, 

Putting on the emblem, the sacred and living symbol, 

Mother earth. 

From above descending, bountiful blessings on thee, 

Mother earth. 

The fan-like appendage of ten brown mottled feathers from the ma- 
ture brown eagle are here tied upon the blue stem. This eagle is called 
Kawas; it represents the mother. She is the bearer of life from above 
and shares with the corn the leadership throughout the ceremony. 

It is noticeable that the eagle receives the gifts it bears to man 
through the lesser powers and not directly from Tira'wa atius. Birds 
are not powers, but messengers, intermediaries between the lesser 
powers and man. A glimpse is here obtained of the order which 
natural forces and objects take in the mind of the Pawnee. 

The song of this act is in three phrases. The number three is not 
symbolized by ceremonial motions; throughout the ceremony songs 
accompanying acts which do not imply a direct appeal to the powers 
above fall into three musical phrases. 

THIRD SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rliyth inic Rendition 

Oh, Kawas, come, with wings outspread in sunny skies! 
Oh. Kawas, come, and bring us peace, thy gentle peace! 
Oh, Kawas, come, and give new life to us who pray! ■" 

Part III. Painting the Ear of Corn and Preparing the other Sacred 

Objects. 

The putting of a peculiar design in blue paint on the ear of corn 
is replete with symbolism. The ear of corn not only represents a life- 
sustaining product of the earth, but the omniscience which the earth 
is believed to possess. This omniscience, predicated of the ear of 
corn, constituted one of its qualifications to act as leader. The 
Ku'rahus says (line 118): "Mother Earth knows all places and all 
that happens among men; therefore the corn which comes from her 
must lead, must direct us where to go." 

The painting of the ear of corn represents the securing of its cre- 
dentials as leader. The blue paint used on this occasion is not put 
into a shell, as it was when the stems were colored, but into a wooden 
bowl. The shape of the bowl, an inverted dome, typifies the arching 
sky, the blue paint its color (see the explanation of line 83). The 
design put on the ear of corn signifies its journey to the abode of the 
powers and its return, with their sanction, as leader. 

a Music on page 41 . 
22 ettt— pt 2—04 1!) 



290 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [bth.Ann.22 

It is difficult to follow the Pawnee's thought in the words and 
accompanying act of this song unless it is remembered that he regards 
the spirit of man, animals, and all other things as able to travel about 
independent of the body. Moreover, that he conceives it possible for 
a number of persons so to unite as to think and act as one spirit. 

In the song Mother, Atira, is the term applied to the ear of corn 
as the representative of Mother Earth. This word is preceded by 
the aspirate, h', significant of the breath, the giving forth of life. 
h' Atira not only refers to the sustaining of life by food, but also 
carries the idea that, as leader, the corn bears life-giving power. 

The word weri, I am, does not mean the man who paints the corn, 
but the concerted spirits of the Hako party, which are spoken of in 
the singular, as though they were one spirit. The use of the plural 
sign re a little later on in the stanza (line 86) implies the personifica- 
tion of the ear of corn; its spirit is standing with the spirit of the 
Hako party. These two spirits move together throughout this drama 
of the consecration of the ear of corn as leader. 

In the next stanza the two spirits are flying through the air. There 
is no incongruity in this procedure; the alread}^ mentioned belief rela- 
tive to spirits makes it rational. In like manner, the color of the 
paint can hold within it the spirit of the abode of the powers. 

The different stages in the progress of the ear of corn on its journey 
to the abode oi the powers are depicted in the different stanzas of the 
song. In the first, she stands; in the second, she flies; in the third, 
she touches the boundary of the sky, ' ' where it begins " ; in the fourth, 
she ascends; in the fifth, she reaches the dome, her destination; in 
the sixth, she descends, the purpose of the journey having been 
accomplished. 

The music is divided into six phrases; six stanzas record the stages 
of the journey; the number suggests the six ceremonial motions typify- 
ing the four directions, the above, and the below. 

It would seem from the acts accompanying this song that the ear of 
corn went up to the abode of the powers by the four paths at the four 
cardinal points, down which we are told the powers descend, as the 
lines representing these paths were drawn on the ear before the blue 
paint was spread over its tip to represent the dome of the sk}^. 

SONG« 

Diagram of Time 



/ 
/ 



« Music on page 43. 



fletcher] FIRST RITUAL, PART III 291 

Rhythmic Rendition 



Tira'wa, harken! Mighty one, 

Above ns in bine, silent sky! 

We standing wait thy bidding here. 

The Mother Corn standing waits, 

Waits to serve thee here; 

The Mother Corn stands waiting here. 

II 

Tira'wa, harken! Mighty one, 

Above ns in bine, silent sky! 

We flying seek thy dwelling there. 

The Mother Corn flying goes 

Up to seek thee there; 

The Mother Corn goes flying up, 

III 

Tira'wa, harken! Mighty one, 
Above ns in bine, silent sky! 
We touch upon thy country now. 
The Mother Corn touches there. 
On the border land; 
The Mother Corn is touching there. 

IV 

Tira'wa, harken! Migh L y one, 

Above us in blue, silent sky! 

The path we reach leads up to thee. 

The Mother Corn enters there, 

Upward takes her way; 

The Mother Corn ascends to thee. 

V 

Tira'wa, harken! Mighty one, 
Above us in blue, silent sky! 
Behold! We in thy dwelling stand. 
The Mother Corn, standing there, 
Leader she is made; 
The Mother Corn is leader made. 

VI 

Tira'wa, harken! Mighty one, 

Above us in blue, silent sky! 

The downward path we take again. 

The Mother Corn, leading us. 

Doth thy symbol bear; 

The Mother Corn with x>ower leads. 



292 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

SECOND RITUAL. PREFIGURING THE JOURNEY TO THE SON 

The ceremony of offering the Hako was believed to bring great 
benefits. As the tie to be formed was a close one and likely to have 
a bearing on the welfare of two tribes, the selection of the man who 
was to be the Son was not left exclusively to the Father. His choice 
had to be submitted to the chiefs of his tribe for their approval. Nor 
did the matter end here, for the chiefs, seemingly unwilling to assume 
the entire responsibility of a final decision, threw the confirmation of 
the selection of the Son upon the supernatural, represented by the 
ear of corn. 

To be able to follow the Pawnee's thought one should keep well in 
mind the native belief in the reality of an invisible world accessible 
to man. The Ku'rahus explained that in this rite the spirit of the 
corn and the spirits of the assembled company must meditate together 
upon the proposed candidate for the Son, must consider his qualifica- 
tions and his ability to meet the requirements for a successful issue 
of the ceremony. He said : "As we meditate we sit with bowed heads, 
and Mother Corn sits with bow r ed head . " When the decision is reached 
"Mother Corn lifts her head and stands erect, then she moves through 
the air on her journey to the Son, and we follow." 

In this mystical journey Mother Corn "opens the way" between 
the land of the Fathers and that of the Children. She does more. 
She enters the village and passes around among the lodges of the 
people to that of the selected man. She goes in and touches him 
while he sleeps. It is the spirit of Mother Corn that touches the spirit 
of the man in a dream. He does not see her who has touched him, 
t>ut he sees one of the birds which belong to the feathered stem, the 
eagle, the owl, the duck, or the woodpecker, for the spirits of these 
birds are there with the spirit of Mother Corn in the lodge of the 
sleeping man. If, when he awakes, he is able to recall his dream, it 
is because Mother Corn has "opened his mind." Therefore when the 
messengers of the Father's party arrive with the tidings, ' ' Your Father 
is coming," the dreamer is not taken by surprise, but is ready to 
respond without unnecessary delay. 

The old man narrated this symbolic procedure of the ear of corn 
-and its attendant spirits without consciousness that he was saying 
anything unusual or contrary to ordinary experience. His only com- 
ment was, that it was very difficult for the men of the party of the 
Father so to fix their minds upon the desired end as to secure its 
accomplishment. He referred to this difficulty several times while 
explaining the words and meaning of the song. When questioned as 
to whether the attempt was always successful, he said that when it 
failed the failure was always due to a lack of earnestness or sincerity 
on the part of the persons so fixing their minds. By this he did not 
mean that the men failed because they did not try hard enough to 



fletcher] SECOND KITUAL 293 

keep their attention upon the desired object, but that there was in 
their character something which prevented them from effectually 
exerting their will power. He evidently had no doubt as to the rea- 
sonableness of the procedure. To him it was entirely logical. 

The journey prefigured by this flight of Mother Corn, afterward 
actually taken by the party of the Father, has its special songs. 
Several of them refer directly to this traveling of the spirit of Mother 
Corn. 

The song of this ritual is in two parts, each with four stanzas. 
The first part relates to finding the Son, "opening the way' to him. 
The second deals with the Son, preparing him to receive the Father, 
"opening his mind." 

The stanzas are in four musical phrases corresponding to the four 
paths down which the lesser powers descend to man. Each closes 
with the exclamation ha! calling attention, as to an invisible presence. 

SONG a 

Diagram of Time 

• • ' • • • • 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

Mother Corn, Oh hear! Open our way! 

Lo! As we draw near, let our souls touch thine 

While we pray thee: 

Children give to us! Mother Corn, hear! 

II 

Mother Corn, Oh hear! Open our way! 

Lo! Our heads we bow, while our souls touch thine; 

Then as one mind 

Make the choice of Son. Mother Corn, hear! 

Ill 

Mother Corn, Oh hear! Open our way! 

Lo! With head erect Mother stands, and then 

Moves she through air 

On her mission bent. Mother Corn, hear! 

IV 

Mother Com, Oh hear! Open our way! 

Lo! Now over hills, over streams, we go 

Taking our way 

Toward the Children's land. Mother Corn, hear! 



a Music on paK*' 50. 



294 THE HAK.O, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [kth. ann. 22 

V 

Mother Corn. Oh hear! Open our way! 

Lo! Our journey's end now is near, we look 

O'er the strange land, 

Seeking Children there! Mother Corn, hear! 

VI 

Mother Corn. Oh hear! Open our way! 

Lo! Our eyes behold where they dwell. In their 

Village we walk, 

Seeking there the Son. Mother Corn, hear! 

VII 

Mother Corn, Oh hear! Open our way! 

Lo! His lodge we find, through the door we pass. 

Sleeping he lies, 

Knows not we are there. Mother Corn, hear! 

VIII 

Mother Corn, Oh hear! Open our way! 

Lo! Now at her touch comes a dream; then a 

Birdcalls, "My Son!" 

While his soul responds. Mother Corn, hear! 

THIRD RITUAL. SENDING THE MESSENGERS 

The four messengers were selected informally by the Father from 
among his neaiyelatives. They were generally young men, lithe and 
strong of limb, and able to make a long journey quickly. The dis- 
tance to be traveled varied from a few miles to a hundred or more, 
and as they must carry all their provisions, it became necessary for 
them to get over the ground as rapidly as possible. 

The formal appointment of these messengers took place in the lodge 
of the Father, in the presence of the sacred objects spread at cere- 
monial rest. 

When the messengers arrived at the lodge of the Son, he sent for his 
kindred and consulted with them. Only a recent death in his family 
or some catastrophe which deprived him of his property would be 
accepted as sufficient excuse for his not receiving the Hako party. 
If he accepted the tobacco he would bid the messengers return to the 
Father and say, "I am ready." In either case he must make gifts 
to the messengers in recognition of the proffered honor. 

The homeward journey was made as quickly as possible, for during 
the absence of the messengers nothing could be done. As soon, how- 
ever, as the returning young men were discerned on the prairie the 
village was astir, and the men of the Father's party, with the Ku'ra- 
hus, assembled at his lodge to receive them ceremonially and to hear 
their tidings. 

The messenger dispatched on such errands was called Rawiska- 
ri.ahoru, One who walks carrying the tobacco. 

The music of the song of this ritual is in three phrases. Like other 
songs in this ceremony having the same number, it accompanies acts 



fletcher] THIRD AND FOURTH RITUALS 295 

which do not directly appeal to the supernatural. The iirst stanza is 
addressed to the messengers; the second to the Father's party within 
the lodge. 

SONG a 

Did gram of Time 



Bh yth mie Rendition 

I 

I bid you travel o'er the land to the Son, 

And with you take these words of mine unto him: 

" Behold! Your Father comes to you speedily." 

II 

We wait their journey o'er the land to the Son, 
When they will give these words of mine unto him: 
'Behold! Your Father comes to you speedily." 

FOURTH RITUAL 
Part I. Vivifying the Sacred Objects 

These first four rituals are in sequence and deal with the peculiar 
preparations required for the ceremony. In the first ritual the sacred 
articles are prepared; in the second ritual the Son is selected; in 
the third ritual the Father notifies the Son, who responds; and 
in the fourth ritual the sacred articles are vivified and assume 
leadership. In these preparations the supernatural powers bear a 
leading part. At the very beginning, in the first song of the first 
ritual, their presence is invoked, and in the fourth ritual, after man's 
preparations for the ceremony are completed, they accept his work. 

The first, second, and third rituals took place in the lodge of the 
Father, where the sacred objects were guarded daj^ and night by the 
Ku'rahus, his assistant, and the chief, or by persons appointed to act 
as their substitutes. In the fourth ritual the objects were for the 
first time taken outside the lodge, under the open sky, where the 
final act of their preparation took place. They were tied upon a pole 
and elevated in the early dawn, that they might be vivified b}^ the 
powers and acknowledged as their representatives. 

The order in which these sacred objects were tied upon the pole 
indicates their relative significance in this ceremony. The two feath- 
ered stems were placed near the top, because they typify the powers 
of the upper world. But they also represent the male and female ele- 
ment s, therefore the male stem was placed toward the south — the 
light, the day, the sun; and the female stem toward the north — the 
darkness, the night, the moon. Beneath the feathered stems were 
the rattles and the ear of corn, representing the living covering of 



a Music; on page 56. 



296 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

the earth, and below these was the wildcat skin. These typify the 
powers of the lower world. 

All these articles were tied on the pole so as to face the east. 
We are told in the song of the ninth ritual that down the path at the 
cast came the powers that are potent in this rite. 

Behind these objects, toward the west, where dwell the powers 
which influence the life of man and control disaster and death, were 
bound the right and left wing of an eagle. These wings were spread 
as though supporting the sacred objects, as the wings sustain the 
body of a bird in the air. Throughout the ceremony the position of 
the two eagle wings, both when on the pole and when borne at each 
end of the line of men, serves to unify the different sacred objects 
into the similitude of a winged body. This unification does not, 
however, interfere with the separate functions of each article or with 
the character of its S3 7 mbols. 

The dawn ritual throws light on the significance of the elevation 
of the sacred objects under the open sky before the break of day. 
Before this act, these objects had lain at rest; but after it, when they 
had been vivified by the wind and the sun, they at once became 
active and thenceforth they led the people throughout the ceremony. 

Part II. Mother Corn Assumes Leadership 

This activity is manifest in the song of part n, wiiere the ear of corn 
passes to the front and assumes the position of leader. The ceremonial 
steps taken by the chief, as he carries this representative of Mother 
Earth with her life-sustaining force, dramatically represent the corn 
as advancing out of the past (from behind the Ku'rahus with his sym- 
bolic feathered stem), coming into the present (beside him), and then 
going on before, moving along the unbroken path that stretches out 
of the past into the future. The four steps taken b}^ the chief bearing 
the ear of corn refer to the four paths down which the powers descend 
to man, and the four steps taken by the six men following Mother 
Corn as the second stanza is sung indicate the dependence of man 
upon these supernatural powers. 

This song falls into six phrases. The number suggests the recog- 
nition of all the powers which come near to man, which are represented 
by the four directions, the above, and the below, thus bearing out 
the full significance of the symbolic steppings. 

SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



u Music on page (50. 



Fletcher] FOURTH RITUAL 297 

Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

Mother with the life-giving power now comes, 
Stepping out of far distant days she comes, 
Days wherein to our fathers gave she food; 
As to them, so now unto us she gives, 
Thus she will to our children faithful be. 
Mother with the life-giving power now comes! 

II 

Mother with the life-giving power is here. 
Stepping ont of far distant days she comes. 
Now she forward moves, leading as we walk 
Toward the future, where blessings she will give, 
Gifts for which we have prayed granting to us. 
Mother with the life-giving power is here! 

Part III. The Hako Party Presented to the Powers 

The recognition of man's dependence on the supernatural is still 
further emphasized by the peculiar dramatic movements which 
accompany the songs after the Hako party for the first time as a body 
passes outside of the lodge, within which all the preceding ceremonies 
have taken place. 

The sacred objects, which under the open sky had been vivified and 
acknowledged by the supernatural powers, now lead the party along 
certain lines defined by their symbolically numbered steps to face the 
localities where these powers were believed to dwell. First the east 
was faced and the powers there were addressed ; then the west ; next the 
south; and then the north. At each of these points the sacred objects 
were elevated, while the people invoked the powers to "behold" (to 
recognize and accept) those who were about to perform the ceremony. 
When each of the four cardinal points had been addressed and the 
leader had completed the ceremonial steps, the outline of a man had 
been traced upon the ground. Concerning this outline the Ku'rahus 
explained that it "is the image from Tira'wa." "Its feet are where 
we now stand, its feet are with our feet." 

This figure would seem to represent a visible answer to the ceremo- 
nial appeal of the people and to indicate a willingness of the super- 
natural powers to grant their presence throughout the coming 
ceremony. This interpretation of the tracing is borne out by the 
words of the Ku'rahus when he says that "it will move with our feet 
as we now, bearing the sacred objects, take four steps in the presence 
of all the powers, and begin our journey to the land of the Son." 

The song addressed to the east is in four musical phrases, while 
the songs to t lie west, south, and north are in six musical phrases. The 
four- phrase song is sung to Tira'wa atius, the father of all tilings, 
and it is noticeable that all the songs throughout the ceremony which 
specially address this power arc in a fonr-phrase rhythm. When all 



298 THE ELAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann, 22 

t lie ot her powers are addressed, those at the four directions, the above, 
and the below, a six-phrase rhythm is used. 

The number of the repeats and phrases of the songs seems also to 
be connected with the ceremonial steps, which are in groups of four, 
eight, and sixteen. The number sixteen is said by the Ku'rahus to 
represent completeness. 

According to native measurement, the height of a man is equal to 
the stretch of his arms. Looking at the diagram of the figure stepped 
upon the ground, we note that sixteen steps give the spread of the 
arms and the same number of steps marks the length of the man. 
This bears out the statement of the Ku'rahus that sixteen, or four times 
four, represents completeness. 

FIRST SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rht/tlnnie Rendition 

Look on us as here we are standing, raising our voices! 

Look on us as here we, presenting, lift now these emblems that are so holy up to 

thy gaze! 
Swift, a flash from out of the heavens 
Falls on us as here we are standing, looking at thee. 

SECOND SONG b 

Diagram of Time 



Rhyth m ic Rendition 



Look down, West gods/ look upon us! We gaze afar on your dwelling. 
Look down while here we are standing, look down upon us, ye mighty! 
Ye thunder gods, now behold us! 
Ye lightning gods, now behold us! 
Ye that bring life, now behold us! 
Ye that bring death, now behold us! 

« Music on page 63. 
b Music on page 65. 
''Grods, meaning powers, is us<><1 solely on account of the rhythm. 



Fletcher] FOURTH AND FIFTH RITUALS 299 

II 

Look down, South gods, look upon us! We gaze afar on your dwelling. 
Look down while here we are standing, look down upon us, ye mighty! 
Ye daylight gods, now behold us! 
Ye sunshine gods, now behold us! 
Ye increase gods, now behold us! 
Ye plenty gods, now behold us! 

Ill 

Look down, North gods, look upra us! We gaze afar on your dwelling. 
Look down while here we are standing, look down upon us, ye mighty! 
Ye darkness gods, now behold us! 
Ye moonlight gods, now behold us! 
Ye that direct, now behold us! 
Ye that discern, now behold us! 

The structure of the first division of the Preparation, initial rites, 
is worthy of notice. Each of its four rituals is complete in itself, but 
the symbols, rhythms, and movements of all are closely connected, 
forming a drama of two worlds. The four rituals are a compact 
whole, from the opening appeal in the first song of the first ritual to 
the culmination in the fourth ritual, from the appeal to the powers in 
the order of creation for their presence to the answer of this appeal 
made visible by the rhythmic ceremonial steps, in the form of the 
symbolic presence whose "feet will move with" the feet of the suppli- 
ants as they journey to the land of the Son. 

Second Division. The Journey 

fifth ritual 

Part I. Mother Corn Asserts Authority 

The three songs of the first part of the fifth ritual have a fixed 
sequence, and relate to the supernatural leadership of the ear of corn. 

The first refers to the second ritual, where the spirits of those assem- 
bled in the lodge became as one spirit and joined the spirit of Mother 
Corn in her search for the Son (see explanation by the Ku'rahus, fifth 
ritual, first song). The journey then prefigured is now about to 
begin. The Father's party are again enjoined to become as one spirit, 
and as one spirit to follow Mother Corn over "the devious way." 

FIRST SONG« 

The first song, like that of the second ritual, is in four musical 

phrases. Both refer to the four paths down which the lesser powers 

descend. 

Diagram of Time 



" Musi-- on page 68. 



300 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 2» 

Rhythmic Rendition 

I • 

The Mother leads and we follow on, 
Her devious pathway before us lies. 
She leads us as were our fathers led 
Down through the ages. 

II 

The Mother leads and we follow on, 
Her pathway straight, where a stage each day 
We forward walk, as our fathers walked 
Down through the ages. . 

AVhen the familiar landmarks about the village had disappeared in 
the distance and the people looked over the wide stretch of country, 
the dangers of the journey were naturally suggested, so that the first 
stanza of the second song is an appeal to Mother Corn, asking her 
whether a safe path lies before them. The second stanza gives her 
assuring answer, that the path does lie straight before them. 

This song, being one of procedure only, is in three phrases. 

.- • 

SECOND SONGfl 

Diagram of Time 



Rythmic Rendition 



Looking o'er the prairie, naught our eyes discern there, 

Wide the land stretches out before us; 

Then we cry aloud to Mother Corn: " Doth thy pathway lie here? " 

II 

Heeding now our crying, while our eyes she opens, 

Mother Corn moveth out before us 

On the lonely prairie, where we see straight the pathway lies there! 

In the third song, Mother Corn reminds the people of the super- 
natural leadership bestowed on her by the powers above in the distant 
past, and now renewed in the ceremonies which have just taken place. 

This song, referring directly to the powers above, is in five musical 
phrases, suggesting the motions toward the four directions and the 
above. 

a Music on page TO. 



FLETCHER] FIFTH RITUAL 301 

THIRD SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rythmic Rendition 



Hark! She speaks, and quickly we turn to her. 

Looking toward the west to the spot where we 

Passed 'neath the eyes of gods; and now do we heed her words: 

" Yonder is the place in the distant west 

Whence I have come out of the past to you.*' 

II 

" Born of the earth and touched by the deep blue sky, 

Have I chosen been by the gods to lead. 

You are to hear my voice and follow my strict commands, 

As your fathers did in the days gone by. 

Thence come I to open your pathway here." 

These three songs, the first part of the fifth ritual, seem to have 
been disciplinary in their influence. They tended to restrain the 
individual from self-seeking by placing over the party a supernatural 
leader, on whom all minds must be fixed and to whom all must give 
obedience. Thus, from the very outset, an authority was established 
against which none dared rebel. 

Part II. Songs and Ceremonies of the Way 

The Ilako party was an impressive sight as it journeyed over the 
country. It could never be mistaken for an ordinary group of hunters, 
warriors, or travelers. At the head of the long procession, sufficiently 
in advance to be distinguished from the others, walked three men — the 
Ku'rahus, holding before him the brown-eagle feathered stem, on his 
right the chief, grasping with both hands the wildcat skin and Mother 
Corn, and at his left the assistant Ku'rahus, bearing the white-eagle 
feathered stem. These three men wore buffalo robes with the hair 
outside. On their heads was the white downy feather of their office 
and their faces were anointed with the sacred ointment and red paint. 
They bore the sacred objects forward steadily and silently, looking 
neither to the right nor left, believing that they were under supernat- 
ural guidance. Behind them walked the doctors with their insignia, 
the eagle wings; then the singers with the drum, and behind them the 

a .Music on page 71. 



302 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [kth. ann. 22 

men and women of the party with the ponies laden with gifts and 
needed supplies of food. 

Over the wide prairie for miles and miles this order was preserved 
day after day until the journey came to an end. If from some dis- 
tant vantage point a war party should descry the procession, the 
leader would silently turn his men that they might not meet the Hako 
party, for the feathered stems are mightier than the warrior; before 
them he must- Lay down his weapon, forget his anger, and be at peace. 

No object met on the journey to the Son presented its ordinary 
aspect to the Hako party. Everything seen was regarded as a mani- 
festation of the supernatural powers under whose favor this ceremony 
was to take place; hence the trees, the streams, the mountains, the 
buffalo were each addressed in song. This attitude toward nature is 
strikingly brought out in the two songs, which are in sequence, sung 
at the crossing of a stream. 

Throughout this ceremony water is treated as one of the lesser 
powers. It is employed only for sacred purposes, and is never used in 
the ordinary way. To profane water would bring punishment upon 
the whole party (see the first ritual, line 29), and consequently when 
a stream ran across a line of travel no person could step into it as he 
commonly would do. A halt was called and the Ku'rahus led in the 
singing of the song in which Kawas is asked to grant the party permis- 
sion to ford the stream. According to Pawnee rituals, water at the 
creation was given to the woman, so Kawas, representing the mother, 
could grant permission. The request is embodied in four stanzas. 
In the first the water touches the feet; in the second the feet stand in 
the water; in the third the feet move in the water; in the fourth the 
water covers the feet (note the resemblance of entering the stream to 
entering the lodge, seventh ritual, part i). 

Afte,r the stream was crossed the people halted on the bank to sing 
the song to the wind, led by the Ku'rahus. It also is in four stanzas. 
The wind is called upon to come and dry the water which the people 
may not irreverently touch. In the first stanza the wind touches the 
people; in the second it lightly brushes their bodies; in the third it 
circles about them ; in the fourth it envelops them. Thus the wind, 
one of the lesser powers, comes between the people and the penalty 
incurred by profanely touching water. 

In these ceremonies the people were constantly reminded that they 
were in the presence of the unseen powers manifested to them in the 
natural objects met upon the journey. To those initiated into the 
inner meaning of the rite, the appeal at the crossing of the stream to 
Kawas (the feminine element) and to the wind (typical of the breath 
of life) was connected with the symbolism of running water, explained 
in the seventh ritual as representing the giving of life from genera- 
tion to generation. 

The seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth songs originally belonged to 
the journey, but we are told the buffalo are no longer seen; neither 



fletcher] FIFTH RITUAL, PART II 303 

are the mountains or the mesas; so these songs are now sung in the 
lodge and only that the objects seen by past generations may be 
remembered. 

There are no present means of ascertaining whether the songs here 
given comprise all that were used by the Pawnees on the journey; 
they are all that had been taught the Ku'rahus who is the authority 
for this record of the Hako ceremony. 

SONG TO THE TREES AND STREAMS a 

Diagram of Time 



Rhyth mic Rendition 

I 

Dark against the sky yonder distant line 

Lies before us. Trees we see, long the line of trees, 

Bending, swaying in the breeze. 

II 

Bright with flashing light yonder distant line 
Runs before us, swiftly runs, swift the river runs, 
Winding, flowing o'er the land. 

Ill 

Hark! Oh hark! A sound, yonder distant sound 
Conies to greet us, singing comes, soft the river's sjang, 
Rippling gently 'neath the trees. 

SONG WHEN CROSSING THE STREAMS & 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

Behold, upon the river's hrink we stand! 

River we must cross; 

Oh Kawas, come! To thee we call. Oh come, and thy permission give 

Into the stream to wade and forward go. 

"Music on page 7:5. ''Music; on page 75. 



30-4 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. axx. 22 

II 

Behold, the water touches now our feet! 

River we must cross; 

Oh Kawas, hear! To thee we call. Oh come, and thy permission give 

On through the stream to pass and forward go. 

III 

Behold, our feet now in the water move! 

River we must cross; 

Oh Kawas. heed! To thee we call. Oh come, and thy permission give 

On through the stream to pass and forward go. 

IV 

Behold, the water covers now our feet! 

River we must cross; 

Oh Kawas. hear! To thee we call. Oh come, and thy permission give 

On through the stream to pass and forward go. 

SONG TO THE WIND a 

Diagram of Time 



*■ 

Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

Hither, Winds, come to us, touch where water 
O'er us flowed when we waded; 
Come, Oh "Winds, come! 

II 

Now the Winds come to us, touch where water 
O'er us flowed when we waded; 
Now the Winds come. 

Ill 

Here and there touch the Winds where the water 
O'er us flowed when we waded; 
Now the Winds touch. 

IV 

Lo! The Winds round us sweep where water 
O'er us flowed. Safe now are we, 
By the Winds safe. 

SONG TO THE BUFFALO b 

Diagram of Time 



" Music on page 77. l> Music on page 79. 



flbtcher] FIFTH RITUAL, PART II 305 

Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

When to prepare us a pathway Mother Corn sped 
Far in her search for the Son, passing this place, 
Lo! She beheld buffalo in many herds here. 

II 

Now, as we walk in the pathway Mother Corn made, 
Looking on all that she saw, passing this place, 
Lo! We behold buffalo and many trails here. 

SONG OF THE PROMISE OF THE BUFFALO a 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 



Clouds of dust arise, rolling up from earth, 
Spreading onward; herds are there. 
Speeding on before, 
Going straight where we must journey. 

II 

What are those we see moving in the dust? 
This way coming from the herd; 
Buffalo and calf! 
Food they promise for the Children. 

SONG TO THE MOUNTAINS b 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

Mountains loom upon the path we take; 
Yonder peak now rises sharp and clear; 
Behold! It stands with its head uplifted. 
Thither go we, since our way lies there. 



" Music; on page 80. b Music on page H2. 

22 ETH— PT '2—04 20 



306 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth.-ahk.8js 

II 

Mountains loom upon the path we take; 
Yonder peak now rises sharp and clear: 
Behold! We climb, drawing near its summit; 
Steeper grows the way and slow our steps. 

. Ill 

Mountains loom upon the path we take; 
Yonder peak that rises sharp and clear, 
Behold us now on its head uplifted; 
Planting there our feet, we stand secure. 

IV 

Mountains loom upon the path we take; 
Yonder peak that rose so sharp and clear, 
Behold us now on its head uplifted; 
Resting there at last, we sing our song. 

SONG TO THE MESA a 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

The mesa see; rfcs flat top like a straight line cuts across the sky; 
It blocks our path, and we must climb, the mesa climb. 

II 

More mesas see; their flat tops rise against the sky, they bar our path; 
We reach their base, and we must climb, the mesas climb. 

Ill 

,The mesa's side we now ascend, the sharp ridge pass, its flat top reach; 
There lies our path that we must take, and forward go. 

IV 

The mesas rise around us still, their flat tops cut across the sky; 
They block our way,. yet still we climb, the mesas climb. 

Part III. Mother Corn Reasserts Leadership 

The next two songs are in sequence and refer to the mystical jour- 
ney and leadership of Mother Corn. They return to the theme of 
part I of this ritual. 

Upon the journey the people had been led to appeal to different 
objects as manifestations of the supernatural powers, but now that 
the journey was nearing its end the maintenance of discipline required 
that the people should be reminded that Mother Corn was leading 
and that to her they were still to render undivided obedience. 

The first song was sung at the border of the land of the Son. 

a Music on page 84. 



fletcher] FIFTH EITUAL, PART III 307 



FIRST SONG a 

Diagram of Tim*' 



Rhythmic Rendition 



Here we give our thanks, led by Mother Corn, 
As our eyes dwell upon the borders of the land 
Where dwell the Children we are seeking. 

II 

Now we travel on, led by Mother Corn, 

Soon our eyes catch the print of footsteps on the ground, 

Made by the Children we are seeking. 

Ill 

Still we travel on, led by Mother Corn. 

Now our eyes look on people walking to and fro; 

They the Children are we are seeking. 

When the village where the ceremony was to take place was clearly 
in sight the second song was snng. 

At the close of the song the sacred objects were laid at rest. This was 
the first time during daylight, since the journey began, that they had 
been so placed. They had always been in the hands of the Ku'rahus 
and his assistants, who walked at the head of the long procession as it 
moved over the country. 

SECOND SONG'' 

Diagram of Time 



Rhyth in ic Rendition 

I 

Here is the place where I came, seeking to find the Son; 
Here have I led you again, here is our journey's end. 
Thanks we give unto the Mother Corn! 
Here is the place where she came, seeking to find the Son; 
Here she has led us again, here is our journey's end. 

a Music on page 86. & Music • >n page 1 - 



,'U)8 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ANN. 28 

II 

Here to this place have we coine, bringing the Son our gifts, 

All of the gifts that go forth bearing the promised help. 

Thanks he'll give as he sees, Mother Corn, 

All of the gifts that we bring, bring to his village here; 

Here, where you led, Mother Corn; here, where our journey ends. 

Third Division. Entering the Village of the Son and Con- 
secrating his Lodge 

sixth ritual 
Part I. The Son's Messenger Received 

The messenger dispatched by the Son to the Hako party, which was 
now camped outside the village, was received as a son. He was met, 
conducted to the tent of the Father, where food was offered him, and 
he was clad in gala garments. The first song accompanied these acts, 
which, the K 'rahus explained, represented "the care of a father for 
his child." 

SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

Now our eyes look on him who is here; 
He is as the Son we have sought; 
He brings again tidings from the Son: 
" Father, come to me, here I sit, 
Waiting here for thee." 

II 

Now our eyes look on him who is clad 
As befits the Son we have sought; 
He, arising, walks; follow we his steps, 
Moving slowly on toward the Son, 
Where he waiting sits. 

Part II. The Hako Party Enter the Village 

Led by the Son's messenger, the party moved to the edge of the 
village, where a halt was made, in order to conform to the movements 
of Mother Corn in her mystical journey (second ritual). "We must 
do as she did," says the Ku'rahus. 



" Music on page 90. 



Fletcher] SIXTH AND SEVENTH RITUALS 309 

After singing the first stanza, the party entered the village and 
passed on to the lodge pointed out to them by the messenger, where 
they again halted and sang the second stanza. 

These songs are repeated in the sixteenth ritual, when the child is 
sought. 

SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 



"Where is he, the Son? 
Where his dwelling place that I seek? 
Which can be his lodge, where he sits 
Silent, waiting, waiting there for me? 

II 

Here is he, the Son, 
Here is his dwelling place that I seek; 
This is here his lodge, where he sits 
Silent, waiting, waiting here for me. 

Seventh Ritual The Consecration of the Lodge 
Part I. Touching and Crossing the Threshold 

The ceremony at the door of the lodge is another instance of the 
prefiguration of an act. The chief, with the cat skin and the ear of 
corn, advanced, and during the singing of the first stanza of the fol- 
lowing song stepped on the threshold and touched but did not cross it. 

The stanzas, which are in five musical phrases, were sung four times 
in remembrance of the path at the four directions, down which Tira'wa 
atius sends, by the lesser powers, the gifts promised through this 

ceremony. 

While the second stanza was being sung, the chief crossed the 
threshold, and, in recognition of the powers and to represent the pro- 
gression of a long life, took the four ceremonial steps, which are some- 
times spoken of as reaching and crossing the four hills. 

Thus the way into the lodge was opened by Mother Corn, assisted 
by the tact of the wild cat carried by the chief (see page 23), so that 
the direct representatives of the powers above, the feathered stems, 
might enter. 

The chief retired two steps behind the Ku'rahus, outside the lodge 
door. The Ku'rahus and his assistant, carrying the feathered stems, 



a Music on i>aiC(> '.):?. 



31H THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth.ann.22 

advanced and repeated in the same order 1 lie movements made by the 
chief. Meanwhile the third and fourth stanzas were sung. At the 
close the two men retired and took their places beside the chief. 



SONG a 

Diagram of Time. 



Rhythmic Rendition 



Sent down by powers on high, 

She bears a promise most snre; 

The Mother Corn breathes forth life, 

On threshold She stands 

Of my Son's dwelling. All's well! 

II 

Sent down by powers on high. 

She bears a promise most sure; 

The Mother Corn breathes forth life, 

The threshold crosses 

Of my Son's dwelling. All's well! 

Ill 

Sent down by powers on high, 
She bears a promise most sure; 
Now Kawas brings new life, 
On threshold She stands here 
Of my Son's dwelling. All's well! 

IV 

Sent down by powers on high, 
She bears a promise most snre — 
Now Kawas, bringing new life, 
The threshold crosses 
Of my Son's dwelling. All's well! 

Part II. Consecrating The Lodge 

When the Hako entered the long passageway the wildcat skin and 
the ear of corn were carried a few steps in advance of the feathered 
stems, thus being the first to enter the large circular room. This 
relative position of the corn was maintained during the first two cir- 
cuits around the lodge, Mother Corn "opening the way." 

The stanzas of the song are in four musical phrases, and each 

" Music; on page 94. 



ixetcher] SEVENTH EITUAL, PART II 311 

stanza is sung four times in recognition of the four directions, for 
Mother Corn is breathing forth within the lodge the gift of life brought 
down from Tira'wa atius by the lesser powers. 

FIRST SONGrt 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythm ic Rendition 

I 

The Mother Corn, with breath of life, 
Now enters into my Son's lodge; 
There she walks within; 
With breath of life walks Mother Corn. 

II 

The Mother Corn, with breath of life, 
Now circles she within the lodge, 
Walking round within; 
With breath of life walks Mother Corn. 

Now the wildcat skin and the ear of corn are taken back into line 
with the feathered stems, and Kawas becomes the leader. The first 
stanza of the song accompanying the third and fourth circuits of 
the lodge speaks of her hovering as over a nest. In the second she 
flies about, cleansing her nest of all impurities by the flapping of 
her wings. Meanwhile the two doctors with their/ eagle wings also 
simulate the cleansing of the nest, sweeping out of the lodge all harm- 
ful influences. 

SECOND SONGb 

Diagram of Time 



Rh t/tlt mie Rendition 

I 

Kawas, bearing new life, entereth this dwelling, 
Comes as to her own nest, on her spread pinions; 
There so gently she hovers over these her Children. 

II 

Kawas, hearing new life, fiieth through this dwelling, 
All the lodge she cleanses, with her wings sweeping. 
Making clear the place, sweeping out the harm and danger. 

" Music <>n page 97. '■ Music on page? Its. 



312 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann 22 

Part III. Clothing the Son and Offering Smoke 

The lodge having been made ready as a nest within which life might 
be given and made secure, the Father performed his first act of recog- 
nition and responsibility, lie put upon the Son the garments he 
had previously prepared for the purpose. When clad in the finely 
embroidered clothing, the Son was told to make the offering of smoke 
to Tira'wa alius, as a prayer for the consecration of the new-born 
relationship. 

FIRST SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

My son, now heed, attend to the command I give to you: 

Oh, speak to the gods list'ning b above us! 

Oh, let your prayers ascend to the mighty ones on high! 

II 

My son ob^ys. His voice is now trav'ling far. speeding on; 

It goes to the list'ning gods above us; 

There will his prayer be heard by the mighty ones on high. 

The ceremony of offering smoke was conducted by a priest, who 
instructed the Son as to the order in which the stem of the pipe and 
the smoke must be offered to the various directions. Meanwhile the 
Fathers with the Hako stood before the Son singing this song, which 
voiceol their participation in the offering. 

SECOND SONGb 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

See the smoke pass by! 

Rising high above, follows where his voice 

Sped, intent to reach 

Where the gods <' abide in the deep blue sky. 

See the smoke pass by! 



a Music on page 101. c The word gods, meaning powers, is used be- 

^ Music on page 103. cause of the rhythm. 



fletchkr] SEVENTH AND EIGHTH RITUALS 313 

See the sraoke ascend! 

Now the odor mounts, follows where his voice 

Sped, intent to reach 

Where the gods" abide. There the odor pleads, 

Pleads to gain us help. 

In the first ritual of the Preparation, when the making of the Hako 
had been completed, the Father had offered smoke to Tira'wa atius, 
the father of all, the giver of life. It was a prayer for the fulfilment 
of the ceremony about to be inaugurated. Now when the lodge had 
been made ready as a nest, smoke was offered by the Son, who was to 
be the recipient of the gifts promised by Tira'wa through the ceremony. 
This act of the Son, performed at the request of the Father, bringing 
the two together before Tira'wa atius, closed the first division of the 
Hako ceremony. 

THE CEREMONY 

First Division. The Public Ceremony 

eigthth ritual (first day). the fathers feed the children 

Heretofore the rites of preparation had been in the presence of the 
Hako party, the Son, and his immediate kindred, but after the offering 
of smoke the heralds were commanded to summon the people to the 
lodge. Anyone could now come in and join the party of the Son in 
the making of gifts, and share in the general benefits of the ceremony. 

When the messenger of the Son had come to the Fathers, outside 
the village, he had been fed, as a paternal act, and now, when the 
people, representing the Children, were gathered within the lodge, 
the Father's first act was to place food before them. While it was 
yet standing beside the fire, the sacred objects were taken up from 
their place at the west and carried four times around the lodge. 
The songs which accompanied these circuits were for the instruction 
of the people, teaching them to remember the powers before partaking 
of their gifts. The first, an appeal to Tira'wa atius, is in five musical 
phrases, suggesting the five motions symbolic of the four directions 
and the above. It was sung four times. 

FIRST SONG'' 

Diagram of Time 



/ 



/ 



"Gods, meaning powers, is used because of the rhythm. ''Music on page 107. 



314 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Rhythmic Rendition 

Father, unto thee we cry! 
Father thou of gods a and men; 
Father thou of all we hear; 
Father thou of all we see — 
Father, unto thee we cry! 

The second song refers to the lesser powers only, they who can 
approach man, bringing him help derived from Tira'wa atius. Their 
symbols are the four motions, indicating the four paths at the car- 
dinal points down which they descend. The song is in four musical 
phrases; it was given four times. 

SECOND SONG & 

Diagram of Time 

/ / / 



./ 



Rhythmic R j:. 1 1 i j 1 1 

Father, thou above, father of the gods, a 
They who can come near and touch us, 
Do thou bid them bring us help. 
Help we need. Father, hear us! 

The third song refers to Mother Corn, who leads in all the opening 
ceremonies. She is an intermediary between the lesser powers and 
man, and as she now walks before the Children, bearing the promise 
of peace and plenty, they give her thanks. 

THIRD SONGc 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

See! The Mother Corn conies hither, making all hearts glad! 

Making all hearts glad! 

Give her thanks, she brings a blessing; now, behold! she is here: 

II 

Yonder Mother Corn is coining, coining unto us! 

Coining unto us! 

Peace and plenty she is bringing: now, behold! she is here! 

a The word gods, meaning powers, is vised solely on account of the rhythm. 
>' Music on page 108. 
c Music on page L09. 



Fletcher] EIGHTH RITUAL 315 

The purpose of the ceremony, in the carrying' out of which the male 
and female elements were so fully symbolized, was kept continually 
before the people. 

The lodge was divided, the north half was female, the south was 
male; the north was night and the south was day. The brown-eagle 
feathered stem, Kawas, when at rest in the holy place, lay toward the 
north, and the white-eagle feathered stem, the male, was toward the 
south. 

"When the feathered stems were waved over the heads of the people 
to the rhythm of the songs, as they moved from the west by the north, 
east, and south, to the west again, Kawas, the mother, was carried 
next to the Children, and the white-eagle feathered stem was borne on 
the outside, as the defender. 

Each time the sacred objects were taken up four circuits were made. 
These, we are told, were in recognition of the four paths; they also 
signified the four powers which were active at the creation of man, 
and they represented the two eagles, the ear of corn, and the wildcat. 
This multiplication of symbols is not uncommon. In this instance 
they all refer to the gift of life, the birth of children. Down the four 
paths came the lesser powers; four of these were instrumental in 
placing man upon the earth ; and the four ceremonial articles are the 
bearers of the promise of unfailing generations. 

During each circuit a stanza was sung four times. At the end of 
the fourth circuit "the symbol of completion," four times four, had 
been given in song. 

While the lodge in general referred to the nest, the holy place at 
the west, back of the fire, was its special representative. There the 
Hako were laid at ceremonial rest after each four circuits of the lodge. 
From the beginning of the public ceremony this act was always accom- 
panied by songs and movements expressive of its meaning. 

The songs are in groups of two. The first in each group relates to 
the eagle flying toward her nest, the young birds crying out at her 
approach. Their welcoming cry is signified by the song, and the fly- 
ing of the eagle by the movements of the feathered stems. The second 
song refers to the alighting of the bird upon its nest. At the close of 
the second stanza the steins were leaned upon the crotched stick, their 
feather pendants resting upon the cat skin, thus symbolizing the mother 
bird settled down upon her nest. 

The songs of these two groups are repeated a great many times 
during the progress of the ceremony, for after every fourth circuit of 
the lodge the feathered stems must be laid at rest and the act accom- 
panied by one group of these songs, according to the choice of the 
Ku 'rail us. 



316 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [etji. ann. 22. 

SONGS FOR LAYING DOWN THE FEATHERED STEMS 

SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Ren dition 

I 

See where she comes to her little ones lying so snugly and safely the nest in! 

Hark! She is calling; hear her, 

List as her nestlings make answer; 

See how she gently hovers. 

Happy our hearts as we look on her hovering over her nestlings so gently. 

II 

See where she comes to her little ones lying so snugly and safely the nest in! 

Hark! She is calling; hear her, 

List as her nestlings answer; 

See her alighting gently. 

Happy our hearts as we see her alighting there over her nestlings so gently. 

SONG h 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

Loud, loud the young eagles cry, cry, seeing their mother come; 
Flies she to them slantwise, flies; 

Then over the nest she hangs, there hovering, stays her flight; 
Thanks, thanks as we look we give. 

II 

Thanks, thanks, from our hearts we give, thanks give as we watch the bird 

As she to them slantwise flies; 

Then over her nest she drops; there, folding her wings, she rests, 

Rests safely within her nest. 

a Music on page 111. >> Music on page 113. 



jtletcher] EIGHTH AND NINTH RITUALS 317 

SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 
I 

Behold! An eagle now approaches; sedately flying, her course straight winging to 

us she is coming; 
'Tis Kawas we are watching, 'tis Kawas coming to seek here her nest. 
Behold her ever nearer flying, still nearer coming, her young ones calling her. 

Will she alight? 

II 

Behold! An eagle now is circling, is widely circling above us, winging her way to 

her nestlings; 
'Tis Kawas we are watching, 'tis Kawas coming to seek here her nest. 
Behold her ever nearer circling, still nearer circling, her young ones calling her 

there to alight. 

SONG b 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

1 / 

^Now she soareth, Kawas soareth. leaves her nestlings, flies above them; will she 

leave them, leave her young? 
Par she gazes, sees no danger, then contented she descends. 

II 

Slow she falleth, Kawas falleth. wings outspreading, hovers o'er them, o'er her 

nestlings, o'er her young; 
Xiong she hovers, then, descending, on her nestlings she alights. 

When the Hako had been laid at rest the Fathers served the food, 
which had been waiting by the fire, to the children. At the conclu- 
sion of the meal the Children dispersed to their homes, and the first 
day's ceremony came to an end. 

NINTH RITUAL (FIRST NIGHT). INVOKING THE VISIONS 

The gathering of the Children, the four circuits of the lodge by the 
Hako, and the partaking of food provided by the Fathers were intro- 
ductory to the opening of the ceremony proper, which took place on 
the first night. 

« Music on page 114. ''Music on page llti. 



318 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

The stars were shining when the Children were again seated in the 
lodge. The wood was piled upon the fire, and as the flames leaped 
high, the Ku'rahus, his assistant, and the chief arose from behind the 
holy place and took up the Hako. Among the Omahas this act was 
accompanied by a song referring to the eagle rising from its nest, which 
the movements of the feathered stems vividly pictured. The Pawnees 
had no such songs, and the Hako were taken up without any symbolic 
movements. 

In the song belonging to this nrst night, the visions that "attend 
the Hako" were invoked. 

According to the explanations of the Ku'rahus, these visions 
resembled dreams, inasmuch as they often came during sleep, but 
they also appeared when the dreamer was awake. The} 7 might be 
called revelations, which served either to strengthen a purpose or to 
suggest means by which a plan ^ould be carried out to insure suc- 
cess to some cherished project. Through such visions, we are told, 
the manner of procedure of the ceremony had been taught and its 
details prefigured, details which were afterward carefully followed 
so as to conform to what was regarded as a supernaturally given 
model. 

The birds, the animals, and the products of the earth represented 
on the Hako communicated with man by visions. In the song of 
invocation these visions are personified. They hear the summons in 
their dwelling place above; they descend and pass over the quiet 
earth, making their way to the door of the lodge, where they pause; 
they cross the threshold and "walk within"; they move around and 
fill the space, touching all the people; this accomplished, they "walk 
away" and ascend to their abode on high. 

We note that the visions follow the same sequence of movements 
that the Hako party followed in entering the lodge; they pause at the 
door, then enter and "walk within"; they move about and touch the 
people in prefiguration of the bestowal of gifts promised through the 
ceremony. 

This song was quite impressive, sung as the writer heard it by a 
hundred or more voices. The Ku'rahus and his assistants, as they 
moved around the lodge, were followed by the choir, singers bearing 
the drum, and the song was taken up by all the people — men, women, 
and children — until the lodge vibrated with the sonorous melodv. At 
the close of the fourth stanza the Hako were laid at rest with the 
songs belonging to that act; the eagle had gone to her nest, leaving 
the space clear for the mystic visitors, the visions, who now walked 
within the lodge. After a time the Hako were again taken up and 
the last four stanzas were sung; then the eagle once more alighted 
upon her nest, the visions had departed, they had "touched" the Chil- 
dren, and, as the Ku'rahus said, "the people could now go home to 
have pleasant dreams." 

The face of the old man was radiant as he explained this song and 



FLETCHER] NINTH RITUAL 319 

dwelt upon the happiness brought to all by the touch of the visions 
which attend the Hako. This song and all others which belong to the 
night season he would sing and talk about only in the evening, never 
during the day. 

SONG<i 

Diagram of Time 



/ 
/ 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

Holy visions! 

Hither come, we pray you, come unto us, 

Bringing with you joy; 

Come, Oh come to us, holy visions, 

Bringing with you joy. 

II 
Holy visions! 

Near are they approaching, near to us here, 
Bringing with them joy; 
Nearer still they come — holy visions — 
Bringing with them joy. 

Ill 
Holy visions! 

Lo! Before the doorway pause they, waiting, 
Bearing gifts of joy; . 

Pausing there they wait — holy visions — 
Bearing gifts of joy. 

IV 
Holy visions! 

Now they cross the threshold, gliding softly 
Toward the space within: 
Softly gliding on — holy visions — 
Toward the space within. 

V 

Holy visions! 

They the lodge are filling with their presence, 

Fraught with hope and peace; 

Filling all the lodge — holy visions 

Fraught with hope and peace. 

VI 
Holy visions! 

Now they touch the children, gently touch them, 
Giving dreams of joy; 
Gently touch each one — holy visions — 
Giving dreams of joy. 



<i Music on page ] IX. 



320 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

VII 

Holy visions! 

Ended now their mission, pass they outward, 

Yet they leave us joy; 

Pass they all from us — holy visions — 

Yet they leave us joy. 

■v 

VIII 

Holy visions! 

They, the sky ascending, reach their dwelling; 

There they rest above; 

They their dwelling reach — holy visions — 

There they rest above. 

TENTH RITUAL. THE DAWN 

Part I. The Birth of Dawn 

The opening ceremonies began after dark and continued until past 
midnight. At their close the Children and the Fathers retired to their 
tents, but the Son remained at his post near the inner door of the 
lodge, while the Ku'rahus and his assistants watched from behind 
the holy place, where the Hako lay at rest. The fire burned to 
embers, the noise of the camp died slowly away, and darkness and 
silence settled down within the lodge. 

It was a long ^vatch, but at length the Ku'rahus bade his server lift 
the skins, hanging at the inner and the outer door of the long passage- 
way, and stand outside to report when the gray hue was seen in the 
east. When the voice of the server was heard proclaiming the sign 
of dawn, the Ku'rahus and his assistants rose, and as the} 7 stood 
behind the holy place, facing the open door, they sang the first song 
in this drama of the mystic birth of Day. It was sung "slowly and 
witji reverent feeling, for it speaks of the mysterious act of Tira'wa 
atius in the birth of dawn," said the Ku'rahus; "it is something very 
sacred, although it happens ever} T day." 

In the first stanza, the Earth, h'Atira (h', breath; atira, mother), 
Mother breathing forth life, is called on to awake, that she may 
receive fresh power of life to be given with the new day. In the 
second, h'Atira responds, she wakens from the sleep of night. 

In the next stanza, h'Kawas (h', breath; Kawas, as the represen- 
tative of the upper powers), the life-breathing powers above, are called 
to awake and receive fresh life through the new-born Day. In the 
fourth stanza, h'Kawas, awakening from sleep, responds. All the 
forces below and above have now been called, they are awake and 
ready to receive the gift of the new life. 

In the fifth stanza, Kawas, the mother, the leader in this ceremony, 
stands up and speaks from her nest. She explains to the Ku'rahus 
that day is born of night by the power of Tira'wa, that it is the breath 
of this new-born child, the Dawn, which gives fresh life to all things 



Fletcher] TENTH EITUAL, PART T 321 

below and to all things above. The Ku'rahus replies, in the sixth 
stanza, that now he understands the meaning of the signs of the 
east, where Tira'wa, moving on Darkness, causes her to bring forth 
the Day, whose breath, awakening man and all things, gives them 
new life. 

In the seventh stanza the Ku'rahus turns to the Son, bidding him 
awake to receive the breath of the new day. In the eighth the Son 
awakes, and with the Ku'rahus watches the coming of Dawn. 

This opening song of eight stanzas is in two parts; the first relates 
to the male and female forces, the above and below, awaking to 
receive a fresh influx of power from the breath of the new-born Day. 
In the second, the meaning of the signs in the east is revealed to the 
Ku'rahus by the mother, Kawas. With the assurance that new life is 
to be given, he awakes the Son, that he may receive the promise from 
the new-born child of Night. 

The second song is in two parts. In the first the Morning Star, rep- 
resentative of Tira'wa atius, the father, is discerned slowly advancing 
from the far distance, the birthplace of Dawn. The light is dim, and 
as the people look it is gone ; then they catch sight of it again, steadily 
approaching, growing brighter and brighter until, in the second 
stanza, it stands resplendent as a man girded with the strength of 
youth, the breath of life stirring the downy feather upon his head, 
symbol of Tira'wa atius, already rosy with the touch of the advancing 
sun. As they gaze, he slowly recedes and vanishes from their sight. 

In the third stanza, along the path opened by the Morning Star, the 
representative of the Father, comes the new-born Dawn, dim at first 
and difficult to discern, but ever advancing, coming nearer and nearer, 
its breath stirring all things with life newly given from, Tira'wa atius, 
the father of all. In the fourth stanza the sky is filled with the bright- 
ness of dawn ; then the Dawn recedes and vanishes in the light of day. 

The third song opens with the shout, "Day is here!' The light is 
everywhere and all things are clearly seen. The Son is called to lift 
his head and behold the light. 

In the second stanza, the glad shout, "Day is here ! " calls from their 
coverts the animals, led by the deer, bringing her young into the light 
of day. All creatures are now alert and moving about; the new Day 
has given new life. 

In the fourth song the Ku'rahus bids the Son awaken the Children. 
In the second stanza the Children arise, and, as they step out under 
the glowing sky, they, too, are touched by the breath of the new- 
born Day. 

The four songs represent four movements or parts of this ritual: 
(1) The awakening of the forces; (2) the approach of the new-born 
Dawn; (3) the stir of life among the creatures; (4) the touch of the 
breath of Dawn upon the Children. The sixteen stanzas make the 
symbol of completeness. 
22 eth— ft 2—04 21 



322 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

Such is the drama of the dawn as it appeared to the instructed 
Pawner. The explanation of the Ku'rahus has given us a view of its 
imagery and meaning from the center of the circle, rather than from 
the outer edge, which otherwise would have been our only point of 
view. Seen as the Ku'rahus shows it to us, through its words and 
music, its simplicity, beauty, and reverent feeling can not fail to 
appeal to everyone who has watched the silent majesty of the dawn. 

SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythm ic Rendition 



Awake, Oh Mother, from sleep! 
Awake! The night is far spent; 
The signs of dawn are now seen 
In east, whence cometh new life. 

II 

The Mother wakens from sleep; 
She wakes, for night is far spent; 
The signs of dawn are now seen 
In east, whence cometh new life. 

Ill 

Awake, Oh Kawas, from sleep! 
Awake! The night is far spent; 
The signs of dawn are now seen 
In east, whence cometh new life. 

IV 

Now Kawas wakens from sleep, 
Awakes, for night is far spent; 
The signs of dawn are now seen 
In east, whence cometh new life. 

V 

Then Kawas stands and speaks forth: 
"A child from Night is now born; 
Tira'wa, father on high, 
On Darkness moving, brings Dawn."' 

VI 

I understand now, I know 

A child from Night has been born; 

Tira'wa, father on high, 

On Darkness moving, brings Dawn. 



a Music on page \Z). 



Fletcher] TENTH KITUAL 323 

VII 

Oh Son, awaken from sleep! 
Awake! The night is far spent; 
The signs of dawn are now seen 
In east, whence cometh new life. 

VIII 

The Son awakens from sleep; 
He wakes, for night is far spent; 
The signs of dawn are now seen 
In east, whence cometh new life. 

Part II. The Morning Star and the New-born Dawn 

song a 
Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

Oh Morning Star, for thee we watch! 
Dimly comes thy light from distant skies; 
We see thee, then lost art thou. 
Morning Star, thou bringest life to us. 

II 

Oh Morning Star, thy form we see! 
Clad in shining garments dost thou come, 
Thy plume touched with rosy light. 
Morning Star, thou now art vanishing. 

Ill 

Oh youthful Dawn, for thee we watch! 
Dimly comes thy light from distant skies; 
We see thee, then lost art thou. 
Youthful Dawn, thou bringest life to us. 

IV 

Oh youthful Dawn, we see thee come! 
Brighter grows thy glowing light 
As near, nearer thou dost come. 
Youthful Dawn, thou now art vanishing. 



" Music on page VI*. 



32-i THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth.anx.22 

Part III. Daylight 
song n 
Diagram of Time 



Rhyth m ic Rend it ion 

I 

Day is here! Day is here, is here! 

Arise, ray son. lift thine eyes. Day is here! Day is here, is here! 

Day is here! Day is here, is here! 

Look up, my son, and see the day. Day is here! Day is here, is here! 

Day is here! Day is here, is here! 

II 

Lo, the deer! Lo, the deer, the deer 

Comes from her covert of the night! Day is here! Day is here, is here! 

Lo, the deer! Lo, the deer, the deer! 

All creatures wake and see the light. Day is here! Day is here, is here! 

Day is here! Day is here, is here! 

Part IV. The Children Behold the Day 

song ft 
Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

Arise, my son, and follow my command: 
Go to the Children, bid them all awake, 
Bid them look where day now breaks; 
Go, send them forth into the light of day. 

II 

The son arose and followed these commands; 
He bade the Children all awake, arise; 
He bade them look where day now breaks; 
He sent them forth into the light of day. 



" Music; on page 131. b Music on page 182. 



fletcher] ELEVENTH RITUAL, PART I 325 

ELEVENTH RITUAL (SECOND DAY). THE MALE ELEMENT INVOKED 

Part I. Chant to the Sun 

The chant to the Sun, the recognition of the male principle, took 
place the second day. It was in two parts, the first sung during the 
morning hours, and the second in the late afternoon and at sunset. 

The first ray of the morning sun comes, we are told, " direct from 
Tira'wa " and is "like a man" untouched by weakness or age. It is 
particularly powerful, and can impart strength to whomsoever it 
reaches, therefore the advent of the first ray of the sun was watched 
with eagerness. 

In the chant the ray is spoken of as if it were a bird; it alights and 
climbs in and out of the lodge (akaro). This term is used with double 
significance, for the earthly abode, the wide stretch from horizon to 
horizon, and for the lodge, erected for the protection of the family — 
the nest. 

In the first verse of the chant, the ray enters the door and goes 
through the long passageway into the lodge. The passage way typi- 
fies the individual life, the career of a man (first ritual, part i, stanza 
xhi). In the seventh ritual the Hako touches the threshold, crosses it, 
and takes within the passageway the four steps symbolic of length of 
days. In the ninth ritual, the Visions halt at the door and then go 
through the passageway to reach and touch the Children; and now 
the ray, coming directly from above, enters as did the Hako and the 
Visions, bringing vitality and strength to the Son. 

The ray comes from h'Ars (h', breath; ars, a contraction of atius, 
father), the father of breath; it is the bearer of breath from the Sun, 
the intermediary which received this gift of vitality anoy strength from 
Tira'wa atius (first ritual, part I, stanzas I and 11). 

After the Son had been touched by the ray, which entered through 
the long passageway, the Fathers gave the Children their morning 
meal, which had been prepared outside the lodge and brought within 
during the first verse. 

At the conclusion of the meal the chant was resumed. The second 
verse speaks of the ray alighting on the edge of the central opening 
in the roof of the lodge, over the fireplace. The fireplace was femi- 
nine, and represented the protected center where life was conserved 
(first ritual, stanza x). The alighting of the ray over that center 
refers to the coming of the father bird to its nest. 

In the third verse the ray climbs down, and in the fourth verse 
reaches the floor of the lodge and walks within the open space to 
touch the Children, bringing them the gift of vitality. 

At the close of this verse the Hako were laid at rest with ceremo- 
nial movements and song. 

The last four verses of the chant were sung late in the afternoon. 
In the fifth verse the ray has walked around the lodge and touched 



326 THE. HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

all within; in the sixth it climbs up and out, and in the seventh it 
rests upon the top of the hills that stand as a wall and inclose as a 
lodge the abode of the people. In the eighth verse the ray returns to 
the sun, having accomplished its task. 

This is the only song in the ceremony which is in the form of a 
chant. 

CHANT <i 

Part II. Day Songs 
Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

Now behold; hither comes the ray of our father Sun; it cometh over all the land, 
passe th in the lodge, us to touch, and give us strength. 

II 

Now behold, where alights the ray of our father Sun; it touches lightly on the rim, 
the place above the fire, whence the smoke ascends on high. 

Ill 

Now behold; softly creeps the ray of our father Sun: now o'er the rim it creeps 
to us, climbs dow>n within the lodge; climbing down, it comes to us. 

IV 

Now behold; nearer comes the ray of our father Sun; it reaches now the floor and 
moves within the open space, walking there, the lodge about. 7 > 

V 

Now behold where has passed the ray of our father Sun; around the lodge the ray 
has passed and left its blessing there, touching us, each one of us. 

VI 

Now behold; softly climbs tne ray of our father Sun; it upward climbs, and o'er 
the rim it passes from the place whence the smoke ascends on high. 

VII 

Now behold on the hills the ray of our father Sun; it lingers there as loath to go, 
while all the plain is dark. Now has gone the ray from us. 

VIII 

Now behold; lost to us the ray of our father Sun; beyond our sight the ray has 
gone, returning to the place whence it came to bring us strength. 

Between the fifth and sixth verses of the chant two songs had 
place. The first compares the noise and bustle of the coming of the 
Ilako party to the alighting of a flock of birds. The significance of 
a flock is given in the fifteenth ritual. 

In the first stanza of the second song the Father expresses his thank- 

a Music on page 135. b Here the Hako are laid at rest. 



fletcher] ELEVENTH RITUAL, PART II 327 

fulness for the good he is permitted to bear. In the second stanza the 
Son responds with thanks for the coming of the Hako. 

These are the only songs belonging to the ritual of the second day, 
but, if the Children desire, the} 7 can ask for one of the extra songs 
which can be sung in the daytime only. Such a request must be 
accompanied by a gift. 

The first extra song is a request to Mother Corn that she will lead 
the Father to the Son. The song is in four stanzas. In the first 
Mother Corn is asked to lead; in the second she consents; in the 
third the Father asks if they are near; in the fourth the end of the 
journey is discerned. 

The second extra song refers to a young man who mounts his horse 
and makes his way toward the lodge to offer the animal as a gift to 
the Fathers. Such an act gives to a man honor and recognition 
among his people. 

FIRST SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rlnjth mic Rendition 

I 

Hark, the sound of their wings! Mighty birds are here now alighting, bearing 

promised good. 
Hark, the sound of their wings! Surely the Hako is coming. Children, forward 

bring your gifts. 

II 

Hark, the sound of their wings! Mighty birds are here now alighting, bearing 

promised good. 
Hark, the sound of their wings! See! The Hako has come. We children forward 

bring our gifts. 

SECOND SONG?' 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

We are thankful, thankful that now we are here 

With the Hako, bearing its bountiful gifts. As a son you will be, 

By the Hako bound unto us as a Son. 

II 

I am thankful, thankful that now you are here 

With the Hako, bearing its bountiful gifts. As a son I will be, 

By the Hako bound unto you as a Son. 

«■ Music on page 140. *> Music on page 142. 



328 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 



EXTRA DAY SONG" 

Diagram of Time 



Rhyilt m ic Rendition 

I 

Let us seek him, led by her who breathes forth life. Seeking the Son 
With the Mother, Mother Corn, seeking the Son let us go. 

II 

Now we travel, led by her who breathes forth life. Seeking the Son 
With the Mother, Mother Corn, seeking the Son now we go. 

Ill 

May we find him, led by her who breathes forth life. Grant we find him, 
Oh our Mother, Mother Corn, grant we may find, find the Son. 

IV 

We are near him, led by her who breathes forth life. Nearer we come: 
Now our Mother. Mother Corn, answers our prayer. He is here. 

EXTRA DAY SONG'' 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 
Look where yonder rides 

One who swiftly speeding o'er the prairie takes his way! 
Who may he be? 

Whence has he come, riding on so fast, 
He who yonder comes? 

II 

Look! He turns this way, 

He who rides so swiftly o'er the prairie turns this way 

Hither comes he; 

With a purpose brave within his heart 

Rides he straightway here. 

TWELFTH RITUAL (SECOND NIGHT). THE RITES CAME BY A VISION. 

In the ritual of this second night the supernatural origin of the 
ceremony is asserted, that its promises may be more fully depended 
upon. 

a Music on page 144. b Music on page 14(5. 



fletchek] TWELFTH RITUAL 329 

Iii the first song of the ritual the question is asked if the rite by 
which a Father could bind to himself a Son was prefigured in a vision? 
The affirmative answer is given in the second stanza. 

The second song has the same theme, and reiterates that, verily, all 
knowledge of the rite was given through the vision which, the Ku'ra- 
hus stated, came down by the east. The second stanza implies the 
promise that similar visions from the same direction will descend to 
the Children. 

FIRST SONGa 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

Was it, we ask, in dreams that the Fathers saw 

Clearly the Hako, wherewith I make you now 

As my son. 

My own begotten? 

Was it in dreams they learned how to make you thus 

My offspring? 

Truly, in dreams it was that the Fathers saw 

Clearly the Hako, wherewith I make you now 

As my son, 

My own begotten. / 

Truly, in dreams they learned how to make you thus 

My offspring. 

SECOND SONG'' 

Diagram of Time 



Rhjfth mic Rendition 

This is the teaching, this is the word sent 

Down to us from our fathers: 

All of the wise words, all of the good gifts, 

Brought unto you as a Son, 

Verily, through a dream all of these things. 

All. by the east descended. 



"Music on page 147. '-Music on page 149. 



330 THE HAK<>, A PAWNEE CEKEMONY [eth. anx. 22 

This is the teaching, this is the word sent 

Down to us from our fathers: 

All of the wise words, all of the good gifts, 

Now brought to you as my Son, 

Verily, as of old, all of these things, 

All, by the east descended. 

The song addressed to the Pleiades held a peculiar place in the 
ceremony. It had to be substituted for the last stanza of any song 
which was being sung when the constellation was reported as rising 
above the horizon. This right to set aside the stanza of a regular 
song preceding the act of laying down the Hako seems to bear out the 
explanation of the Ku'rahus, that the song to the Pleiades belonged 
"to the time when the ceremony was being made," and would imply 
that it was part of a ceremony from which the Hako drew authority. 

"Tira'wa," the Ku'rahus said, "appointed the stars to guide their 
steps." The Pleiades not only guided but taught the people, as by an 
object lesson, "to remain together." The song would seem to have 
been received in some locality to the south of the dwelling place of the 
Pawnees, since the man who obtained it "turned to the north and 
reached his country." This song is one among many indications that 
earlier forms of the Hako cereiriony will probably be found among the 
people of the Mexican plateau. 

♦ SONG TO THE PLEIADES" 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

Look as they rise, up rise 

Over the line where sky meets the earth; 

Pleiades! 

Lo! They ascending, come to guide us, 

Leading us safely, keeping us one; 

Pleiades, 

Us teach to be, like you, united. 

The songs which belong to the rituals of the night did not fill up 
the entire time, and extra songs could therefore be requested by the 
Children, provided a gift was made when the song was called for. A 
man would step up to the holy place, lay there a small stick, repre- 
senting the gift of a horse, and say, "Father, sing for us! " 

a Music on page 151. 



fletcher] TWELFTH KITUAL 331 

From the first extra song we learn that the visions had a dwelling 
place called "Katasha," located just below the abode of the lesser 
powers. The visions could be summoned by these powers from 
Katasha and dispatched urjon a mission. After its accomplishment, 
the visions returned to their dwelling place to "lie at rest" until 
again summoned by the powers. According to the Ku'rahus, visions 
were not transitory, called into being for some special occasion and 
then ©easing to exist, but they were of an enduring nature, retaining 
an identity by which they could be recognized by one whom they had 
visited. This differentiates the vision from the dream, which would 
seem to be the memory of a vision which came while one slept. 
"Waking visions are not spoken of as dreams. 

The Pawnees locate more or less definitely the powers which can 
affect man. In the above, far beyond the light, fleecy clouds, where 
no man has been or can see, dwells Tira'wa atius, the father of all, 
the giver of life and breath ; in a circle below are the lesser powers, 
like a great council; beneath them is Katasha, the abode of the 
visions. The birds, the animals, and plants are intermediaries 
between man and the powers above and the powers below in the earth; 
they bring him the life and strength which is drawn by the powers 
from Tira'wa atius. Such is the outline, but the details are complex, 
no one power or intermediary being fixed or unchangeable in func- 
tion or character. 

The second extra song, as explained by the Ku'rahus, seems to point 
out that disaster is sometimes disciplinary and necessary to the 
strengthening of a man's purpose. 

The third extra song teaches that when one dreams of Mother 
Corn one should go to a shrine where the sacred corn is kept and 
there offer smoke to the power which sent the corn to him in his dream. 

EXTRA NIGHT SONG" 

Diagram of Time 



Rhyth mic Rendition 

I 

Give heed! We tell of Katasha holy, 

Whence the dreams come down, when draweth the night time near: 

Near the gods h is their dwelling, 

They who watch o'er men; all silently come they down. 

a Music on page 152. &Gods, meaning powers, is used on account of the rhythm only. 



332 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. aott. 22 

II 

Give heed! The bird of whom we are telling 

Sends the dreams to us, when draweth the night time near; 

Kawas, she that is sending 

Holy visions, bringing, silently bringing peace. 

x III 

Give heed! The birds of whom we are telling 

Climb with dreams to ns, when draweth the night time near; 

Down the path they are climbing; 

Where the gods to men are traveling come they down. 

IV 

They climb, these birds; a dream each is bearing; 

Bear they dreams to us, when draweth the night time near; 

Kawas — she that is sending 

Down the birds with dreams; so faithful the Hako birds! 

V 

Then back they speed, the birds that were bringing 

Down the dreams that come when draweth the night time near; 

Birds and dreams are ascending 

Where the gods are dwelling, watching there over men. 

VI 

Now this we know in truth — where are resting 

Dreams that come to us when draweth the night time near; 

True it is that he did see them; 

In a vision saw he Katasha. where they dwell. 

EXTRA NIGHT SONG" 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 



Mother Corn! Mother Corn! We pray thee, 

Be our leader, foes entrapping! 

Trusting in thee, we wander far, yet we see no foe; 

Food is gone, hope is dead within us. 

II 

Then in dreams Mother Corn spoke to me: 

"I will lead you, foes entrapping! 

" Testing your courage, far have I let you go astray; 

" Rise, my child, follow me to vict'ry! " 



" Music on page 157. 



Fletcher] TWELFTH AND THIRTEENTH RITUALS 333 

EXTRA NIGHT SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

As I lay sleeping, as I lay dreaming. 
Out of the distance came one advancing 

One whom I ne'er had seen before, but when her voice addressed me. straight- 
way I knew her — 
Lo! 'Twas our Mother, she whom we know. 

II 

I rose from sleeping, my dream rememb'ring 
Her words I pondered, words of our mother, 
Then I asked of each one I met, Tell me, how far may her shrine be? When 

I found it 
Sweet smoke I offered unto our Mother. 

THIRTEENTH RITUAL (THIRD DAY). THE FEMALE ELEMENT INVOKED 

Part I. The Sacred Feast of Corn 

On the morning of the third day the ritual of the Dawn was repeated. 
The Children gathered at the lodge before sunrise and their morning 
meal was given them by the Fathers. ' 

On the preceding day the masculine principle, the sun, had been 
"remembered." On this day the feminine, the earth, was to be 
honored. 

The ceremonies began by the sacred feast of Corn. It followed 
closely upon the morning meal and was wholly ceremonial and com- 
munal in form, the people taking a spoonful from bowls that were 
passed around the lodge from one group to another. 

The corn was provided and prepared by the Children, they who 
were to be the recipients of the good promised by the Hako and pre- 
figured by this act — the gift of plenty that they were to receive. 

Part II. Song to the Earth 

The song to the Earth followed the rite. Its responsive liturgical 
form calls to mind the song which opens the first ritual. Its theme 
is similar. As the ceremony proceeds, its purpose, the perpetuation 
of the clan or tribe by the gift of children, is brought more and more 
clearly to light. 

"Music on page 15'.). 



334 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth.±nn.22 

The i wo songs which precede the song to the earth were sung at the 
opening of the public ceremony (eighth ritual) ; they fix the mind upon 
the teaching that all power is derived from the great unseen force, 
Tira'wa atius. The power of the fructifying ray of Father Sun and the 
power of Mother Earth to bring forth, the ability to generate life and 
to conserve it, come from Tira'wa atius, the father of all. 

FIRST SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

Father, unto thee we cry; 
Father thou 'of gods & and men; 
Father thou of all we hear; 
Father thou of all we see; 
Father, unto thee we cry. 

SECOND SONGc 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

Father! Thou above, father of the gods,& 
They who can come near and touch us, 
Do thou bid them bring us help. 
Help we need. Father, hear us! 

THIRD SONGc 

Diagram of Time 



« Music on page 162. 

''The word gods, meaning powers, is used solely on account of the rhythm. 

<• Music on page W-\. 



Fletcher] THIRTEENTH RITUAL, PART I 335 

Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

Behold! Our Mother Earth is lying here. 
Behold! She giveth of her fruitfulness. 
Truly, her power gives she us. 
Give thanks to Mother Earth who lieth here. 

II 

We think of Mother Earth who lieth here; 
We know she giveth of her fruitfulness. 
Truly, her power gives she us. 
Our thanks to Mother Earth who lieth here! 

Ill 

Behold on Mother Earth the growing fields! 
Behold the promise of her fruitfulness! 
Truly, her power gives she us. 
Give thanks to Mother Earth who lieth here. 

IV 

We see on Mother Earth the growing fields; 
We see the promise of their fruitfulness. 
Truly, her power gives she us. 
Our thanks to Mother Earth who lieth here! 

V 

Behold on Mother Earth the spreading trees! 
Behold the promise of her fruitfulness! 
Truly, her power gives she us. 
Give thanks to Mother Earth who lieth here. 

VI 

We see on Mother Earth the spreading trees; 
We see the promise of her fruitfulness. 
Truly, her power gives she us. 
Our thanks to Mother Earth who lieth here! 

VII 

Behold on Mother Earth the running streams! 
Behold the promise of her fruitfulness! 
Truly, her power gives she us. 
Give thanks to Mother Earth who lieth here. 

VIII 

We see on Mother Earth the running streams; 
We see the promise of her fruitfulness. 
Truly, her power gives she us. 
Our thanks to Mother Earth who lieth here! 



33(> 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 



[KTH. ANN. 22 



Part III. Offering of Smoke 

This teaching is further accentuated by the offering of smoke which 
follows the song. The feathered stem, Kawas, the mother, is used as 
the pipestem fortius purpose. The offering of smoke is the closest 
and most sacred form of direct communication with the great unseen 
power. 

Part IV. Songs of the Birds 

In the songs of the birds, which close the day, the people are in- 
structed in their parental duties. They must take upon themselves 
the care of providing for their children, even before they are born; 
they are to be cheerful and thankful for all they receive; they are to 
guide and protect their families, to be watchful and faithful in storm 
and in sunshine, by day and by night. By following these teachings 
they will receive in full measure, in completeness, the gifts of the 
Hako. 

The diagram of time of each of the six songs of the birds is here 
given in the order of the text, but no rhythmical rendition has been 
made, as the story elaborates the meaning of each song. 

t 
THE SONG OF THE BIRD'S NEST« 

Diagram of Time 



THE SONG OF THE WREN'' 

Diagram of Time 



THE SONG OF THE TURKEY AND THE WOODPECKERS 

Diagram of Time 



a Music on page 1(59. 



b Music on page 171. 



c Music on page 172. 



fletcher] THIRTEENTH AND FOURTEENTH RITUALS 337 

THE SONG OF THE DUCK a 

Diagram of Time 



THE SONG OF THE OWX. b 

Diagram of Time 



THE SONG OF THANKFULNESS <* 

Diagram of Time 



FOURTEENTH RITUAL (THIRD NIGHT). INVOKING THE VISIONS OF THE 

ANCIENTS 

On the third night the visions which in the distant past had 
taught this ceremony to the fathers were called upon and asked to 
come from their abode on high, to enter the lodge and recognize the 
man who was to be made a Son. 

The song was an appeal for supernatural sanction of the rites which 
had taken place and of those which were to follow. With this song 
the public ceremony came to an end. 

SONG'/ 

Diagram of Time 



/ / 



" Music on page 174. ''Music on page 175. 'Music on page 177. dMusiC on page L78. 

22 eth— ft 2-04 22 



338 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann.22 

Rythmic Rendition 

I 

Oh. come hither. 

Holy dreams— Our fathers knew them — 

Hither come to us! 

Thanks we give unto them. They our message will hear, 

Calling them to come. 

II 
This way come they, 
Holy dreams — Our fathers knew them — 
Come they now this way. 

Thanks we give unto them. Coming now, they draw near, 
Coming now this way. 

Ill 
They come nearer, 

Holy dreams — Our fathers knew them — 
Come they now this way. 

Thanks we give unto them. On the threshold stand they, 
Holy visions stand. 

IV 

Now they enter, 

Holy dreams — Our fathers knew them — 

Enter now the lodge. 

Thanks we give unto them. Enter they the lodge now, 

Enter now the, lodge. 

V 

The Son they see, 

Holy dreams — Our fathers knew them — 

See him now within. 

Thanks we give unto them. Entered now, they see him, 

See the Son within. 

VI 
Now they hover, 

Holy dreams — Our fathers knew them — 
Hover us above. 

Thanks we give unto them. Pausing here above us, 
Hover they above. 

VII 
Now depart they, 

Holy dreams — Our fathers knew them — 
Now they go away. 

Thanks we give unto them. They are passing from us, 
Going from the lodge. 

VIII 
Above rest they. 

Holy dreams — 0"r fathers knew them — 
Rest they now above. 

Thanks we give unto them. Where they rest we send thanks, 
Thanks send far above. 



Fletcher] FIFTEENTH EITUAL, PART I 339 

Second Division. The Secret Ceremonies 

fifteenth ritual (fourth night) 

Part I. The Flocking of the Birds 

The last meal given by the Fathers was eaten by the Children dur- 
ing the forenoon of the fourth day. Afterward gifts were presented 
to the Children and they went to their homes. 

The afternoon was occupied in preparation for the approaching 
secret ceremonies, which began at sunset and at which no one could 
be present but the Fathers, the Son, and his near relatives — those 
primarily concerned in the promises of the Hako. 

These ceremonies opened with a song suggesting the fulfilment of 
the promises and the joy of the people. Again we note the use of 
prefiguration at the beginning of a rite. 

This song — the flocking of birds — is in three groups of two stanzas 
each. 

The first group speaks of the flock, the old birds, with their young 
now grown, moving about with strength and power, shaking the trees 
by their numbers as they alight and rise; so shall the people increase 
and be powerful by their numbers. 

The second group speaks of Kawas as bringing from the powers 
the gift of this increase. She comes as a special messenger. Leaving 
the flock she flies direct to the people, as the eagle flies straight to its 
nest. The lodge of the Son is her nest, and she is coming to fulfil 
the promise of increase. 

The third group deals with the rejoicing of the people over the 
promise received through this ceremony. The joyful noise which 
they make as they bring their thank offerings to the Fathers is like 
that of a great flock of birds. 

The song not only pictures the increased power which is to come 
to the people through the Hako; it also refers to the immediate joyous 
influence of the ceremony on the people, in the happiness and grati- 
tude felt in the giving and receiving of the required gifts. 

The realistic whistle, made from the wing bone of the eagle, used 
to accompany the songs of these secret ceremonies, emphasizes the 
prophetic assurances of Kawas. 

SONG" 

Diagram of Time 



" Music on page 184. 



340 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [kth. ann. 22 

Rhythmic Rendition 



All around the birds in flocks are flying: 
Dipping, rising, circling, see them coming. 
See. many birds are flocking here, 
All about us now together coining. 

II 



Yonder see the birds in flocks come flying: 
Dipping, rising, circling, see them gather. 
Loud is the sound their winging makes. 
Rushing come they on the trees alighting! 

Ill 

From the flock an eagle now conies flying: 
Dipping, rising, circling, comes she hither. 
Loud screams the eagle, flying swift. 
As an eagle flies, her nestlings seeking. 

IV 

It is Kawas coming, Kawas flying; 
Dipping, rising, circling, she advances. 
See! Nearer comes sne, nearer comes. 
Now, alighted, she her nest is making. 

V 

Yonder people like the birds are flocking. 
See them circling, this side, that side coining. 
Loud is the sound their moving makes, 
As together come they, onward come they. 

VI 

Toward the lodge where sits the Son they hasten, 
Bringing forward gifts with joyful shouting. 
Hark! Now they like the eagle scream. 
Glad of heart, as when her nest she seeth. 

Part II. The Sixteen Circuits of the Lodge 

After the song the Hako were laid at rest with ceremonial song- and 
movement. When they were next taken up it w r as to make the final 
circuits of the lodge, sixteen in number, symbolic of completion. 

The songs which accompanied these circuits are in four groups, and 
in them are summed up the teaching and the promises of the ceremony. 

The two songs of the first group refer to Mother Corn, she who had 
opened the way and led to the Son, breathing forth the power of 
Mother Earth in life, food, and plenty. Thanks and reverence are 
given to her. 

In the two songs of the second group the eagle, Kawas, comes to 
the Son. Her shadow, passing over him, attracts his attention and 



Fletcher] FIFTEENTH KITUAL, RART II 341 

he watches her and her male as they guard and cherish their young 
in the nest. Then he learns that his lodge is the nest; that the 
powers above, through the eagle, are sending him the promise of life 
that shall fill his nest and make strong the people. 

The two songs of the third group refer to the Hako with its prom- 
ises. The second song records the prayer of an old Ku'rahus and its 
fulfilment, and giv T es the assurance that Tira'wa answers the prayer 
of man made through the Hako ceremony. 

The four songs of the fourth group had all been previously sung. 
The first two were given at the opening of the public ceremony, and 
again at the close of the sacred feast of Corn. They were now 
repeated, that the thoughts of the people might be turned toward 
Tira'wa atius, the father of all things, the giver of life, and to his 
messengers to man, the lesser powers. The third and fourth songs 
had been sung in the first ritual, when the feathered stems were 
painted to symbolize the powers above and the powers below, the 
male and female forces, which make for the perpetuation of all living 
forms. 

The secret ceremonies contain the heart of the rite, its vital center. 
In the sequence of songs through which this center was approached 
we note a reflex of the order of the ceremony itself, a turning back 
from the external leadership of the corn and of Kawas to the silent 
prayer of the Ku'rahus, the appeal to Tira'wa atius as symbolically 
present. 

At the close of the last circuit of the lodge the Hako were laid at 
rest with ceremonial song and movement for the last time. Midnight 
had passed, and the Children went to their homes, leaving the Fathers 
alone in the lodge to watch for the dawn. 

FIRST SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rythmic Rendition 

1 

Look on her! She who sought far and near for a Son! 
Look on her! She who led from afar unto you! 
Look on her, Mother Corn, breathing life on us all! 

II 

Thanks we give unto her who came here for a Son! 
Thanks we give unto her who has led us to you! 
Thanks we give, Mother Corn, breathing life on us all! 

" Music on page 1HH. 



342 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 



SECOND SONG" 

Diagram of Time 



Rythmic Rendition 
I 



Rev 'rent our hearts turn unto the one who brings to us 

Long life and children, peace, and the gifts of strength and food. 

Rev'rent our hearts turn unto our Mother Corn! 

II 

Rev'rent our hearts turn unto the source whence come to us 
Long life and children, peace, and the gifts of strength and food, 
Gifts from Tira'wa, sent through our Mother Corn. 

THIRD 30NG& 

Diagram of Time 



+ Rythmic Rendition 

I 

O'er the prairie flits in ever widening circles the shadow of a bird about me as I 

walk; 

Upward turn my eyes, Kawas looks upon me, she turns with flapping wings and 

far away she flies. 

II 

Round about a tree in ever widening circles an eagle flies, alertly watching o'er 

his nest; 
Loudly whistles he, a challenge sending far. o'er the country wide it echoes, there 

defying foes. 

FOURTH SONOe 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

Kawas flying where her nestlings now are crying; loudly cry they when they hear 

her wings; 
Kawas flying, cry her children, as they hear her come. 

'Tis Kawas who now homeward comes! 'Tis Kawas who now homeward comes! 
Quickly flying as she hears her young ones in the nest. 

a Music on page 189. h Music on page 191. <■' Music on page 193. 



fletcher] FIFTEENTH EITUAL, PART II 343 

II 

Kawas flying, o'er us flying, we her nestlings cry for joy as now we see her come; 
Kawas flying! Glad our hearts as now we see her come. 
'Tis Kawas brings to us good gifts! 'Tis Kawas brings to us good gifts! 
Kawas brings gifts to us: we, like her nestlings, cry. 

FIFTH SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

Atira comes, she brings you life, she gives you joy: to her give thanks as she 

draws near. 
Now in the lodge before our eyes Atira moves ; 
Look upon her who brings you life, who gives you joy. Oh, offer thanks to 

Mother Corn! 

II 

The Hako comes within the lodge, it walks within; let us give thanks as it draws 

near. 
Now in the lodge with Mother Corn the Hako moves; 
Thanks do we give for all the joy it brings to us, the children here, from realms 

above. 

SIXTH SONG h 

\ 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 



I know not if the voice of man can reach to the sky; 
I know not if the mighty one will hear as I pray; 
I know not if the gifts I ask will all granted be; 
I know not if the word of old we truly can hear; 
I know not what will come to pass in our future days; 
I hope that only good will come, my children, to you. 

" Music on page 195. & Music on page 196. 



344 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. .ANN. 22 

II 

I now know that the voice of man can reach to the skv; 
I now know that the mighty one has heard as I prayed; 
I now know that the gifts I asked have all granted been: 
I now know that the word of old we truly have heard; 
I now know that Tira'wa harkens unto man's prayer; 
I know that only good has come, my children, to you. 

SEVENTH SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



ff 



Rhythmic Rendition 

Father, unto thee we cry! 
Father thou of gods and men; 
Father thou of all we hear; 
Father thou of all we see. 
Father, unto thee we cry! 

EIGHTH SONG a 

Diagram of Tim e 



Rhythmic Rendition 

Father! Thou above, father of the gods, 
They who can come near and touch us; 
Do thou bid them bring us help. 
Help we need; Father, hear us! 

NINTH SONG6 

Diagram of Time 



a Music on page 199. b Music on page 200. 



Fletcher] FIFTEENTH AND SIXTEENTH RITUALS 345 

Rhyth m ic Rendition 

Take we now the blue paint, 

Touch with it the stein, putting on the sacred symbol, 

Emblem of the clear sky, 

Where dwell the gods, who, descending, bring us good gifts, 

Gifts of life and plenty. 

TENTH SONG'i 

Diagram of Time 



Rh yth m ic Rendit ion 

Take we now the green paint, 

Touch with it the stem, the mated stem: 

Putting on the emblem, the sacred and living symbol. 

Mother Earth, 

From above descending, bountiful blessing on thee, 

Mother Earth! 

SIXTEENTH RITUAL (FIFTH DAY, DAWN) 

Part I. Seeking the Child 

At the first sign of dawn the Ku'rahus and his assistants, with the 
principal men of the Hako party, started for the lodge of the Son, 
there to seek his child and perform certain rites symbolic of birth. 
It is to be noted that these rites took place at the same hour as the 
singing of the Dawn ritual, which celebrated the mysterious birth of 
day. 

They sang the first song of the ritual as they started, but when they 
were nearing their destination they repeated the song they had sung 
when they were about to enter the village of the Son (sixth ritual, 
second song). 

The repetition of songs sung in the earlier part of the ceremony 
had the effect of tying back the later acts to those which were pre- 
paratory in character, and tended to consolidate the entire ceremony. 
When this song was sung for the first time the Father was seeking 
the Son, to whom he was bringing promises of good; when it was 
sung the second time the Father was seeking the child of the Son, 
that on it the promises brought might be fulfilled. 

Of this part of the ceremony not only every detail, with its special 
meaning, but the function of each article used had been prefigured. 

"Music on pa^e 2(H). 



340 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

FIRST SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

With the dawn will I seek, seek my child, 
Among the Children seek 
One the gods h shall here make; 
My offspring, my own child. 

SECOND SONGc 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 



Where is he, the Son? 
Where his dwelling place that I seek? 
Which can be his lodge, where he sits 
Silent, waiting, waiting there for me? 

II 

Here is he, the Son, 
Here his dwelling place that I seek; 
This here is his lodge where he sits 
Silent, waiting, waiting here for me. 

Part II. Symbolic Inception 

The warriors — the male element — were the first to enter the lodge, 
in warlike fashion, as if to capture and hold it securely. The child 
was first touched by the representative of Kawas, that it might be 
given endurance; then it was touched by the chief, that it might be 
wise. After the warriors had performed their part, the Ku'rahus 
entered singing the song which had been sung when the messenger 
representing the Son was received outside the village (sixth ritual, 
first song). At that time he looked upon one who was to lead him to 
the Son; now he is looking upon the child which represents the con- 
tinuation of the life of the Son. 



a Music on page 202. ''The word is used because of the rhythm. 

<>See sixth ritual; music on page 203. 



Fletcher] SIXTEENTH KITCJAL, PART II 347 

FIRST SONG < i 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 



Now our eves look on him who is here; 
He is as the Son we have sought; 
He brings us again tidings of the Son: 
' ; Father, come to me, here I sit 
Waiting here for thee." 

The Ku'rahus first touched the child with the ear of corn (second 
song), singing the same song as when the ear of corn made its myste- 
rious journey to the sky and received its authority to lead in the cere- 
mony (first ritual, fifth song). The power granted at that time was 
for this ultimate purpose, to make the paths and open the way for the 
child to receive the gift of fruitfulness. 

SECOND SONG?' 

Diagram of Time 



Rht/tJimic Rendition 

I 

Tira wa, harken! Mighty one 

Above us in blue, silent sky! 

We standing wait thy bidding here; 

The Mother Corn standing waits, 

Waits to serve thee here; 

The Mother Corn stands waiting here. 



a See sixth ritual. Music on page 204. b Music on page 21 15. 



848 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

II 

Tira'wa, barken! Mighty one 

Above us in blue, silent sky! 

We flying seek thy dwelling there; 

The Mother Corn flying goes 

Up to seek thee there: 

The Mother Corn goes flying up. 

Ill 

Tira'wa, harken! Mighty one 
Above us in blue, silent sky! 
We touch upon thy country fair; 
The Mother Corn touches there 
Upon the border land; 
The Mother Corn is touching there. 

IV 

Tira wa, harken! Mighty one 

Above us in blue, silent sky! 

The path we reach leads up to thee; 

The Mother Corn enters there. 

Upward takes her way; 

The Mother Corn to thee ascends. 

V 

Tira'wa, harken! Mighty one 
Above us in blue, silent sky! 
Behold! We in thy dwelling stand; 
The Mother Corn, standing there, 
Leader now is made; 
The Mother Cora is leader made. 

VI 

Tira'wa, harken! Mighty one 

Above us in blue, silent sky! 

The downward path we take again; 

The Mother Corn, leading us, 

Doth thy symbol bear; 

The Mother Corn with power leads. 

Then the Ku'rahus united the two feathered stems, the male and 
the female (third song), and with them touched the child, following 
with the gift of procreation the paths opened by the corn. 

THIRD SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



a Music on page 2()C. 



fletcher] SIXTEENTH RITUAL 349 

Rhyth m ic Rendition 

I 

Here stand we while upon Tira wa now we wait; 

Here Kawas stands, her mate with her is standing here; 

They both are standing, waiting, bringing gifts with them. 

II 

We flying are, as on Tira wa now we wait; 

Here Kawas flies, her mate with her is flying here; 

They both are flying, flying with the gifts they bring. 

Ill 

We touching are, as on Tira wa now we wait; 

Now Kawas and her mate the child so gently touch; 

Its forehead touch they, there they gently touch the child. 

IV 

We op'ning are, as on Tira'wa now we wait 

The four straight paths upon the child we open here, 

Where soon descending from on high shall flow new life. 

V 

We spreading are. as on Tira wa now we wait; 

Here Kawas spreads, her mate with her is spreading here; 

New life and power, the gifts that they are bringing here. 

VI 

We finished are, as on Tira wa now we wait; 
The task of Kawas with her mate accomplished is, 
And all the work they came to do is finished now. 

/ 

Part III. Action Symbolizing Life 

The child, surrounded by the creative forces, is urged to move, to 
arise as the first song is sung. 

FIRST SONGh 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I am ready; come to me now, fearing nothing; come now to me here! 
Little one, come, come to me here; fearing nothing, come! 

Then it was made to take four steps, symbolic of life, of long Life, 
during the singing of the second song. 

In the symbolizing, within the lodge of the Son, of the gift of birth 
by the power of the Ilako, brought thither by the Father, we get a 
glimpse of the means by "which t lie tie between the two unrelated men, 

'i Music on page ~i.\ 1. 



350 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

the Father and the Son, was supposed to be formed; namely, the life 
of the Son was perpetuated through the gift of frnitfulness to his 
child, supernaturally bestowed by the Hako; consequently the Father 
who brought the Hako became symbolically the father of the future 
progeny of the Son. 

SECOND SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

Stepping forward is my child, he forward steps, the four steps takes and enters 

into life; 
Forward stepping, four steps taking, enters into life. 

The child was taken upon the back of one of the party and led the 
way to the ceremonial lodge, followed by the Ku'rahus and all the 
rest singing the third song. 

THIRD SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

Here we go singing, looking on the child 
Borne in his father's arms, he leading us; 
Follow we singing, looking on the child. 

SEVENTEENTH RITUAL 

Part I. Touching the Child 

On reaching the lodge the child was seated at the holy place and 
surrounded by the Ku'rahus and his assistants with the Hako, and 
guarded by a wall of warriors, while an old man prepared it for the 
further reception of the promised gifts. 

On the preceding night water had been taken from a stream ; this 
water was now put into a bowl. Every detail of this act was symbolic. 
The time when the water was obtained was night, the mother of day; 
running water symbolized the continuity of life, one generation fol- 
lowing another; the bowl which held the water resembled in its shape 
the dome of the sky, the abode of the powers which bestowed life. 

The child was touched with the water upon the head and face, an 
invisible outline being made, which afterward was to become distinct. 
This first touching with water, one of the lesser powers, was to cleanse 
and give strength. 

" Music on page '2\2. 



Fletcher] SEVENTEENTH RITUAL, PART I 351 

The song (first) which accompanied this act is in three musical 
phrases and six stanzas. Again the symbolism of number, already 
noted, is suggested. 

FIRST SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

Give heed, ray child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is standing here; 
Behold f my child! waiting here to bring the gift of strength to you. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Water waits to bring to you gift of strength 

II 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is flying here; 

Behold, my child! flying here to bring the gift of strength to you. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Water flies to bring to you gift of strength. 

Ill 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is touching here; 
Behold, my child! touching here your head, to bring the gift of strength. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Water, touching, brings to you gift of strength. 

IV 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who now follows here. 
Behold, my child! Now the paths it follows, paths where the gofls descend. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Water down the four straight paths brings its gift. 

V ■ 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is spreading here; 
Behold my child! cleansing you, and spreading o"er you gift of strength. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Water spreading over you gift of strength. 

VI 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who has brought you strength. 

Behold, my child! Strength you have and finished is the task. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Water now has brought to you gift of strength. 

Following the outline made by the water, the head and face of the 
child were next touched with grass, the representative of Toharu, the 
verdant covering of the earth. 

The song (second) sung during this act is in the rhythm of the first. 

In these two acts we note that "the order in which the powers come 
near to man," shown in the opening song of the first ritual, is observed 
in this rite. In that opening song, after the Winds, the Sun, and the 
Earth had brought life to man, food and drink were given that his 

a Music on pag<; 2\~>. 



352 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann.,22 

life might be sustained. So, after the symbolic birth in the lodge of 
the Son, the child was touched by water and the product of the earth, 
that it might receive from them sustaining power. 

SECOND SONG" 

Diagram of Time 



JRhytJimic Rendition 

I 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is standing here: 

Behold, my child! waiting here to bring the gift of food to yon. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Grass now waits to bring to you gift of food. 

II 

Give heed, my child! lift your eyes, behold the one who is flying here; 

Behold, my child! flying here to bring the gift of food to you. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Grass now flies to bring to you gift of food. 

. Ill 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is touching here: 

Behold, my child! touching here your head to bring the gift of food. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Grass now touching brings to you gift of food. 

IV 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who now follows here. 
Behold, my child! Now it follows the paths where the gods descend. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Grass now down the four straight paths brings its 
gift. 

V 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is spreading here: 
Behold, my child! spreading plenty o'er you, promised gift of food. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Grass is spreading o'er you gift of food. 

VI 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who has brought you food. 

Behold, my child! Food you have received, and finished is the task. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Grass has now here brought you the gift of food. 

Part II. Anointing the Child 

The order of the opening song is followed still further in the 
anointing of the child. 

The seventh stanza of the opening song speaks of Kusharu, the 
holy place, set apart for the observance of rites. The Ku'rahus 
explained that "the first act of a man" must be to set apart such a 
place, " where new life could be given." Following this order, the 
child was anointed and by this act of consecration set apart as the 
center of the rites whicli were to follow. 

The song of this act follows the rhythm of the two preceding. 



" Music on page 219. 



Fletcher] SEVENTEENTH RITUAL 353 



SONG a 

Diagram of Time 

/ 



Rhythmic Rendition, 

I 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is standing here, 

Behold, my child! waiting now to fit and set you here apart. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Sacred ointment now is here come to you. 

II 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is flying here. 

Behold, my child! flying here to make a consecrated child. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Ointment flies to consecrate you, my child. 

Ill 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is touching here, 

Behold, my child! touching here your head, as consecrating you. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Sacred ointment touches upon your head. 

IV 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who now follows here. 
Behold, my child! Now the paths it follows, paths where the gods descend. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Ointment down the four straight paths comes to you. 

V 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is spreading here. 

Behold, my child! Sacred ointment, spreading, consecrates yoy.. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Sacred ointment over you spreads its power. 

VI 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who has holy made. 

Behold, my child! You are set apart, and finished is the task. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Sacred ointment now has set you apart. 

Part III. Painting the Child 

The red paint put on the child's head and face symbolized the 
dawn, the rising sun. The color was spread over the entire face to 
represent "the full radiance of the sun," "giving to the child its 
vigor of life." 

The song and the rest of the songs of this ritual are in the same 
rhythm as the preceding. 

SONG b 

Diagram of Time 



a Music on page 2:i'.l b Music on page 227. 

22 eth— I'T 2—04 23 



354 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

/ihi/th in ic Re it< I it ion 

I 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is standing here, 

Behold, my child! waiting here to bring the gift of life to yon. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Red paint waits, the vigor of life to bring. 

II 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is flying here, 

Behold, my child! flying here to bring the gift of life to you. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Red paint flies, the vigor of life to bring. 

Ill 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is touching here, 

Behold, my child! touching here your head to bring the gift of life. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Red paint touches, the vigor of life to bring. 

IV 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who now follows here. 
Behold, my child! Now the path it follows, paths where gods descend. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Red paint follows, vigor of life to bring. 

' Y 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is spreading here, 

Behold, my chilfl! over yoU'is spread the glowing gifu of life. 

Give heed, my child. See! Red paint brings the vigor of life to you. 

VI 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who has brought you life. 

Behold, my child! Life you have received and finished is the task. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Red paint leaves the vigor of life with you. 

The next act was the painting of the child's face with blue, the color 
of the sky, the abode of Tira'wa atius. 

The design outlined by the water, the grass, the ointment, and the 
red paint was now clearly seen — an arch, crossing the forehead and 
resting on the cheeks, from the middle of which a line was drawn 
downward on the nose. This design was said to "picture the face 
of Tira'wa." The arch was the dome of the sky, his abode; the. line, 
falling from the zenith, was the breath of Tira'wa descending on the 
child, meeting its breath. 

We are told that this design came from the constellation Corona 
Boreal is and was the insignia of a chief, as he who leads does so by 
the authority of Tira'wa and must bear his sign on the face. In 
this ceremoi^ this design, taken in connection with the symbols next 
placed on the child, seems to represent the presence of the power, 



a 



the father of all tilings." 



fletcher] SEVENTEENTH EITUAL 355 

SONG" 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythm ic Rendition 



Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is standing here, 

Behold, my child! waiting here to make the sign of him above. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Blue paint waits to bring to you sign of him 

II 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is flying here, 

Behold, my child! flying here to make the sign of him above. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Blue paint flies to bring to you sign of him. 

Ill 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is touching here, 

Behold, my child! touching here to make the sign of him above. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Blue paint touches, bringing you sign of him. 

IV 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who now follows here. 

Behold, my child! tracing here the arching dome, his dwelling jilace. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Blue paint makes the line of the breath of life. 

V 

Give heed; my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is spreading here, 

Behold, my child! spreading on your face the sacred lines of blue. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Sacred now the picture the blue paint makes. 

VI 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who has brought the sign, 
Behold, my child! brought to you the sign. Accomplished now the task. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Blue x>aint now has left with you sign of him. 

Part IV. Putting on the Symbols 

Eagle down was next put upon the head of the ehild. The down 
was taken from under the wing, "close to the heart" of "the white 
eagle, the father of the child," so representing the eagle's "breath 
and life." It also typified the high, light clouds, and when the child's 
head was covered with it the Ku'rahus said: "The head of the conse- 
crated child now rests in the soft white clouds which float near the 
dwelling place of Tira'wa alius. 11 

It is noticeable that the song of this act lias five stanzas, indicating 
the five motions, the four directions and the above. 



"Music on page '-' :; l 



>6 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [kth. ann. 22 



FIRST SONGt'i 

Diagram of Time 



ffliyth in ie Rendition 

I 

Q-ive heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is standing here. 

Behold, my child! waiting here to bring the sign of clouds above. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Down of eagle waits with the sign of clouds. 

II 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is flying here. 

Behold, my child! flying here to bring the sign of clouds to you. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Down of eagle flies with the sign of clouds. 

Ill 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is touching here, 
Behold, my child! touching here your head to bring the sign of clouds. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Down of eagle touches and brings the clouds. 

IV 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is dropping here, 

Behold, my child!* drops on you the sign of fleecy clouds above. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Sacred symbol dropping upon your head. 

V 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who has laid on you, 
Behold, my child! sign of fleecy clouds that near Tira'wa float. 
Give heed, my child. Look! Rests on you sign of the clouds above. 

With the following song a white downy feather was tied on the head 
of the child . The Ku'rahus said : ' ' This feather, which is ever moving, 
as if it were breathing, represents Tira'wa, who dwells beyond the bine 
sky which is above the soft white clouds." 

This feather was double; it had a little plume like a branch, to 
si and for the child. The larger feather symbolized Tira'wa. 

The song has live stanzas like the preceding. 

SECOND SONG'' 

Diagram of Time 



Rh iff 1 1 niie Renditio 1 1 

I 

( iive heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is standing here, 

Behold, my child! waiting here to bring the last great gift to you. 

Give heed, my child. Look ! Waits to bring the emblem the Father sends. 



" Music on ]>;itf<' ZK. b Music on page 2158. 



Fletcher] SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH RITUALS 357 

II 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is flying here, 

Behold, my child! flying here to bring the last great gift to you. 

Give heed, my child. Look! Flies to bring the emblem the Father sends. 

Ill 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is touching you, 
Behold, my child! with the last great gift touching now your head; 
Give heed, my child. Look! Touches with the emblem the Father sends. 

IV 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who is placing here, 

Behold, my child! on your head is placing now the sonship sign; 

Give heed, my child. Look! Placing there the emblem the Father sends. 

V 

Give heed, my child, lift your eyes, behold the one who has left on you, 

Behold, my child! left on you Tira'wa's breathing feather sign. 

Give heed, my child. Look! On you rests the emblem the Father sent. 

When the child was thus decorated, it was told to look at the reflec- 
tion of its face in the bowl of water. To quote the words of the 
Ku'rahus: "The little child looks upon the water and sees its own 
likeness, as it will see that likeness in its children and children's 
children. The face of Tira'wa is there also, giving promise that the 
life of the child shall go on, as the water flows over the land." 

After this prophetic view, a black covering was put over the child's 
head. The symbols were not for the people to see ; they were holy and 
belonged only to the powers. 

In the final disposition of the water remaining in the bowl there is 
a hint of other and older rites, fragments of wbfich appear in the 
Hako ceremony. 

EIGHTEENTH RITUAL. FULFILMENT PREFIGURED 
Part I. Making the Nest 

During the singing of the next song the movements of the feathered 
steins simulated the flight of eagles. The white eagle passed through 
the line of warriors by the south, the masculine side of the lodge, and 
the brown eagle by the north, the feminine side. The white eagle 
flew back and forth in front of the warriors, enacting the protecting 
duty of the male, while the brown eagle flew to the fireplace and 
made a circle, a nest, at each of the four directions. 

The location of these four nests, corresponding to the four paths, 
indicated a desire that the powers might descend on them. This 
desire was also manifested by the outlining of the circles with down, 
t he symbol of the high clouds w ' which float near the abode of Tira'wa." 
The bits of fat dropped within the circles were not only a prayer for 
plenty, but also a promise thai the prayer would be granted. The 



358 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth.ann.28 

oriole's nest represented security. The four circles around the fire as 
made by the Ku rah us carrying the brown-feathered stem pictured to 
the Pawnees the promise of children, the gifts of plenty and of peace 
from the powers above. 

SONG" 

Diagram of Time 



Rh ythmic Rend ition 

Behold where two eagles come forth! 

Now they soar high over head: 

See where one flies, watching flies, guarding he 

His mate who has gone to her nest, dropping there; 

'Tis Kawas who brings there new life. 

Part II. Symbolic Fulfilment 

The little child was put within each of these prophetic circles, its 
feet touching the nest and the promised plenty. Four times it was 
taken around the fireplace and each time it touched the four circles. 
The child was covered during the act of putting its feet in the nest. 
This act symbolized the birth of children, a mystery to man, as "only 
Tira'wa could know when generation would take place." 

This simulated fulfilment of the promise of the Hako completed 
the sequence of acts in the drama of birth. 

SONG b 

Diagram of Time 



Rh ythmic Rendition 

Within the nest the child rests its little feet, 
Awaiting there the gift sent by gods above; 
Descending there to him comes the promised life. 

Part III. Thank Offering 

The offering of sweet smoke followed immediately. As the smoke 
ascended all the articles of the Ilako were waved through it, the child 
was touched with it, and all the people passed their hands through it. 

The sweet smoke offering was given that the powers above might 

a Music on page 242. ''Music on page 245. 



pletcher] EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH KITUALS 359 

know that the ceremony had been carried out in accordance with the 
teachings given to the fathers in the visions. Its odor reached the 
abode of TiraVa, bearing the touch of all faithful participants in 
the rite. 

After the offering of smoke all traces of the nests were obliterated, 
the coals used for the offering of smoke were returned to the fire, and 
the lodge once more was open to all the people. 

Third Division. The Dance of Thanks 

nineteenth ritual 
Part I. The Call to the Children 

The purpose of the rite was recognized by the important place given 
to children in this part of the ceremony. The ponies presented to the 
Fathers were each lead up by a little child; the acting out of a man's 
warlike deeds was to honor his child, and the little child with the 
black covering upon its head and the picture of Tira'wa upon its face 
received, with the chief, the gifts as they were presented. 

In ever} 7 instance the child was the tie between the two groups, the 
Fathers and the Children. 

FIRST SONG« 

Diagram of Time 



• • • • • 



Rhythmic Rendition 

Harken! List! We are calling you. Come! Come! Children, come! 

Come! We're ready and waiting - , your Father's waiting. Come! Children, come! 

Hear us calling, calling you! Children, come! 

Children, come! Come hither! 

Harken! List as we call you, call to the Children to come. 

SECOND SONG?' 

Diagram of Time 



a Music on page 249. b Music on page 2f>0. 



300 



THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY 
Rhythmic Rendition 



[ETH. ANN. 22 



Ready and waiting, we call yon, loud we call you, loudly call; 

"Come to us. Children," call we loudly, call we long; Oh, come! 

Come! Come! Come! 

Hear us calling, calling, Children! Oh, come! 

Hear us calling, come to us .here! Come! 

THIRD SONG" 

Diagram of Time 





/ 


— 


• • 






/ 




.. 


.. 




• • 


.. 


• • 




/ 


— 


— 






.. 





RJitftJi m ic Rendition 

Look, where they come, see them, see them, young ones and old ones! 

Look! Here they come, this way, that way flocking together. 

Hither they come, shouting like eagles, 

Shouting come. 

Joyous, happy, gladly come they, gaily coming, coming hither. 

See where they come, flocking like birds, shouting like eagles 

As they come to the Fathers. 

Part II. The Dance and the Reception of Gifts 

The two young men as they danced waved high above their heads 
the feathered stems and simulated by their movements the flying and 
sporting of birds. The lightness and beauty of this final dance can 
never be forgotten by one who has been so fortunate as to see it well 
executed. 

DANCE SONG& 

Diagram of Time 



DANCE SONG? 

Diagram of Time 



" Music on i>. 251. 



''Music on p. 254. 



'Music on p. 255. 



fletchek] TWENTIETH RITUAL 361 

Fourth Division. Presentation of the Hako 

twentieth ritual 
Part I. Blessing the Child 

At the close of the dance and the reception of gifts by the Fathers, 
the little child was again taken to the holy place and once more 
touched with the Hako upon all sides, from the east, the south, the 
west, and the north. 

The song accompanying these movements was " a prayer to call 
down the breath of Tira'wa" upon the child that had been consecrated. 

SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



Rythmic Rendition 

Breathe on him! 

Breathe on him! 

Life thou alone canst give to him. 

Long life, we pray, Oh Father, give nnto him! 

Part II. Presenting the Hako to the Son and Thanks to the Children 

The Father (the chief) then removed the emblems from the face of 
the child, using for the purpose the fur of the wildcat, and took the 
covering and the symbols from its head. These With the Hako he 
rolled together within the wildcat skin and placed the bundle in the 
arms of the child. 

The Hako, which had been the medium of bringing the promises, 
was carried by the recipient of these promises, the little child, to its 
father, the Son, who received them from the hands of his offspring. 

The tie had now been formed, and the little child was released from 
its symbolic duties and ran out into the sunlight to join its playmates. 
Within the lodge the Fathers thanked the Children, and the people 
departed to their daily avocations. 

While the various articles of the Hako were generally scattered at 
the close of the ceremony, the two feathered stems were preserved 
intact and frequently passed from tribe to tribe as long as they held 
together. Sometimes the Son was unwilling to part with those pre- 
sented him, so, when he inaugurated a party, he had a new set made 
with the proper ceremony. At all times and under all conditions the 
feathered stems were never handled carelessly, but were treated with 
respect and their sacred character was remembered. During the entire 
t imeTahi'russawichi wasengaged upon this ceremony he never allowed 

a Music on p. 257. 



362 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [bth. ANN. 22 

the feathered steins to be placed on the floor or Laid upon a chair; 
they were always carefully deposited on the wildcat skin with a 
decorum thai was not once abated. 

The Hako ceremony seems to have been peculiarly adapted to 
impress the mind of the people and to win their confidence and affec- 
tion. It was picturesque, varied in movement, and communal in 
feeling. Its songs were rhythmic and attractive, and frequently 
choral in form, particularly those belonging to the public ceremony, 
where all, young and old, joined in the melody as the feathered stems 
were swayed over their heads -when the Ku'rahus and his assistants 
made the circuits of the lodge. 

The teachings of the public ceremony were general in character. 
They emphasized, on the one hand, man's dependence on the super- 
natural for all the gifts of life, and on the other hand, his dependence 
on the family tie for the gifts of peace and happiness. The specific 
teachings were reserved for the Son. These began in the ritual to 
the Dawn (tenth ritual) on the morning of the second and third days, 
which prefigured the secret ceremonies of the fifth morning, when the 
bond of the family relation was extended beyond blood kinship through 
the symbolic rites which recognized the common source of life in 
Tira'wa atius. 

Looking over the entire ceremony, it is interesting to note how older 
rites have had their share in the development of the Hako, and how 
the trend of thought among the native seers has borne them toward a 
conception of the brotherhood of man, a conception recognized as the 
noblest known to the human family. 

Incidental Rituals 
comforting the child 

The incidental rituals could be called for and given during the 
public ceremony. 

The three songs which belong to the first ritual have a common 
musical motive, but this motive is treated differently in each song 
so as to conform to the movement of the ceremony. 

The appeal of the parents to the Ku'rahus is in the first song passed 
on to Kawas. It is sung by the Ku'rahus at the holy place as he 
waves the brown-eagle feathered stem. The words are in the nature 
of a prayer, the music has the swing of a lullaby. 

FIRST SONG a 

Diagram of Time 



» Music on p. 261. 



fletchek] INCIDENTAL RITUALS 363 

Rhyth mic Rendition 

Kawas, harken; thy baby is crying! 

It grieveth, wailing and weeping and crying so sore. 

Ah! It cries, crieth so sorely; 

Kawas. hasten, thy little one cryeth so sore. 

The second song was sung as the Ku'ralius and his assistant walked 
toward the child. In the music one hears the coming of Tira'wa in 
the footsteps of his creatures, both great and small. 

SECOND SONGft 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

Father cometh, now be cometh; 
See him, little one; hark! his footsteps! 
With him, see! coming are the eagles, 
All are coming now to thee. 

The third song is sung as the brown-eagle feathered stem is waved 
over the little child, who "looks up and smiles.'' 

The caressing, almost playful, rhythm of the music twines about the 
religious feeling expressed in the words like the arms of an infant 
about the neck of its thougtful, reverent parent. t 

THIRD SONG6 

Diagram of Time 



Rhythmic Rendition 

I 

Look, my child, who is coming unto you; 

Look up, my little one, now your trouble goes away, away: 

Look! Above you flies one who guards you, 

Whose presence brings you joy. Now your sorrow has departed. 

II 

Ah, you look! See the eagles flying over you. 

From up above they come, from the clear bine sky where Father dwells: 

They to you this peace-bringing solace give. 

A happy little child now is smiling here light-hearted. 

a Music on page 262. b Music on page 263. 



3()4 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth; ann. 22 



PRAYER TO AVERT STORMS 

CONG" 

Diagram of 'rim*' 



PRAYER FOR THE GIFT OF CHILDREN 

FIRST SONG.'' 

Diagram of Time and Rhjithm 



SECOND SONG c 

Diagram of Time 



THIRD SONGtZ 

Diagram of Time 



FOURTH SONGe 

Diagram of Time 



CHANGING A MAN'S NAME 

Before the graphophone record was taken the Ku'rahus engaged in 
silent prayer, after which he entoned the ritual. Rather a high pitch 
was taken for the recital, probably from habit, as the ritual was 
always given in the hearing of a multitude. 

The words were separated into syllables. Sometimes an entire word 
or parts of two words were represented by a single syllable, and each 
syllable in the ritual was uttered as though it were a complete word. 

' ' ' ' — — ■ — - — — " ■ ' ■!.■ — . . . — — — ~W 

a Music on page #>(>. <• Music on page 269. e Music on page 27). 

b Music on page 268. <' Music on page 270. 



fletcher] INCIDENTAL RITUALS 365 

Mr Marie spent three days in the translation and study of the 
ritual, assisted by the Ku'rahus, who explained many points that 
were somewhat obscure, owing to elisions, the employment of a single 
word as a mnemonic to call up the picture of a complicated action, 
and the forcing of words to a different application from that of ordi- 
nary speech — a not uncommon occurrence in rituals. The latter 
carefully watched the work lest mistakes should be made, remarking 
that the ritual "speaks of the powers above, of whom man should be 
careful what he says." 

There is one aspect of the ritual, essential to its understanding, that 
was carefully explained by the Ku'rahus, and the substance of many 
conversations on the subject follows. A man's life is an onward move- 
ment. If one has within him a determined purpose and seeks the 
help of the powers his life will "climb up." Here the Ku'rahus made 
a gesture indicating a line slanting upward; then he arrested the 
movement and, still holding his hand where he had stopped, went on 
to say that as a man is climbing up he does something that marks a 
place in his life where the powders have given him the opportunity to 
express in acts his peculiar endowments, so this place, this act, forms 
a stage in his career, and he takes a new name to indicate that he is 
on a level different from that which he occupied previously. Some 
men, he said, can rise only a little way, others live on a dead level, 
and he illustrated his words by moving his hands horizontally. Men 
having power to advance, climb step by step, and here again he made 
his idea plain by a gesture picturing a slant, then a level, a slant, and 
a level. In this connection he called attention to the words, in line 
1359, "rutu'rahwitz pari," "to overtake walking," saying that the 
people who desire to have a name, or to change their name, must 
strive to overtake in the walk of life an upper level, such a one as 
these ancient men spoken of in the ritual had reached, where they 
threw away the names by which they had been known before. 
"Rutu'rahwitz pari," is a call to the Pawnees, bidding them emulate 
these men and overtake them by the doing of like deeds. 

Three facts connected with the Pawnee custom of taking a new 
name should be stated: 

First. A man was permitted to take a name only after the perform- 
ance of an act indicative of ability or strength of character. 

Second. The name had to be assumed openly before the people to 
whom the act it commemorated was known. 

Third. It was necessary that it should be announced in connection 
with such a ritual as that here given. 

These facts indicate (1) that a man's name stood for what he had 
shown himself to be in the light of his act ions; (2) that this was recog- 
nized by his tribesmen; and (3) that it was proclaimed by one having 
in charge the mediatory rites through which man could be approached 
by the supernatural. 



366 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth. ann. 22 

The ritual is in three parts. The first gives a brief narration of the 
institution of the custom of changing the name in consequence of 
sonic new achievement. The second shows how the man was enabled 
to accomplish this act. It began with his lonely vigil and fast, 
when he cried to the powers for help. The scene then shifts to the 
circle of the lesser powers, who, in council, deliberate on the petition 
which makes its way to them and gains their consent. Then the 
Winds summon the messengers, and these, gathering at the lesser 
powers' command, are sent to earth to the man crying in lonely places, 
to grant his desire. This part closes with a few vivid words which 
set forth that only by the favor and help of the powers had the man 
been able to do the deed. The third deals with the man's names, the 
one to be discarded and the one now to be assumed. 

This dramatic poem is in a rhythmic form impossible to reproduce 
in English; neither is a literal translation adequate to convey its 
meaning, since a single word sometimes represents a complex action, 
to the understanding of which a knowledge of the customs and beliefs 
of the tribe is essential. The terseness of expression was also intended 
to close the meaning to the uninitiated, keeping it sacred from the 
common people. Although the form of the following rhythmic ren- 
dition could not be determined as heretofore by musical phrases, the 
English version contains nothing which is not in the original text 
ex23lained and amplified by the Ku'rahus. 

Rhythmic Rendition of Paivnee Text 

1358 Harken! 'Twas thus it came to pass: 

In ancient days, a Leader and his men 
Walked this wide earth, man's vast abode 
Roofed by the heavens, where dwell the gods.« 
They reached a place, the spot no man can tell, 
\ Faced dangers dread, and vanquished them: 

Then, standing as if bom anew to life. 
Each warrior threw away the name 
That had been his ere yet these deeds were done. 

1359 Harken! The Leader and his men 

Made there the Vict ry Song, and set the mark 
Ye must o'ertake. if ye would be like them! 

1360 Harken! The Leader and his men 

Turned then toward home. Their Vict'ry Song 
Proclaimed them near; the village rose. 
Looked toward the hill, where on the top 
Stood the brave men singing their Song, 
Heralding thus the favor of the gods 
By which they had surpassed all former deeds, 
Made new their claim to be accounted men. 



"Gods, meaning powers, is used solely on account of the rhythm. 



Fletcher] INCIDENTAL RITUALS 367 

1361 Harken! And whence, think ye, was borne 

Unto these men courage to dare, 

Strength to endure hardship and war? 

Mark well my words, as I reveal 

How the gods help man's feebleness. 

The Leader of these warriors was a man 

Given to prayer. Oft he went forth 

Seeking a place no one could find, 

There would he stand, and lift his voice 

Fraught with desire, that he might be 

Invincible, a bulwark 'gainst all foes 

Threat 'ning his tribe, causing them fear. 

Nighttime and day this cry sped on, 

Traveling far, seeking to reach — 
Harken! Those places far above — 
Harken! Within the circle vast 

Where sit the gods, watching o'er men. 

1362 Harken! This poor man's prayer went on, 

Speeding afar into the blue 

Heavens above, reached there the place — 
Harken! Where dwell the lesser gods — 
Harken! And great Tira'wa, mightier than all! 

1363 Harken! It was because a god 

Received this prayer, considered it. 

Favored its plea, and passed it on 

To him whose place was next, in that grand ring, 

Who, in his turn received the prayer. 

Considered it, and sent it on — 
Harken! Around that circle vast — 
Harken! Where sit the gods above. 

1364 Harken! And thus it was the prayer 

Sent by this man won the consent 

Of all the gods. For each god in his place 

Speaks out his thought, grants or rejects 

Man's suppliant cry, asking for help; 

But none can act until the Council grand 

Comes to accord, thinks as one mind, 

Has but one will, all must obey. 
Harken! The Council gave consent — 
Harken! And great Tira'wa, mightier than all. 

1365 Harken! To make their purpose known, 

Succor and aid freely to give. 

Heralds were called, called by the Winds; 

Then in the west uprose the Clouds 

Heavy and black, ladened with storm. 

Slowly they climbed, dark'ning the skies; 

While close on every side the Thunders marched 

On their dread way, "till all were come 

To where the gods in stately Council sat 

Waiting for them. Then, bade them go 

Back to the earth, carrying aid 

To him whose prayer had reached their circle vast. 

This mandate given, the Thunders turned toward earth, 

Taking their course slantwise the sky. 



368 THE HAKO, A PAWNEE CEREMONY [eth.ann.22 

L366 Harken! Another followed hard — 

Lightning broke forth out of the Cloud. 
Zizzag and dart, cleaving their way 
Slantwise to earth, their goal to reach. 

1367 Harken! For these two were not all 

That hastened to proclaim the gods' behest; 
Swift on their wings. Swallows in flocks 
Swept in advance, ranging the path. 
Black breasts and red, yellow r . and white, 
Flying about, clearing the way 
For those who bore the message of the gods 
Granting the man courage to dare. 
Strength to endure, power to stand 
Invincible, a bulwark 'gainst all foes. 

1368 Harken! 'Twas thus it came to pass: 

The Leader grasped the help sent by the gods; 
Henceforth he walked steadfast and strong. 
Leading his men through dangers drear, 
Knowing that naught could strike at him 
To whom the gods had promised victory. 

1369 Attend! Once more I change his name! 

1370 Harken! Riruts'katit, it was 

We used to call him by, a name he won 

Long days ago, marking an act 

Well done by him. but now passed by. 

1371 Harken! To-day all men shall say — 

1372 Harken! His act has lifted him 

Where all his tribe behold a man 

1373 Clothed with new fame, strong in new strength. 

Gained by his deeds, blessed by the gods. 

Harken! Shaku'ru Wa'rukste shall he be called. 



INDEX 



Page 
Alphabet used in record of Hako cere- 
mony 16 

Ash wood, use of, in Hako ceremony 19 

Atara, use of name, in Hako ceremony. - 44 

Awakokshu, the holy place 283 

Bath, sweat, of Kurahus 26 

Birds, regard for, in Hako ceremony 23 

treatment of 55 

Bird's nest, symbolism of. 1T0 

Blue, symbolism of, in Hako cere- 
mony 20-22,38,44 

Bowl, wooden, symbolism of 44, 289, 350 

use of 20,42 

Buffalo, fat of, use of in Hako ceremony. 20 

hair of, symbolism of. 22, 47 

use of 20 

use of rope of 26 

robe of, use of 26 

symbolism of, in Hako ceremony 80,81 

Chaui band of Pawnee tribe, obtaining of 

record of Hako ceremony from 13 
Chief, sacred objects in Hako ceremony 

carried by 23 

Child, rite of anointing the 222-226 

rite of blessing the 256-259 

rite of cleansing the, with water. 216-218, 351 

rite of painting the 227-234 

rite of placing the, in the nest 244,245 

rite of putting the symbols on the. . 235-242 

rite of seeking the 201-203,345 

rite of touching the 214-222, 348 

thank offering for the 246 

symbolism of, in Hako ceremony . . 346 

Children, feeding of, by fathers 105-117 

selection and duties of 18, 19 

Clay, colored, use of, in Hako ceremony 20 

See Paint. , 
Corn, ear of, function of, in Hako cere- 
mony 46 

journey to the sun by 50-56 

leadership of, assertion of 68-73, 

85-89,299,906,307 

leadership of, assumption of 59 

meaning of design painted on . . 44-46 

painting of.. 42-46, '289, 290 

plate representing 44 

sacred 156 

symbolism of 22,23,44,289 

use of 20 

sacred feast of 161, 333 

Corona Borealis 234 

Dakota Indians, information from, re- 
garding Hako ceremony 
among the Pawnees 13 

22 ETH— PT 2—04 24 



Page 
Dance, ceremonial Hako, before de- 
parture 1*3 

Hako 253,360 

of thanks, diagram of positions 

in... 24* 

performance of 247-256, 360 

selection of dancers for 58 

Dancers in the Hako ceremony 247, 249 

Dawn, consideration of, in Hako cere- 
mony 58 

Pawnee conception of 124, 125, 320, 321 

Day, child of Night and Tirawa... 127 

representation of, in Hako cere- 
mony 21 

symbolism of, in Hako ceremony. . . 42 
Deer, fat of, use of, in Hako ceremony. 20 
skin of, use of, in Hako ceremony. . 21 
Doctors, part taken by, in Hako cere- 
mony 19 

Down, eagle, symbolism of 41,236,247 

Dreams, relation of, to visions, in 

Pawnee philosophy 121,122 

Drums, ceremonial, of the Hako 247 

Duck, heads, necks, and breasts of, use 

of, in Hako cerenfrony 20 

symbolism of 21,40,175 

Dwelling, treatment of, in Hako cere- 
mony 33, 34 

Eagle, breast feather of, symbolism of. 22, 47 

use of, in Hako ceremony 26, 58 

brown, identity of 20 

symbolism of 20,21,42,173,194,339 

treatment of, in Hako ceremony 29 

down of, symbolism of 41,236,247 

feathers of, use of , in Hako ceremon y 20 

golden. See Eagle, brown; Eagle, 

white. 

symbolism of, in Hako ceremony. 40,99. KHi 
treatment of, in Hako ceremony ... 111-117 

white, identity of 21 

symbolism of 21, 192. 288 

wings of, use of, in Hako ceremony. 19, 20 
Earth, regard for, in Hako ceremony.. 59 

representation of 21 , 22 

treatment of. 30,31,44,46 

Fat, symbolism of 23,244 

use of 20,26 

Father, articles furnished by, in Hako 

ceremony 20 

ceremonial dress of 58 

lodge of, diagrams of, during rit- 
ual 36, 49, 59, 62 

rituals of Hako ceremony taking 

place at 19,26 58 

369 



370 



INDEX 



Page 
Father, preparation of, for the journey 

to the son 60 

requirements and duties of 18,19,23 

Fathers, feeding of children by L05 117,31:? 317 

gift of ponies to . . 260 

gifts to, by outsiders 147, 327 

selection and duties of 18,19 

Feathered stem, blue, painting of 37-39,287 

symbolism of 42,99 

brown-eagle. See Feathered stem, 
blue. 

decoration of 37-42 

green, painting of 39, 40, 288 

symbolism of 42, 99 

preparation of sticks for 35 

songs for laying down 111-117 

symbolism of 111 

white-eagle. See Feathered stem, 
green. 
Feathered stems, construction and sym- 
bolism of 20,21,283-291 

names of __- 19,20 

plates representing 38, 40 

reverence of many tribes for 21, 279 

transfer of, from tribe to tribe... 20,21.361 

Female force, invocation of 333-336 

symbols of.. 42,280,288^289 

Fire, treatment of, in Hako ceremony. 34, 35 
Fireplace, treatment of, in Hako cere- 
mony • . i 34 

Fletcher, Alice G, paper on the Hako, 

a Pawnee ceremon y , by 1-368 

Four, symbolism of, in Hako ceremony. 68, 

93,96,187,283,315 

Four times four, symbolism of 298 

Four times four circuits of the lodge. .. 187- 

201,340,341 

Gifts, bringing of, by children 106,117,121 

distribution and acknowledgment 

ofHako. 183 

final, of fathers to children.. 182 

presentation of, to the fathers. . 253-256,260 

Grass, brush of, symbolism of 220,352 

sweet, use of, in Hako ceremony ... 20, 26 

Green, symbolism of. 21,40,288 

Hako, meaning and use of the name 17,18 

Pawnee ceremony of, paper by A. C. 

Fletcheron 1-368 

presentation of, to the son. . 256-260,361,362 

supernatural origin of 149, 150, 328 

the making of 27-48, 283-291 

Hako ceremony, antiquity and wide 

prevalence of 279,280 

arrangement of paper on 16 

diagram of the son's lodge during.. 105 

diagram showing movements of 

father's party during 67 

exchange of commodities through . 281 

harmonious structure of 282 

initial rites of 27-48,283-291 

meaning of 24, 26 

names of 17, 18 

origin of 279,331) 

personnel of is, 19 

preparation for 26-58 

preparat ion of, scheme of 24 

public ceremony of 105-183,313-339 



Page 

Hako ceremony, purpose of 49, 50, 280, 2S7 

rendition and explanation of, by the 

Kurahus... 26 

requisites of 19-23 

rhythmic expression in 282,283 

sacred objects of, care of. 1(H) 

vi vification of 58, 59, 295, 296 

scheme of. , 24-25 

secret rites of 183-247, 339-359 

symbolism of 20-23, 280, 281, 361, 362 

time of 23,24 

unvarying sequence of... 282 

work of, division of, among mem- 
bers of Hako party 100 

Holy place, treatment of, in Hako cere- 
mony 32,33 

Horsehair, use of, in Hako ceremony .. 21 

Kawas, regard for, in Hako ceremony . 74,302 
See Eagle, brown; Feathered stem, 
blue. 
Kurahus, articles furnished by, in Hako 

ceremony 20 

ceremony and dress of 26, 58, 59, 60, 296 

duties of 19,26 

gifts to 260 

meaning of title 15 

preparation for Hako ceremony by. 26 

preparations of, for journey to the 

son.. 59,60 

Kusharu, a sacred place 284 

La Flesche, Francis, aid rendered to 
author of paper on the Hako 

ceremonyby.. 13 

Lodge, entrance way to, treatment of, 

in Hako ceremony 36,37 

the father's, diagrams of 59, 62 

the son's, consecration of 309-311 

diagram of, before taking the 

child 210 

during the preparation of 

thechild.... 214 

during presentation of the 

Hako... 257 

treatment of, in Hako ceremony . . . 33, 34 

Male force, invocation of 325 

symbolism of 34,285 

symbols of 34,42,280,288 

Marquette, the feathered stem called a 

calumet by 279 

Moon, representation of, in Hako cere- 
mony 21,42 

symbolism of, in Hako ceremony .. 42 

Murie, James R., aid rendered to author 
of paper on the Hako cere- 

momy by 14 

Name,changingone's, Pawnee custom of 272,365 

rite of 272-278 

Nest, oriole's, treatment of, in Hako 

ceremony 20 

use of 20 

rite of making the 242-244, 357, 358 

symbolism of ... 34, 24:5-245,358 

treatment of Ill 

Night, representation of, in Hako cere- 
mony 21 

symbolism of 42 

North, symbolism of 12 



INDEX 



371 



Page 
North star, treatment of, in Hako cere- 
mony 29 

Ointment, composition of, for anoint- 
ing the child 222 

sacred, used in Hako ceremony 22. 23 

Omaha Indians, influence of, among 

Pawnees 13 

statement of, regarding Hako cere- 
mony among the Pawnees . . 13 
witnessing of Hako ceremony 

among 13 

Oriole, nest of, use of, in Hako cere- 
mony 20 

Owl, feathers of, use of, in Hako cere- 
mony 20 

symbolism of 21,40,176 

Paint, blue, origin of. 46 

symbolism of 233 

use of. in Hako ceremony 37, 42 

red, symbolism of 228, 353 

use of, in Hako ceremony 26 

Pawnee Indians, paper on the Hako 

ceremony observed among . . 1-368 
Phonetics. See Alphabet. 

Pipe, use of, in Hako ceremony 48 

Pipestems, use of, in Hako ceremony. . 19, 20 
Plum wood, use of, in Hako ceremony. 20 

symbolism of 22, 42 

Ponka Indians, report of, on Hako cere- 
mony among the Pawnees.. 13 

Powers, abode of 29 

lesser, function of 27 

Pawnee idea of 283,284,285 

manner of descent of, to man . . 22 

presentation of Hako party to. . 63-68, 

297-299 
diagram of movements made 

during 67 

symbolic steps in recognition of 68,93, 

299,309 
Rabbit, hair of, use of, in Hako cere- 
mony 21 

Rain, con j uring 167 

Rain shrine, pipe of, use of 101-104 

priest of, duties of 19, 48 

part played by, in Hako cere- 
mony 101-104 

Raristesharu s< >ciety 234, 235 

Rattles, gourd, plate representing 46 

symbolism of 22.-47 

Ray, the sun's first, strengthen ingj>ower 

of 58,134,325 

Red, symbolism of, in Hako ceremony. 20,23,38 

R( >bes, gift of, to the poor 256 

Shell, symbolism of, in Hako ceremony 37 

use of. in Hako ceremony. 20 

Skidi band of Pawnee tribe, peculiari- 
ties of Hako as made by 47 

Sky. representation of, in i ako cere- 
mony .'.'0.22 

Smoke, offering of 48,101 -104,246,312,336,358,359 

for longevity 168 

Sou. articles furnished by 20 

choice of, in Hako ceremony 49 •">(;, 292 

clothing of... 101 

duties of, in Hako ceremony si 



Page 

Son, journey to 68-89,301-308 

lodge of, consecration of 97-100,310-313 

entrance of Hako party into 93-9(5, 

309,310 

songs sung in 80, 81, 84. 85 

messenger of, clothing the 89, 91, 308 

messengers sent by Hako party to. . 56, 

57,294,295 

prefiguration of journey to 49-56, 292 

reception of the message by the 294 

requirements and duties of 18,19 

sending of messengers to 56-58 

village of, arrival of Hako party at. 87, 308 
entrance of Hako party into.. 92,93,308 
Song acknowledging that Tirawa an- 
swers prayer 196, 197, 343 

asking the way of the ear of corn : . 70, 300 

at the crossing of streams 75, 303, 304 

enjoining the Hako party to follow 

the ear of corn (58, 300 

extra, acknowledging the gift of a 

pony 146 

invoking the earth to give 

plenty 144 

of the abode of visions 155, 331, 332 

of the consecrated ear of corn. _ 159, 

160,333 

of a talismanic ear of corn 157, 332 

Hako dance, of gifts 255 

of thanks 254 

incidental, to avert a threatening 

storm 266 

in praise of lesser powers 108, 

163, 199, 314, 334, 344 

invoking visions 118, 319, 321 1 

invoking the visions of the ancients. 178. 

179,338 

of anointing the chilA . _ 223, 224, 353 

of appeal of the son to the powers. . 101 , 312 
of approaching the son's village 
under the leadership of the 

ear of corn . 86,307 

of blessing the child 257, 361 

of blue paint for the feathered stem . 37, 

38,200,288.345 

of carrying the child 212, 213, 350 

of cleansing and strengthening the 

child with water 215, 351 

of coaxing the child.. 211,349 

of dawn 123,124,322 

of daylight 131,324 

of dreams of Hako coming from the 

east 149,329,330 

of earth 163.335 

of finding the son 50, 51 , 29:5, 29 1 

of gratitude for Hako in the sixteen 

circuits of the lodge 195, 343 

of gratitude in the sixteen circuits. 

of the lodge 189 

of gratitude of the children for 

Hako 142,327 

of green paint for the feathered 

stem 39,200,201,289,345 

of greeting to the son 90, 204, 308, 347 
of greeting to theson^s messengers. 90, 308 
of making the nest 242,358 



372 



INDEX 



Page 

Song of painting the ear of corn 43,205 

( >f painting t be child with blue paint . 231 , 355 
of painting the child with red paint. 227,354 
of praise to Tirawa before feeding 

the children . 107, 1(52, 199. 314. 334, 344 
of putting eagle down on the child. 235, 

236,356 

of seeking the child 202, 346 

of seeking the son's lodge .... 92, 2( 13. 309, 346 

of sending the messengers 56, 295 

of thanks for Hako 177 

of the arrival at the son's village. . . 88, 307 

of the ascent of the ear of corn 43, 

205,291,347,348 

of the bird's nest 169 

of the brown eagle covering her 

young 116,317 

of the brown eagle entering the 

son's lodge .98,311 

of the brown eagle flyingto her nest . 11 4, 317 
of the brown eagle in the sixteen 

circuits of the lodge 193, 342. 343 

of the call to the children 249, 250, 359 

of the child in the nest 245, 246 

of the child taking the symbolic 

steps 212,350 

of the coming of the children .. 251,252,360 

of theduck 174 

of the eagle hovering over the nest. Ill, 

112,316 
of the eaglets crying to the mother 

bird ... 113,316 

of the ear of corn asserting au- 
thority 71,301 

of the ear of corn entering the son's 

lodge.... 94,310 

of the ear of corn resuming leader- 
ship 60,61-,297 

of the nocking of birds 184, 340 

of the gathering of the children 250, 360 

of the owl 175,176 

of the promise of buffalo 80, 305 

of the smoke offering of the son. 103, 312, 313 

of the son's lodge 90.309 

of the vision of Hako 147,329 

of the white eagle in the sixteen 

circuits of the lodge 191, 342 

of the woodpecker and the turkey . 172 

of the wren 171 

of touching the child with the brush 

of grass 219,352 

of touching the child with the 

feathered stems 206, 207, 349 

of tying the eagle's feather on the 

child.. 238,239,357 

on feathering the feathered stem .. 41,289 
summoning the children to send 

gifts : 140,327 

to awaken the children 132, 324 

to the buffalo 79,305 

to the ear of corn before feeding 

the children 109,314 

t < > the ear of corn in the sixteen cir- 
cuits of the lodge 188,341 



Page 

Song to the lesser powers 27-37, 283-286 

to the mesas 84,306 

to the morning star .* 128, 323 

to the mountains 82, 305, 300 

to the Pleiades 151,330 

to the powers 65,298,299 

to the sun 1.35,326 

to the wind 77,304 

to Tirawa before setting out 63, 64, 298 

to trees and streams 73,303 

Songs, incidental, on changing a man's 

name 272,273,366-368 

to quiet the child .... 261-263, 363 

South, symbolism of, in Hako cere- 
mony 42 

Spirit, Pawnee belief concerning 52 

Pawnee conception of 290 

Steps, four symbolic 349 

Sun, representation of, in Hako cere- 
mony 21, 42 

symbolism of , in Hako ceremony .. 42 

treatment of, in Hako ceremony ... 30 

Sweat lodge, use of, in Hako ceremony. 26 

Tahirussawichi, Hako ceremony as 

given and explained by 26-278 

sketch of 14, 15 

Tirawa, abode of 28 

belief in answer to prayer by 198 

father of all 162,284 

mediation between man and 27 

Pawnee ideas concerning 107, 109 

symbol of 233,354 

diagram of the 233 

tracing of image of 67,68 

Tobacco, offering of, to the powers 102-104 

use of, in Hako ceremony 56-58 

Toharu, the living covering of the 

earth 220 

Tracy, Edwin S., transcription of Hako 

music by 15,16 

Vegetation", treatment of, in Hako cere- 
mony 31 

Visions, abode of 155, 156, 331 

invocation of 117-122, 317-320, 337 

Pawnee beliefs concerning 119, 318 

Water, running, use of, in Hako cere- 
mony 39,42,44 

symbolism of 350 

treatment of, in Hako ceremony . . . 32. 

74,77.302 
Whistle, making of, of eagle's wing 

bone 185,193 

use of, to imitate eagle's scream 183, 339 

Wild-cat, skin of, plate representing. - . 48 
symbolism of, in Hako cere- 
mony. 47,48 

use of, in Hako ceremony 23 

symbolism of, in Hako ceremony. . . 23, 111 
Wind, regard for, in Hako ceremony .. 59 

treatment of 29,30 

Woodpecker, head of, used in Hako 

ceremony ..'. 20 

symbolism of 21,40,173 

Wren, symbolism of 172 



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